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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855098/the-bioelectric-code-an-ancient-computational-medium-for-dynamic-control-of-growth-and-form
#1
REVIEW
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
August 27, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821847/overcoming-the-plasticity-of-plant-specialized-metabolism-for-selective-diterpene-production-in-yeast
#2
Codruta Ignea, Anastasia Athanasakoglou, Aggeliki Andreadelli, Maria Apostolaki, Minas Iakovides, Euripides G Stephanou, Antonios M Makris, Sotirios C Kampranis
Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity of the enzymes involved. The pathway of carnosic acid-related diterpenes in rosemary and sage involves promiscuous cytochrome P450s whose combined activity results in a multitude of structurally related compounds. Some of these minor products, such as pisiferic acid and salviol, have established bioactivity, but their limited availability prevents further evaluation...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789939/bioremediation-3-0-engineering-pollutant-removing-bacteria-in-the-times-of-systemic-biology
#3
REVIEW
Pavel Dvořák, Pablo I Nikel, Jiří Damborský, Víctor de Lorenzo
Elimination or mitigation of the toxic effects of chemical waste released to the environment by industrial and urban activities relies largely on the catalytic activities of microorganisms-specifically bacteria. Given their capacity to evolve rapidly, they have the biochemical power to tackle a large number of molecules mobilized from their geological repositories through human action (e.g., hydrocarbons, heavy metals) or generated through chemical synthesis (e.g., xenobiotic compounds). Whereas naturally occurring microbes already have considerable ability to remove many environmental pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents...
August 5, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768227/variation-in-the-provision-and-practice-of-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-in-the-uk-results-from-the-ibra-national-practice-questionnaire
#4
Senthurun Mylvaganam, Elizabeth Conroy, Paula R Williamson, Nicola L P Barnes, Ramsey I Cutress, Matthew D Gardiner, Abhilash Jain, Joanna M Skillman, Steven Thrush, Lisa J Whisker, Jane M Blazeby, Shelley Potter, Christopher Holcombe
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of biological and synthetic meshes has revolutionised the practice of implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) but evidence for effectiveness is lacking. The iBRA (implant Breast Reconstruction evAluation) study is a national trainee-led project that aims to explore the practice and outcomes of IBBR to inform the design of a future trial. We report the results of the iBRA National Practice Questionnaire (NPQ) which aimed to comprehensively describe the provision and practice of IBBR across the UK...
October 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673602/platelet-rich-plasma-as-a-minimally-invasive-approach-to-uterine-prolapse
#5
E L Chrysanthopoulou, V Pergialiotis, D Perrea, S Κourkoulis, C Verikokos, S K Doumouchtsis
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health problem that affects many women with potentially severe physical and psychological impact as well as impact on their daily activities, and quality of life. Several surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of POP. The FDA has published documents that refer to concerns about the use of synthetic meshes for the treatment of prolapse, in view of the severe complications that may occur. These led to hesitancy in use of these meshes and partial increase in use of other biological grafts such as allografts and xenografts...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658579/connecting-protein-conformation-and-dynamics-with-ligand-receptor-binding-using-three-color-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-tracking
#6
Mark Kastantin, David Faulón Marruecos, Navdeep Grover, Sean Yu McLoughlin, Daniel K Schwartz, Joel L Kaar
Specific binding between biomolecules, i.e., molecular recognition, controls virtually all biological processes including the interactions between cells and biointerfaces, both natural and synthetic. Such binding often relies on the conformation of biomacromolecules, which can be highly heterogeneous and sensitive to environmental perturbations, and therefore difficult to characterize and control. An approach is demonstrated here that directly connects the binding kinetics and stability of the protein receptor integrin αvβ3 to the conformation of the ligand fibronectin (FN), which are believed to control cellular mechanosensing...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602991/polysaccharides-and-lignin-based-hydrogels-with-potential-pharmaceutical-use-as-a-drug-delivery-system-produced-by-a-reactive-extrusion-process
#7
Wissam Farhat, Richard Venditti, Nathalie Mignard, Mohamed Taha, Frederic Becquart, Ali Ayoub
Currently, there is very strong interest to replace synthetic polymers with biological macromolecules of natural source for applications that interact with humans or the environment. This research describes the development of drug delivery hydrogels from natural polymers, starch, lignin and hemicelluloses by means of reactive extrusion. The hydrogels show a strong swelling ability dependent on pH which may be used to control diffusion rates of water and small molecules in and out of the gel. Also the hydrogels degradation rates were studied in a physiological solution (pH 7...
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588363/blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-functional-mri-of-early-evidences-of-brain-plasticity-after-hemodialysis-session-by-helixone-membrane-of-patients-with-indices-of-adrenal-deficiency
#8
Saïd Boujraf, Rachida Belaïch, Abdelkhalek Housni, Mustapha Maaroufi, Siham Tizniti, Tarik Sqalli, Mohammed Benzagmout
BACKGROUND: Various alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function have been described in patients with chronic renal failure. Nevertheless, controversial evidences were stated about the association between adrenal function deficiency (AD) and hemodialysis (HD). PURPOSE: The goal of this paper was to estimate indirect indices of the adrenal gland dysfunction which is potentially influenced by oxidative stress (OS) that still generates brain plasticity and reorganization of the functional control...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584885/viscoelastic-hydrogels-for-3d-cell-culture
#9
Ovijit Chaudhuri
In tissues, many cells are surrounded by and interact with a three-dimensional soft extracellular matrix (ECM). Both the physical and biochemical properties of the ECM play a major role in regulating cell behaviours. To better understand the impact of ECM properties on cell behaviours, natural and synthetic hydrogels have been developed for use as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture. It has long been known that ECM and tissues are viscoelastic, or display a time-dependent response to deformation or mechanical loading, exhibiting stress relaxation and creep...
July 25, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455715/activation-of-macrophages-in-response-to-biomaterials
#10
REVIEW
Jamie E Rayahin, Richard A Gemeinhart
Macrophages are the initial biologic responders to biomaterials. These highly plastic immune sentinels control and modulate responses to materials, foreign or natural. The responses may vary from immune stimulatory to immune suppressive. Several parameters have been identified that influence macrophage response to biomaterials, specifically size, geometry, surface topography, hydrophobicity, surface chemistry, material mechanics, and protein adsorption. In this review, the influence of these parameters is supported with examples of both synthetic and naturally derived materials and illustrates that a combination of these parameters ultimately influences macrophage responses to the biomaterial...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#11
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
June 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284043/the-histone-variant-h3-3-claims-its-place-in-the-crowded-scene-of-epigenetics
#12
Daniele Bano, Antonia Piazzesi, Paolo Salomoni, Pierluigi Nicotera
Histones are evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding proteins. As scaffolding molecules, they significantly regulate the DNA packaging into the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells. As docking units, they influence the recruitment of the transcriptional machinery, thus establishing unique gene expression patterns that ultimately promote different biological outcomes. While canonical histones H3.1 and H3.2 are synthetized and loaded during DNA replication, the histone variant H3.3 is expressed and deposited into the chromatin throughout the cell cycle...
March 10, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261048/coupling-resistive-switching-devices-with-neurons-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#13
Alessandro Chiolerio, Michela Chiappalone, Paolo Ariano, Sergio Bocchini
Here we provide the state-of-the-art of bioelectronic interfacing between biological neuronal systems and artificial components, focusing the attention on the potentiality offered by intrinsically neuromorphic synthetic devices based on Resistive Switching (RS). Neuromorphic engineering is outside the scopes of this Perspective. Instead, our focus is on those materials and devices featuring genuine physical effects that could be sought as non-linearity, plasticity, excitation, and extinction which could be directly and more naturally coupled with living biological systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246181/synthetic-botany
#14
Christian R Boehm, Bernardo Pollak, Nuri Purswani, Nicola Patron, Jim Haseloff
Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213964/when-sensing-is-gambling-an-experimental-system-reveals-how-plasticity-can-generate-tunable-bet-hedging-strategies
#15
Colin S Maxwell, Paul M Magwene
Genotypes can persist in unpredictable environments by "hedging their bets" and producing diverse phenotypes. Theoretical studies have shown that the phenotypic variability needed for a bet-hedging strategy can be generated by factors either inside or outside an organism. However, sensing the environment and bet hedging are frequently treated as distinct evolutionary strategies. Furthermore, nearly all empirical studies of the molecular underpinnings of bet-hedging strategies to date have focused on internal sources of variability...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183593/structure-and-mechanical-behavior-of-human-hair
#16
Yang Yu, Wen Yang, Bin Wang, Marc André Meyers
The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178232/synthetic-vulnerabilities-of-mesenchymal-subpopulations-in-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Giannicola Genovese, Alessandro Carugo, James Tepper, Frederick Scott Robinson, Liren Li, Maria Svelto, Luigi Nezi, Denise Corti, Rosalba Minelli, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni, Tony Gutschner, Chia-Chin Wu, Sahil Seth, Kadir Caner Akdemir, Elisabetta Leo, Samirkumar Amin, Marco Dal Molin, Haoqiang Ying, Lawrence N Kwong, Simona Colla, Koichi Takahashi, Papia Ghosh, Virginia Giuliani, Florian Muller, Prasenjit Dey, Shan Jiang, Jill Garvey, Chang-Gong Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Timothy P Heffernan, Carlo Toniatti, Jason B Fleming, Michael G Goggins, Laura D Wood, Alessandro Sgambato, Abbas Agaimy, Anirban Maitra, Charles W M Roberts, Huamin Wang, Andrea Viale, Ronald A DePinho, Giulio F Draetta, Lynda Chin
Malignant neoplasms evolve in response to changes in oncogenic signalling. Cancer cell plasticity in response to evolutionary pressures is fundamental to tumour progression and the development of therapeutic resistance. Here we determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity in a conditional oncogenic Kras mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a malignancy that displays considerable phenotypic diversity and morphological heterogeneity. In this model, stochastic extinction of oncogenic Kras signalling and emergence of Kras-independent escaper populations (cells that acquire oncogenic properties) are associated with de-differentiation and aggressive biological behaviour...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143645/microplastics-en-route-field-measurements-in-the-dutch-river-delta-and-amsterdam-canals-wastewater-treatment-plants-north-sea-sediments-and-biota
#18
H A Leslie, S H Brandsma, M J M van Velzen, A D Vethaak
Environmental contamination by plastic particles, also known as 'microplastics', brings synthetic materials that are non-degradable and biologically incompatible into contact with ecosystems. In this paper we present concentration data for this emerging contaminant in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and freshwater and marine systems, reflecting the routes via which these particles can travel and the ecosystems they potentially impact along their path. Raw sewage influents, effluents and sewage sludge from seven municipal WWTPs in the Netherlands contained mean particle concentrations of 68-910L(-1), 51-81L(-1) and 510-760kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively (particle sizes between 10 and 5000μm)...
April 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836730/tenascin-c-in-the-matrisome-of-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#19
REVIEW
Andreas Faissner, Lars Roll, Ursula Theocharidis
The extracellular matrix consists of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and complex glycan structures that form the matrisome. Increasing evidence points to important functional roles of the ECM during development, plasticity and regeneration of the CNS. In particular, the ECM is an important constituent of the molecular microenvironment of the neural stem cell niches. While substantial evidence suggests that growth factors, cytokines and morphogens play important regulatory roles in the niche, the biological significance of the ECM has been less well studied...
November 9, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694820/a-novel-method-for-preparing-microplastic-fibers
#20
Matthew Cole
Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm-5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
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