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Synthetic biology plastic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792707/nano-scale-conductive-filament-with-alternating-rectification-as-an-artificial-synapse-building-block
#1
Dan Berco, Yu Zhou, Sankara Rao Gollu, Pranav Sairam Kalaga, Abhisek Kole, Mohamed Hassan, Diing Shenp Ang
A popular approach for resistive memory (RRAM) based hardware implementation of neural networks utilizes one (or two) device that functions as an analog synapse in a crossbar structure of perpendicular pre- and post-synaptic neurons. An ideal fully automated, large scale artificial neural network, that matches a biologic counterpart (in terms of density and energy consumption), thus requires nano sized, extremely low power devices with a wide dynamic range and multi level functionality. Unfortunately the tradeoff between these traits proves to be a serious obstacle in the realization of brain inspired computing platforms yet to be overcome...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672021/foldamer-tertiary-structure-through-sequence-guided-protein-backbone-alteration
#2
Kelly L George, W Seth Horne
The prospect of recreating the complex structural hierarchy of protein folding in synthetic oligomers with backbones that are artificial in covalent structure ("foldamers") has long fascinated chemists. Foldamers offer complex functions from biostable scaffolds and have found widespread applications in fields from biomedical to materials science. Most precedent has focused on isolated secondary structures or their assemblies. In considering the goal of complex protein-like tertiary folding patterns, a key barrier became apparent...
April 19, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669626/dye-removal-from-water-and-wastewater-using-various-physical-chemical-and-biological-processes
#3
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Paweł K Zarzycki
Synthetic dyes or colorants are key chemicals for various industries producing textiles, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, printer inks, leather, and plastics. Nowadays, the textile industry is the major consumer of dyes. The mass of synthetic colorants used by this industry is estimated at the level of 1 ÷ 3 × 105 tons, in comparison with the total annual consumption of around 7 × 105 tons worldwide. Synthetic dyes are relatively easy to detect but difficult to eliminate from wastewater and surface water ecosystems because of their aromatic chemical structure...
April 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625224/an-engineered-calvin-benson-bassham-cycle-for-carbon-dioxide-fixation-in-methylobacterium-extorquens-am1
#4
Lennart Schada von Borzyskowski, Martina Carrillo, Simeon Leupold, Timo Glatter, Patrick Kiefer, Ramon Weishaupt, Matthias Heinemann, Tobias J Erb
Organisms are either heterotrophic or autotrophic, meaning that they cover their carbon requirements by assimilating organic compounds or by fixing inorganic carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The conversion of a heterotrophic organism into an autotrophic one by metabolic engineering is a long-standing goal in synthetic biology and biotechnology, because it ultimately allows for the production of value-added compounds from CO2 . The heterotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is a platform organism for a future C1-based bioeconomy...
April 3, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590071/random-heteropolymers-preserve-protein-function-in-foreign-environments
#5
Brian Panganiban, Baofu Qiao, Tao Jiang, Christopher DelRe, Mona M Obadia, Trung Dac Nguyen, Anton A A Smith, Aaron Hall, Izaac Sit, Marquise G Crosby, Patrick B Dennis, Eric Drockenmuller, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Ting Xu
The successful incorporation of active proteins into synthetic polymers could lead to a new class of materials with functions found only in living systems. However, proteins rarely function under the conditions suitable for polymer processing. On the basis of an analysis of trends in protein sequences and characteristic chemical patterns on protein surfaces, we designed four-monomer random heteropolymers to mimic intrinsically disordered proteins for protein solubilization and stabilization in non-native environments...
March 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533845/ripp-antibiotics-biosynthesis-and-engineering-potential
#6
REVIEW
Graham A Hudson, Douglas A Mitchell
The threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections continues to underscore the need for new treatment options. Historically, small molecule metabolites from microbes have provided a rich source of antibiotic compounds, and as a result, significant effort has been invested in engineering the responsible biosynthetic pathways to generate novel analogs with attractive pharmacological properties. Unfortunately, biosynthetic stringency has limited the capacity of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases from producing substantially different analogs in large numbers...
March 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483901/rewriting-the-metabolic-blueprint-advances-in-pathway-diversification-in-microorganisms
#7
REVIEW
Gazi Sakir Hossain, Saravanan Prabhu Nadarajan, Lei Zhang, Tee-Kheang Ng, Jee Loon Foo, Hua Ling, Won Jae Choi, Matthew Wook Chang
Living organisms have evolved over millions of years to fine tune their metabolism to create efficient pathways for producing metabolites necessary for their survival. Advancement in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the exploitation of these metabolic pathways for the production of desired compounds by creating microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering, thus providing sustainable routes to obtain value-added chemicals. Following the past success in metabolic engineering, there is increasing interest in diversifying natural metabolic pathways to construct non-natural biosynthesis routes, thereby creating possibilities for producing novel valuable compounds that are non-natural or without elucidated biosynthesis pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459105/sequestration-and-utilization-of-carbon-dioxide-by-chemical-and-biological-methods-for-biofuels-and-biomaterials-by-chemoautotrophs-opportunities-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Indu Shekhar Thakur, Manish Kumar, Sunita J Varjani, Yonghong Wu, Edgard Gnansounou, Sindhu Ravindran
To meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, carbon dioxide capture and utilization (CCU) comes as an evolve technology. CCU concept is turning into a feedstock and technologies have been developed for transformation of CO2 into useful organic products. At industrial scale, utilization of CO2 as raw material is not much significant as compare to its abundance. Mechanisms in nature have evolved for carbon concentration, fixation and utilization. Assimilation and subsequent conversion of CO2 into complex molecules are performed by the photosynthetic and chemolithotrophic organisms...
May 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315917/covalent-bonding-of-thermoplastics-to-rubbers-for-printable-reel-to-reel-processing-in-soft-robotics-and-microfluidics
#9
Jay M Taylor, Karla Perez-Toralla, Ruby Aispuro, Stephen A Morin
The lamination of mechanically stiff structures to elastic materials is prevalent in biological systems and popular in many emerging synthetic systems, such as soft robotics, microfluidics, stretchable electronics, and pop-up assemblies. The disparate mechanical and chemical properties of these materials have made it challenging to develop universal synthetic procedures capable of reliably adhering to these classes of materials together. Herein, a simple and scalable procedure is described that is capable of covalently laminating a variety of commodity ("off-the-shelf") thermoplastic sheets to silicone rubber films...
February 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291350/accessing-chemical-diversity-from-the-uncultivated-symbionts-of-small-marine-animals
#10
Thomas E Smith, Christopher D Pond, Elizabeth Pierce, Zachary P Harmer, Jason Kwan, Malcolm M Zachariah, Mary Kay Harper, Thomas P Wyche, Teatulohi K Matainaho, Tim S Bugni, Louis R Barrows, Chris M Ireland, Eric W Schmidt
Chemistry drives many biological interactions between the microbiota and host animals, yet it is often challenging to identify the chemicals involved. This poses a problem, as such small molecules are excellent sources of potential pharmaceuticals, pretested by nature for animal compatibility. We discovered anti-HIV compounds from small, marine tunicates from the Eastern Fields of Papua New Guinea. Tunicates are a reservoir for new bioactive chemicals, yet their small size often impedes identification or even detection of the chemicals within...
February 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280882/the-best-of-abdominal-wall-reconstruction
#11
REVIEW
Nakul Gamanlal Patel, Imran Ratanshi, Edward W Buchel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. List major risk factors for hernia formation and for failure of primary repair. 2. Outline an algorithmic approach to anterior abdominal wall reconstruction based on the degree of contamination, components involved in the deficit, and width of the hernia defect. 3. Describe appropriate indications for synthetic and biological mesh products. 4. List common flaps used in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction, including functional restoration strategies...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101024/an-integrative-study-on-biologically-recovered-polyhydroxyalkanoates-phas-and-simultaneous-assessment-of-gut-microbiome-in-yellow-mealworm
#12
Su Yean Ong, Hui-Pheng Kho, Sebastian L Riedel, Seok-Won Kim, Chee-Yuen Gan, Todd D Taylor, Kumar Sudesh
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are produced in microbes as a source of carbon and energy storage. They are biodegradable and have properties similar to synthetic plastics, which make them an interesting alternative to petroleum-based plastics. In this study, a refined method of recovering PHA from Cupriavidus necator biomass was proposed by incorporating the use of the yellow mealworm (the larval phase of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor) as partial purification machinery, followed by washing of the fecal pellets with distilled water and sodium hydroxide...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078657/materials-and-techniques-in-chest-wall-reconstruction-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Stefano Sanna, Jury Brandolini, Alessandro Pardolesi, Desideria Argnani, Marta Mengozzi, Andrea Dell'Amore, Piergiorgio Solli
Extensive chest wall resection and reconstruction are a challenging procedure that requires a multidisciplinary approach, including input from thoracic surgeon, plastic surgeon and oncologist. In particular chest wall neoplastic pathology is associated with high surgical morbidity and can result in full thickness defects hard to reconstruct. The goals of a successful chest wall reconstruction are to restore the chest wall rigidity, preserve pulmonary mechanic and protect the intrathoracic organs minimizing the thoracic deformity...
2017: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065799/fitting-tissue-chips-and-microphysiological-systems-into-the-grand-scheme-of-medicine-biology-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#14
David E Watson, Rosemarie Hunziker, John P Wikswo
Microphysiological systems (MPS), which include engineered organoids (EOs), single organ/tissue chips (TCs), and multiple organs interconnected to create miniature in vitro models of human physiological systems, are rapidly becoming effective tools for drug development and the mechanistic understanding of tissue physiology and pathophysiology. The second MPS thematic issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine comprises 15 articles by scientists and engineers from the National Institutes of Health, the IQ Consortium, the Food and Drug Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency, an MPS company, and academia...
October 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031968/pyrolysis-gas-chromatography-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-for-monitoring-natural-additives-in-polylactic-acid-active-food-packages
#15
M Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, S Pichardo, N T Jiménez-Morillo, F J González-Vila, E Guillamón, J M Bermúdez, S Aucejo, A M Camean, J A González-Pérez
Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) usually requires preparative steps (pretreatments, extraction, derivatization) to get amenable chromatographic analytes from bulk geological, biological or synthetic materials. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) can help to overcome such sample manipulation. This communication describe the results obtained by hyphenating analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC) with carbon isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the analysis of a polylactic acid (PLA) a based bio-plastic extruded with variable quantities of a natural plant extract or oregano essential oil...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929027/the-role-of-polycarbonate-monomer-bisphenol-a-in-insulin-resistance
#16
Milos Pjanic
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic unit of polycarbonate polymers and epoxy resins, the types of plastics that could be found in essentially every human population and incorporated into almost every aspect of the modern human society. BPA polymers appear in a wide range of products, from liquid storages (plastic bottles, can and glass linings, water pipes and tanks) and food storages (plastics wraps and containers), to medical and dental devices. BPA polymers could be hydrolyzed spontaneously or in a photo- or temperature-catalyzed process, providing widespread environmental distribution and chronic exposure to the BPA monomer in contemporary human populations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855098/the-bioelectric-code-an-ancient-computational-medium-for-dynamic-control-of-growth-and-form
#17
REVIEW
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
February 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821847/overcoming-the-plasticity-of-plant-specialized-metabolism-for-selective-diterpene-production-in-yeast
#18
Codruta Ignea, Anastasia Athanasakoglou, Aggeliki Andreadelli, Maria Apostolaki, Minas Iakovides, Euripides G Stephanou, Antonios M Makris, Sotirios C Kampranis
Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity of the enzymes involved. The pathway of carnosic acid-related diterpenes in rosemary and sage involves promiscuous cytochrome P450s whose combined activity results in a multitude of structurally related compounds. Some of these minor products, such as pisiferic acid and salviol, have established bioactivity, but their limited availability prevents further evaluation...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789939/bioremediation-3-0-engineering-pollutant-removing-bacteria-in-the-times-of-systemic-biology
#19
REVIEW
Pavel Dvořák, Pablo I Nikel, Jiří Damborský, Víctor de Lorenzo
Elimination or mitigation of the toxic effects of chemical waste released to the environment by industrial and urban activities relies largely on the catalytic activities of microorganisms-specifically bacteria. Given their capacity to evolve rapidly, they have the biochemical power to tackle a large number of molecules mobilized from their geological repositories through human action (e.g., hydrocarbons, heavy metals) or generated through chemical synthesis (e.g., xenobiotic compounds). Whereas naturally occurring microbes already have considerable ability to remove many environmental pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents...
November 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768227/variation-in-the-provision-and-practice-of-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-in-the-uk-results-from-the-ibra-national-practice-questionnaire
#20
Senthurun Mylvaganam, Elizabeth Conroy, Paula R Williamson, Nicola L P Barnes, Ramsey I Cutress, Matthew D Gardiner, Abhilash Jain, Joanna M Skillman, Steven Thrush, Lisa J Whisker, Jane M Blazeby, Shelley Potter, Christopher Holcombe
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of biological and synthetic meshes has revolutionised the practice of implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) but evidence for effectiveness is lacking. The iBRA (implant Breast Reconstruction evAluation) study is a national trainee-led project that aims to explore the practice and outcomes of IBBR to inform the design of a future trial. We report the results of the iBRA National Practice Questionnaire (NPQ) which aimed to comprehensively describe the provision and practice of IBBR across the UK...
October 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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