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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#1
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284043/the-histone-variant-h3-3-claims-its-place-in-the-crowded-scene-of-epigenetics
#2
Daniele Bano, Antonia Piazzesi, Paolo Salomoni, Pierluigi Nicotera
Histones are evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding proteins. As scaffolding molecules, they significantly regulate the DNA packaging into the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells. As docking units, they influence the recruitment of the transcriptional machinery, thus establishing unique gene expression patterns that ultimately promote different biological outcomes. While canonical histones H3.1 and H3.2 are synthetized and loaded during DNA replication, the histone variant H3.3 is expressed and deposited into the chromatin throughout the cell cycle...
March 10, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261048/coupling-resistive-switching-devices-with-neurons-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#3
Alessandro Chiolerio, Michela Chiappalone, Paolo Ariano, Sergio Bocchini
Here we provide the state-of-the-art of bioelectronic interfacing between biological neuronal systems and artificial components, focusing the attention on the potentiality offered by intrinsically neuromorphic synthetic devices based on Resistive Switching (RS). Neuromorphic engineering is outside the scopes of this Perspective. Instead, our focus is on those materials and devices featuring genuine physical effects that could be sought as non-linearity, plasticity, excitation, and extinction which could be directly and more naturally coupled with living biological systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246181/synthetic-botany
#4
Christian R Boehm, Bernardo Pollak, Nuri Purswani, Nicola Patron, Jim Haseloff
Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213964/when-sensing-is-gambling-an-experimental-system-reveals-how-plasticity-can-generate-tunable-bet-hedging-strategies
#5
Colin S Maxwell, Paul M Magwene
Genotypes can persist in unpredictable environments by "hedging their bets" and producing diverse phenotypes. Theoretical studies have shown that the phenotypic variability needed for a bet-hedging strategy can be generated by factors either inside or outside an organism. However, sensing the environment and bet hedging are frequently treated as distinct evolutionary strategies. Furthermore, nearly all empirical studies of the molecular underpinnings of bet-hedging strategies to date have focused on internal sources of variability...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183593/structure-and-mechanical-behavior-of-human-hair
#6
Yang Yu, Wen Yang, Bin Wang, Marc André Meyers
The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178232/synthetic-vulnerabilities-of-mesenchymal-subpopulations-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Giannicola Genovese, Alessandro Carugo, James Tepper, Frederick Scott Robinson, Liren Li, Maria Svelto, Luigi Nezi, Denise Corti, Rosalba Minelli, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni, Tony Gutschner, Chia-Chin Wu, Sahil Seth, Kadir Caner Akdemir, Elisabetta Leo, Samirkumar Amin, Marco Dal Molin, Haoqiang Ying, Lawrence N Kwong, Simona Colla, Koichi Takahashi, Papia Ghosh, Virginia Giuliani, Florian Muller, Prasenjit Dey, Shan Jiang, Jill Garvey, Chang-Gong Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Timothy P Heffernan, Carlo Toniatti, Jason B Fleming, Michael G Goggins, Laura D Wood, Alessandro Sgambato, Abbas Agaimy, Anirban Maitra, Charles W M Roberts, Huamin Wang, Andrea Viale, Ronald A DePinho, Giulio F Draetta, Lynda Chin
Malignant neoplasms evolve in response to changes in oncogenic signalling. Cancer cell plasticity in response to evolutionary pressures is fundamental to tumour progression and the development of therapeutic resistance. Here we determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity in a conditional oncogenic Kras mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a malignancy that displays considerable phenotypic diversity and morphological heterogeneity. In this model, stochastic extinction of oncogenic Kras signalling and emergence of Kras-independent escaper populations (cells that acquire oncogenic properties) are associated with de-differentiation and aggressive biological behaviour...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143645/microplastics-en-route-field-measurements-in-the-dutch-river-delta-and-amsterdam-canals-wastewater-treatment-plants-north-sea-sediments-and-biota
#8
H A Leslie, S H Brandsma, M J M van Velzen, A D Vethaak
Environmental contamination by plastic particles, also known as 'microplastics', brings synthetic materials that are non-degradable and biologically incompatible into contact with ecosystems. In this paper we present concentration data for this emerging contaminant in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and freshwater and marine systems, reflecting the routes via which these particles can travel and the ecosystems they potentially impact along their path. Raw sewage influents, effluents and sewage sludge from seven municipal WWTPs in the Netherlands contained mean particle concentrations of 68-910L(-1), 51-81L(-1) and 510-760kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively (particle sizes between 10 and 5000μm)...
April 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836730/tenascin-c-in-the-matrisome-of-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#9
REVIEW
Andreas Faissner, Lars Roll, Ursula Theocharidis
The extracellular matrix consists of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and complex glycan structures that form the matrisome. Increasing evidence points to important functional roles of the ECM during development, plasticity and regeneration of the CNS. In particular, the ECM is an important constituent of the molecular microenvironment of the neural stem cell niches. While substantial evidence suggests that growth factors, cytokines and morphogens play important regulatory roles in the niche, the biological significance of the ECM has been less well studied...
November 8, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694820/a-novel-method-for-preparing-microplastic-fibers
#10
Matthew Cole
Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm-5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566340/computational-approaches-in-the-design-of-synthetic-receptors-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Todd Cowen, Kal Karim, Sergey Piletsky
The rational design of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been a major contributor to their reputation as "plastic antibodies" - high affinity robust synthetic receptors which can be optimally designed, and produced for a much reduced cost than their biological equivalents. Computational design has become a routine procedure in the production of MIPs, and has led to major advances in functional monomer screening, selection of cross-linker and solvent, optimisation of monomer(s)-template ratio and selectivity analysis...
September 14, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550820/the-biology-and-function-of-fibroblasts-in-cancer
#12
Raghu Kalluri
Among all cells, fibroblasts could be considered the cockroaches of the human body. They survive severe stress that is usually lethal to all other cells, and they are the only normal cell type that can be live-cultured from post-mortem and decaying tissue. Their resilient adaptation may reside in their intrinsic survival programmes and cellular plasticity. Cancer is associated with fibroblasts at all stages of disease progression, including metastasis, and they are a considerable component of the general host response to tissue damage caused by cancer cells...
August 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510993/a-review-of-organophosphate-esters-in-the-environment-from-biological-effects-to-distribution-and-fate
#13
REVIEW
Alana K Greaves, Robert J Letcher
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are synthetic phosphoric acid derivatives used in a wide variety of applications including as flame retardants and plasticizers. Their production and usage has increased in recent years, due to the phase-out of other flame retardant formulations (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers). As such, there has been a recent push to understand the global distribution of OPEs and their behaviour in biota. Multiple studies have been published over the last few years pertaining to OPE concentrations in biotic and abiotic environmental compartments, as well as the metabolism of OPEs in biota...
January 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505024/inhibiting-the-self-sorting-behavior-in-the-blends-of-a-homologous-set-of-polyurethane-model-compounds
#14
Anita S W Chan, Pudupadi R Sundararajan
Self-sorting is the phenomenon in which there is high fidelity recognition and preference only for self and avoidance of nonself (narcissistic self-sorting). It has been observed in a number of biological systems and chiral synthetic molecules. We found that blends of biscarbamates, which are model compounds for polyurethanes, self-sort during crystallization [ J. Phys. Chem. B 2008 , 112 , 4223 - 4232 ], although these are not chiral molecules. Even if the two components in the blend differ only by a couple of CH2 groups in the side chain length, no intercomponent hydrogen bond forms, and the molecules self-sort...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489146/bioremediation-at-a-global-scale-from-the-test-tube-to-planet-earth
#15
Víctor de Lorenzo, Philippe Marlière, Ricard Solé
Planet Earth's biosphere has evolved over billions of years as a balanced bio-geological system ultimately sustained by sunpower and the large-scale cycling of elements largely run by the global environmental microbiome. Humans have been part of this picture for much of their existence. But the industrial revolution started in the XIX century and the subsequent advances in medicine, chemistry, agriculture and communications have impacted such balances to an unprecedented degree - and the problem has nothing but exacerbated in the last 20 years...
September 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477765/to-be-or-not-to-be-biodegradable%C3%A2-that-is-the-question-for-the-bio-based-plastics
#16
Auxiliadora Prieto
Global warming, market and production capacity are being the key drivers for selecting the main players for the next decades in the market of bio-based plastics. The drop-in bio-based polymers such as the bio-based polyethylene terephtalate (PET) or polyethylene (PE), chemically identical to their petrochemical counterparts but having a component of biological origin, are in the top of the list. They are followed by new polymers such as PHA and PLA with a significant market growth rate since 2014 with projections to 2020...
September 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441104/open-source-approaches-to-establishing-roseobacter-clade-bacteria-as-synthetic-biology-chassis-for-biogeoengineering
#17
Yanika Borg, Aurelija Marija Grigonyte, Philipp Boeing, Bethan Wolfenden, Patrick Smith, William Beaufoy, Simon Rose, Tonderai Ratisai, Alexey Zaikin, Darren N Nesbeth
Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists' efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15-20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global 'do-it-yourself' research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397547/evolutionary-divergence-of-reaction-norms-in-ecological-context-a-commentary
#18
C J Murren, S E Diamond, J Auld, R Relyea, U Steiner, J Kingsolver
Plasticity has been acknowledged as having a central role in organismal evolutionary responses to environments (e.g. West-Eberhard 2003; Sultan 2015; Sgrò et al. 2016). As the field of plasticity expands (Bradshaw 1965, Schlichting and Pigliucci 1998; Sultan 2015), rich datasets of reaction norm variation across organisms, trait types and ecological conditions are ripe for syntheses. Quantitative syntheses have enhanced our understanding of other fundamental mechanisms of evolution (e.g. heritable genetic variation Mousseau and Roff 1987) and generated new hypotheses...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371727/quantification-of-human-kallikrein-related-peptidases-in-biological-fluids-by-multiplatform-targeted-mass-spectrometry-assays
#19
Theano D Karakosta, Antoninus Soosaipillai, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Ihor Batruch, Andrei P Drabovich
Human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a group of 15 secreted serine proteases encoded by the largest contiguous cluster of protease genes in the human genome. KLKs are involved in coordination of numerous physiological functions including regulation of blood pressure, neuronal plasticity, skin desquamation, and semen liquefaction, and thus represent promising diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Until now, quantification of KLKs in biological and clinical samples was accomplished by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
September 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298346/chemical-properties-of-lipids-strongly-affect-the-kinetics-of-the-membrane-induced-aggregation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#20
Céline Galvagnion, James W P Brown, Myriam M Ouberai, Patrick Flagmeier, Michele Vendruscolo, Alexander K Buell, Emma Sparr, Christopher M Dobson
Intracellular α-synuclein deposits, known as Lewy bodies, have been linked to a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. α-Synuclein binds to synthetic and biological lipids, and this interaction has been shown to play a crucial role for both α-synuclein's native function, including synaptic plasticity, and the initiation of its aggregation. Here, we describe the interplay between the lipid properties and the lipid binding and aggregation propensity of α-synuclein. In particular, we have observed that the binding of α-synuclein to model membranes is much stronger when the latter is in the fluid rather than the gel phase, and that this binding induces a segregation of the lipids into protein-poor and protein-rich populations...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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