Read by QxMD icon Read

Synthetic biology plastic

Graham A Hudson, Douglas A Mitchell
The threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections continues to underscore the need for new treatment options. Historically, small molecule metabolites from microbes have provided a rich source of antibiotic compounds, and as a result, significant effort has been invested in engineering the responsible biosynthetic pathways to generate novel analogs with attractive pharmacological properties. Unfortunately, biosynthetic stringency has limited the capacity of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases from producing substantially different analogs in large numbers...
March 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Gazi Sakir Hossain, Saravanan Prabhu Nadarajan, Lei Zhang, Tee-Kheang Ng, Jee Loon Foo, Hua Ling, Won Jae Choi, Matthew Wook Chang
Living organisms have evolved over millions of years to fine tune their metabolism to create efficient pathways for producing metabolites necessary for their survival. Advancement in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the exploitation of these metabolic pathways for the production of desired compounds by creating microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering, thus providing sustainable routes to obtain value-added chemicals. Following the past success in metabolic engineering, there is increasing interest in diversifying natural metabolic pathways to construct non-natural biosynthesis routes, thereby creating possibilities for producing novel valuable compounds that are non-natural or without elucidated biosynthesis pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Indu Shekhar Thakur, Manish Kumar, Sunita J Varjani, Yonghong Wu, Edgard Gnansounou, Sindhu Ravindran
To meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, carbon dioxide capture and utilization (CCU) comes as an evolve technology. CCU concept is turning into a feedstock and technologies have been developed for transformation of CO2 into useful organic products. At industrial scale, utilization of CO2 as raw material is not much significant as compare to its abundance. Mechanisms in nature have evolved for carbon concentration, fixation and utilization. Assimilation and subsequent conversion of CO2 into complex molecules are performed by the photosynthetic and chemolithotrophic organisms...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jay M Taylor, Karla Perez-Toralla, Ruby Aispuro, Stephen A Morin
The lamination of mechanically stiff structures to elastic materials is prevalent in biological systems and popular in many emerging synthetic systems, such as soft robotics, microfluidics, stretchable electronics, and pop-up assemblies. The disparate mechanical and chemical properties of these materials have made it challenging to develop universal synthetic procedures capable of reliably adhering to these classes of materials together. Herein, a simple and scalable procedure is described that is capable of covalently laminating a variety of commodity ("off-the-shelf") thermoplastic sheets to silicone rubber films...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Thomas E Smith, Christopher D Pond, Elizabeth Pierce, Zachary P Harmer, Jason Kwan, Malcolm M Zachariah, Mary Kay Harper, Thomas P Wyche, Teatulohi K Matainaho, Tim S Bugni, Louis R Barrows, Chris M Ireland, Eric W Schmidt
Chemistry drives many biological interactions between the microbiota and host animals, yet it is often challenging to identify the chemicals involved. This poses a problem, as such small molecules are excellent sources of potential pharmaceuticals, pretested by nature for animal compatibility. We discovered anti-HIV compounds from small, marine tunicates from the Eastern Fields of Papua New Guinea. Tunicates are a reservoir for new bioactive chemicals, yet their small size often impedes identification or even detection of the chemicals within...
January 1, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Nakul Gamanlal Patel, Imran Ratanshi, Edward W Buchel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. List major risk factors for hernia formation and for failure of primary repair. 2. Outline an algorithmic approach to anterior abdominal wall reconstruction based on the degree of contamination, components involved in the deficit, and width of the hernia defect. 3. Describe appropriate indications for synthetic and biological mesh products. 4. List common flaps used in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction, including functional restoration strategies...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Su Yean Ong, Hui-Pheng Kho, Sebastian L Riedel, Seok-Won Kim, Chee-Yuen Gan, Todd D Taylor, Kumar Sudesh
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are produced in microbes as a source of carbon and energy storage. They are biodegradable and have properties similar to synthetic plastics, which make them an interesting alternative to petroleum-based plastics. In this study, a refined method of recovering PHA from Cupriavidus necator biomass was proposed by incorporating the use of the yellow mealworm (the larval phase of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor) as partial purification machinery, followed by washing of the fecal pellets with distilled water and sodium hydroxide...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Stefano Sanna, Jury Brandolini, Alessandro Pardolesi, Desideria Argnani, Marta Mengozzi, Andrea Dell'Amore, Piergiorgio Solli
Extensive chest wall resection and reconstruction are a challenging procedure that requires a multidisciplinary approach, including input from thoracic surgeon, plastic surgeon and oncologist. In particular chest wall neoplastic pathology is associated with high surgical morbidity and can result in full thickness defects hard to reconstruct. The goals of a successful chest wall reconstruction are to restore the chest wall rigidity, preserve pulmonary mechanic and protect the intrathoracic organs minimizing the thoracic deformity...
2017: Journal of Visualized Surgery
David E Watson, Rosemarie Hunziker, John P Wikswo
Microphysiological systems (MPS), which include engineered organoids (EOs), single organ/tissue chips (TCs), and multiple organs interconnected to create miniature in vitro models of human physiological systems, are rapidly becoming effective tools for drug development and the mechanistic understanding of tissue physiology and pathophysiology. The second MPS thematic issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine comprises 15 articles by scientists and engineers from the National Institutes of Health, the IQ Consortium, the Food and Drug Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency, an MPS company, and academia...
October 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
M Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, S Pichardo, N T Jiménez-Morillo, F J González-Vila, E Guillamón, J M Bermúdez, S Aucejo, A M Camean, J A González-Pérez
Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) usually requires preparative steps (pretreatments, extraction, derivatization) to get amenable chromatographic analytes from bulk geological, biological or synthetic materials. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) can help to overcome such sample manipulation. This communication describe the results obtained by hyphenating analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC) with carbon isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the analysis of a polylactic acid (PLA) a based bio-plastic extruded with variable quantities of a natural plant extract or oregano essential oil...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Milos Pjanic
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic unit of polycarbonate polymers and epoxy resins, the types of plastics that could be found in essentially every human population and incorporated into almost every aspect of the modern human society. BPA polymers appear in a wide range of products, from liquid storages (plastic bottles, can and glass linings, water pipes and tanks) and food storages (plastics wraps and containers), to medical and dental devices. BPA polymers could be hydrolyzed spontaneously or in a photo- or temperature-catalyzed process, providing widespread environmental distribution and chronic exposure to the BPA monomer in contemporary human populations...
2017: PeerJ
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
August 27, 2017: Bio Systems
Codruta Ignea, Anastasia Athanasakoglou, Aggeliki Andreadelli, Maria Apostolaki, Minas Iakovides, Euripides G Stephanou, Antonios M Makris, Sotirios C Kampranis
Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity of the enzymes involved. The pathway of carnosic acid-related diterpenes in rosemary and sage involves promiscuous cytochrome P450s whose combined activity results in a multitude of structurally related compounds. Some of these minor products, such as pisiferic acid and salviol, have established bioactivity, but their limited availability prevents further evaluation...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pavel Dvořák, Pablo I Nikel, Jiří Damborský, Víctor de Lorenzo
Elimination or mitigation of the toxic effects of chemical waste released to the environment by industrial and urban activities relies largely on the catalytic activities of microorganisms-specifically bacteria. Given their capacity to evolve rapidly, they have the biochemical power to tackle a large number of molecules mobilized from their geological repositories through human action (e.g., hydrocarbons, heavy metals) or generated through chemical synthesis (e.g., xenobiotic compounds). Whereas naturally occurring microbes already have considerable ability to remove many environmental pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents...
November 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Senthurun Mylvaganam, Elizabeth Conroy, Paula R Williamson, Nicola L P Barnes, Ramsey I Cutress, Matthew D Gardiner, Abhilash Jain, Joanna M Skillman, Steven Thrush, Lisa J Whisker, Jane M Blazeby, Shelley Potter, Christopher Holcombe
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of biological and synthetic meshes has revolutionised the practice of implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) but evidence for effectiveness is lacking. The iBRA (implant Breast Reconstruction evAluation) study is a national trainee-led project that aims to explore the practice and outcomes of IBBR to inform the design of a future trial. We report the results of the iBRA National Practice Questionnaire (NPQ) which aimed to comprehensively describe the provision and practice of IBBR across the UK...
October 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
E L Chrysanthopoulou, V Pergialiotis, D Perrea, S Κourkoulis, C Verikokos, S K Doumouchtsis
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health problem that affects many women with potentially severe physical and psychological impact as well as impact on their daily activities, and quality of life. Several surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of POP. The FDA has published documents that refer to concerns about the use of synthetic meshes for the treatment of prolapse, in view of the severe complications that may occur. These led to hesitancy in use of these meshes and partial increase in use of other biological grafts such as allografts and xenografts...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Mark Kastantin, David Faulón Marruecos, Navdeep Grover, Sean Yu McLoughlin, Daniel K Schwartz, Joel L Kaar
Specific binding between biomolecules, i.e., molecular recognition, controls virtually all biological processes including the interactions between cells and biointerfaces, both natural and synthetic. Such binding often relies on the conformation of biomacromolecules, which can be highly heterogeneous and sensitive to environmental perturbations, and therefore difficult to characterize and control. An approach is demonstrated here that directly connects the binding kinetics and stability of the protein receptor integrin αvβ3 to the conformation of the ligand fibronectin (FN), which are believed to control cellular mechanosensing...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wissam Farhat, Richard Venditti, Nathalie Mignard, Mohamed Taha, Frederic Becquart, Ali Ayoub
Currently, there is very strong interest to replace synthetic polymers with biological macromolecules of natural source for applications that interact with humans or the environment. This research describes the development of drug delivery hydrogels from natural polymers, starch, lignin and hemicelluloses by means of reactive extrusion. The hydrogels show a strong swelling ability dependent on pH which may be used to control diffusion rates of water and small molecules in and out of the gel. Also the hydrogels degradation rates were studied in a physiological solution (pH 7...
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Saïd Boujraf, Rachida Belaïch, Abdelkhalek Housni, Mustapha Maaroufi, Siham Tizniti, Tarik Sqalli, Mohammed Benzagmout
BACKGROUND: Various alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function have been described in patients with chronic renal failure. Nevertheless, controversial evidences were stated about the association between adrenal function deficiency (AD) and hemodialysis (HD). PURPOSE: The goal of this paper was to estimate indirect indices of the adrenal gland dysfunction which is potentially influenced by oxidative stress (OS) that still generates brain plasticity and reorganization of the functional control...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
Ovijit Chaudhuri
In tissues, many cells are surrounded by and interact with a three-dimensional soft extracellular matrix (ECM). Both the physical and biochemical properties of the ECM play a major role in regulating cell behaviours. To better understand the impact of ECM properties on cell behaviours, natural and synthetic hydrogels have been developed for use as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture. It has long been known that ECM and tissues are viscoelastic, or display a time-dependent response to deformation or mechanical loading, exhibiting stress relaxation and creep...
July 25, 2017: Biomaterials Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"