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Transcription factor regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351389/proliferation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-mediated-by-yap-and-taz-contributes-to-liver-repair-and-regeneration-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Takanori Konishi, Rebecca M Schuster, Alex B Lentsch
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are key regulators of cell proliferation and organ size, however, their physiological contribution after liver injury has not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine the role of YAP and TAZ during liver recovery after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A murine model of partial (70%) I/R was used to induce liver injury and study the reparative and regenerative response. After liver injury, there was marked activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348641/refined-control-of-cell-stemness-allowed-animal-evolution-in-the-oxic-realm
#2
REVIEW
Emma U Hammarlund, Kristoffer von Stedingk, Sven Påhlman
Animal diversification on Earth has long been presumed to be associated with the increasing extent of oxic niches. Here, we challenge that view. We start with the fact that hypoxia (<1-3% O2) maintains cellular immaturity (stemness), whereas adult stem cells continuously-and paradoxically-regenerate animal tissue in oxygenated settings. Novel insights from tumour biology illuminate how cell stemness nevertheless can be achieved through the action of oxygen-sensing transcription factors in oxygenated, regenerating tissue...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346765/characterization-of-endothelial-cells-associated-with-hematopoietic-niche-formation-in-humans-identifies-il-33-as-an-anabolic-factor
#3
Keane Jared Guillaume Kenswil, Adrian Christopher Jaramillo, Zhen Ping, Si Chen, Remco Michiel Hoogenboezem, Maria Athina Mylona, Maria Niken Adisty, Eric Moniqué Johannes Bindels, Pieter Koen Bos, Hans Stoop, King Hong Lam, Bram van Eerden, Tom Cupedo, Marc Hermanus Gerardus Petrus Raaijmakers
Bone marrow formation requires an orchestrated interplay between osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis that is thought to be mediated by endothelial cells. The nature of the endothelial cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these events remain unclear in humans. Here, we identify a subset of endoglin-expressing endothelial cells enriched in human bone marrow during fetal ontogeny and upon regeneration after chemotherapeutic injury. Comprehensive transcriptional characterization by massive parallel RNA sequencing of these cells reveals a phenotypic and molecular similarity to murine type H endothelium and activation of angiocrine factors implicated in hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344417/the-effect-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#4
REVIEW
Wei Qin, Shiya Chen, Shasha Yang, Qian Xu, Chuanshan Xu, Jing Cai
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are special types of cells with the potential for self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation. NSCs are regulated by multiple pathways and pathway related transcription factors during the process of proliferation and differentiation. Numerous studies have shown that the compound medicinal preparations, single herbs, and herb extracts in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have specific roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs. In this study, we investigate the markers of NSCs in various stages of differentiation, the related pathways regulating the proliferation and differentiation, and the corresponding transcription factors in the pathways...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341308/stiffness-regulates-the-proliferation-and-osteogenic-odontogenic-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-via-the-wnt-signalling-pathway
#5
Nanxin Liu, Mi Zhou, Qi Zhang, Tao Zhang, Taoran Tian, Quanquan Ma, Changyue Xue, Shiyu Lin, Xiaoxiao Cai
OBJECTIVES: Researches showed that stiffness of the extracellular matrix can affect the differentiation of many stem cells. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a promising type of adult stem cell. However, we know little about whether and how the behaviour of DPSCs is influenced by stiffness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a study that cultured DPSCs on tunable elasticity polydimethylsiloxane substrates to investigate the influence on morphology, proliferation, osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation and its possible mechanism...
January 17, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339492/cytocapsular-tubes-conduct-cell-translocation
#6
Tingfang Yi, Gerhard Wagner
Cell locomotion is essential for multicellular organism embryo development, organ homeostasis, tissue regeneration, immune responses, and tumor metastasis. Here we report that single mammalian cells can generate two extracellular membranous compartments: cytocapsulae and cytocapsular tubes. Cells migrate in cytocapsulae and engender cytocapsular tubes, which exhibit pleiotropic biological functions and provide tubular routes for directed cell transportation. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscope revealed that nanoprotrusions surround and anchor cytocapsular tubes in place...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337183/temporal-layering-of-signaling-effectors-drives-chromatin-remodeling-during-hair-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-progression
#7
Rene C Adam, Hanseul Yang, Yejing Ge, Wen-Hui Lien, Ping Wang, Yilin Zhao, Lisa Polak, John Levorse, Sanjeethan C Baksh, Deyou Zheng, Elaine Fuchs
Tissue regeneration relies on resident stem cells (SCs), whose activity and lineage choices are influenced by the microenvironment. Exploiting the synchronized, cyclical bouts of tissue regeneration in hair follicles (HFs), we investigate how microenvironment dynamics shape the emergence of stem cell lineages. Employing epigenetic and ChIP-seq profiling, we uncover how signal-dependent transcription factors couple spatiotemporal cues to chromatin dynamics, thereby choreographing stem cell lineages. Using enhancer-driven reporters, mutagenesis, and genetics, we show that simultaneous BMP-inhibitory and WNT signals set the stage for lineage choices by establishing chromatin platforms permissive for diversification...
January 9, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335507/highly-conserved-molecular-pathways-including-wnt-signaling-promote-functional-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury-in-lampreys
#8
Paige E Herman, Angelos Papatheodorou, Stephanie A Bryant, Courtney K M Waterbury, Joseph R Herdy, Anthony A Arcese, Joseph D Buxbaum, Jeramiah J Smith, Jennifer R Morgan, Ona Bloom
In mammals, spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to dramatic losses in neurons and synaptic connections, and consequently function. Unlike mammals, lampreys are vertebrates that undergo spontaneous regeneration and achieve functional recovery after SCI. Therefore our goal was to determine the complete transcriptional responses that occur after SCI in lampreys and to identify deeply conserved pathways that promote regeneration. We performed RNA-Seq on lamprey spinal cord and brain throughout the course of functional recovery...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334988/epidermal-wnt-signalling-regulates-transcriptome-heterogeneity-and-proliferative-fate-in-neighbouring-cells
#9
Arsham Ghahramani, Giacomo Donati, Nicholas M Luscombe, Fiona M Watt
BACKGROUND: Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling regulates self-renewal and lineage selection within the mammalian epidermis. Although the transcriptional response of keratinocytes that receive a Wnt signal is well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which keratinocytes in proximity to the Wnt-receiving cell are co-opted to undergo a change in cell fate. RESULTS: To address this, we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing on mouse keratinocytes co-cultured with and without beta-catenin-activated neighbouring cells...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330161/production-of-bmp4-by-endothelial-cells-is-crucial-for-endogenous-thymic-regeneration
#10
Tobias Wertheimer, Enrico Velardi, Jennifer Tsai, Kirsten Cooper, Shiyun Xiao, Christopher C Kloss, Katja J Ottmüller, Zeinab Mokhtari, Christian Brede, Paul deRoos, Sinéad Kinsella, Brisa Palikuqi, Michael Ginsberg, Lauren F Young, Fabiana Kreines, Sophia R Lieberman, Amina Lazrak, Peipei Guo, Florent Malard, Odette M Smith, Yusuke Shono, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Daniel J Nolan, Jason M Butler, Andreas Beilhack, Nancy R Manley, Shahin Rafii, Jarrod A Dudakov, Marcel R M van den Brink
The thymus is not only extremely sensitive to damage but also has a remarkable ability to repair itself. However, the mechanisms underlying this endogenous regeneration remain poorly understood, and this capacity diminishes considerably with age. We show that thymic endothelial cells (ECs) comprise a critical pathway of regeneration via their production of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) ECs increased their production of BMP4 after thymic damage, and abrogating BMP4 signaling or production by either pharmacologic or genetic inhibition impaired thymic repair...
January 12, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329593/targeting-ectodysplasin-promotor-by-crispr-dcas9-effector-effectively-induces-the-reprogramming-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-sweat-gland-like-cells
#11
Sujing Sun, Jun Xiao, Jiahui Huo, Zhijun Geng, Kui Ma, Xiaoyan Sun, Xiaobing Fu
BACKGROUND: Patients with a deep burn injury are characterized by losing the function of perspiration and being unable to regenerate the sweat glands. Because of their easy accession, multipotency, and lower immunogenicity, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) represent as an ideal biological source for cell therapy. The aim of this study was to identify whether targeting the promotor of ectodysplasin (EDA) by CRISPR/dCas9-effector (dCas9-E) could induce the BM-MSCs to differentiate into sweat gland-like cells (SGCs)...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329193/mustn1-a-developmentally-regulated-pan-musculoskeletal-cell-marker-and-regulatory-gene
#12
REVIEW
Michael Hadjiargyrou
The Mustn1 gene encodes a small nuclear protein (~9.6 kDa) that does not belong to any known family. Its genomic organization consists of three exons interspersed by two introns and it is highly homologous across vertebrate species. Promoter analyses revealed that its expression is regulated by the AP family of transcription factors, especially c-Fos, Fra-2 and JunD. Mustn1 is predominantly expressed in the major tissues of the musculoskeletal system: bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle and tendon. Its expression has been associated with normal embryonic development, postnatal growth, exercise, and regeneration of bone and skeletal muscle...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323152/unravelling-the-effects-of-mechanical-physiological-conditioning-on-cardiac-adipose-tissue-derived-progenitor-cells-in-vitro-and-in-silico
#13
Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Ramon Bragós, Carolina Soler-Botija, Santiago Roura, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Isaac Perea-Gil, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Mechanical conditioning is incompletely characterized for stimulating therapeutic cells within the physiological range. We sought to unravel the mechanism of action underlying mechanical conditioning of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (ATDPCs), both in vitro and in silico. Cardiac ATDPCs, grown on 3 different patterned surfaces, were mechanically stretched for 7 days at 1 Hz. A custom-designed, magnet-based, mechanical stimulator device was developed to apply ~10% mechanical stretching to monolayer cell cultures...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317265/wound-regeneration-deficit-in-rats-correlates-with-low-morphogenetic-potential-and-distinct-transcriptome-profile-of-epidermis
#14
Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Aliaksandr A Astrowski, Rabi Murad, Christina T Dang, Vera O Shatrova, Aksana Astrowskaja, Chae Ho Lim, Raul Ramos, Xiaojie Wang, Yuchen Liu, Hye-Lim Lee, Kim T Pham, Tsai-Ching Hsi, Ji Won Oh, Daniel Crocker, Ali Mortazavi, Mayumi Ito, Maksim V Plikus
Large excisional wounds in mice prominently regenerate new hair follicles (HFs) and fat, yet humans are deficient for this regenerative behavior. Currently, wound-induced regeneration remains a clinically desirable, but only partially understood phenomenon. We show that large excisional wounds in rats, across seven strains fail to regenerate new HFs. We compared wound transcriptomes between mice and rats at the time of scab detachment, which coincides with the onset of HF regeneration in mice. In both species, wound dermis and epidermis share core dermal and epidermal transcriptional programs respectively, yet prominent inter-species differences exist...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316655/nfatc1-is-a-functional-transcriptional-factor-mediating-nell-1-induced-runx3-upregulation-in-chondrocytes
#15
Chenshuang Li, Zhong Zheng, Xinli Zhang, Greg Asatrian, Eric Chen, Richard Song, Cymbeline Culiat, Kang Ting, Chia Soo
Neural EGFL like 1 (Nell-1) is essential for chondrogenic differentiation, maturation, and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Nell-1's pro-chondrogenic activities are predominantly reliant upon runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3)-mediated Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling. Here, we identify the nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (Nfatc1) as the key transcriptional factor mediating the Nell-1 → Runx3 signal transduction in chondrocytes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we were able to determine that Nfatc1 binds to the -833--810 region of the Runx3-promoter in response to Nell-1 treatment...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304733/cobalt-chloride-compromises-transepithelial-barrier-properties-of-caco-2-bbe-human-gastrointestinal-epithelial-cell-layers
#16
K M DiGuilio, M C Valenzano, E Rybakovsky, J M Mullin
BACKGROUND: Elevation of the transcription factor HIF-1 is a prominent mediator of not only processes that accompany hypoxia, but also the tumor microenvironment and tissue regeneration. This study uses mediators of "chemical hypoxia" to ask the question whether HIF-1α elevation in a healthy epithelial cell layer leads to leakiness in its tight junctional seals. METHODS: Transepithelial electrical resistance and transepithelial diffusion of 14C-D-mannitol and other radiolabeled probes are used as indicators of transepithelial barrier function of CaCo-2 BBe human gastrointestinal epithelial cell layers cultured on permeable supports...
January 5, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302701/structure-and-function-of-the-nppa-nppb-cluster-locus-during-heart-development-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Joyce Man, Phil Barnett, Vincent M Christoffels
Atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide are two important biomarkers in clinical cardiology. These two natriuretic peptide hormones are encoded by the paralogous genes Nppa and Nppb, which are evolutionary conserved. Both genes are predominantly expressed by the heart muscle during the embryonic and fetal stages, and in particular Nppa expression is strongly reduced in the ventricles after birth. Upon cardiac stress, Nppa and Nppb are strongly upregulated in the ventricular myocardium. Much is known about the molecular and physiological ques inducing Nppa and Nppb expression; however, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of the Nppa-Nppb cluster in vivo has proven to be quite complex and is not well understood...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295693/novel-homeodomain-transcription-factor-nkx2-2-in-the-brain-tumor-development
#18
Mubeena Pm Mariyath, Mehdi Hayat Shahi, Shirin Farheen, Mohd Tayyab, Nabeela Khanam, Asif Ali
BACKGROUND: Complex central nervous system (CNS) is made of neuronal cells and glial cells. Cells of central nervous system are able to regenerate after injury and during repairing. Sonic hedgehog pathway initiated by Shh-N a glycoprotein plays vital role in CNS patterning growth, development and now tumorigenesis. Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factor is an effecter molecule, which is positively regulated by Shh during normal growth. Nkx2.2 is essential for V3 domain specification during neural tube patterning at embryonic stage...
January 1, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289734/conductive-nanofibrous-composite-scaffolds-based-on-in-situ-formed-polyaniline-nanoparticle-and-polylactide-for-bone-regeneration
#19
Jing Chen, Meng Yu, Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma, Zhanhai Yin
Conducting polymers and biodegradable polylactide (PLA) scaffolds are both promising biomaterials applied in bone tissue engineering. It is necessary to develop a composite scaffold combining their properties of osteogenic differentiation promotion and three-dimension matrix. To conquer the problem of poor processability of conductive polymers, we use a novel in-situ polymerization/thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) method to fabricate conductive nanofibrous PLA scaffolds with well-distributed polyaniline (PANI) nano-structures...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286152/a-promising-novel-formulation-for-articular-cartilage-regeneration-preclinical-evaluation-of-a-treatment-that-produces-sox9-overexpression-in-human-synovial-fluid-cells
#20
Ivan Delgado-Enciso, Juan Paz-Garcia, Alejandrina Rodriguez-Hernandez, Violeta M Madrigal-Perez, Ariana Cabrera-Licona, Alejandro Garcia-Rivera, Alejandro D Soriano-Hernandez, Jose L Cortes-Bazan, Hector R Galvan-Salazar, Jose Valtierra-Alvarez, Jose Guzman-Esquivel, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Margarita L Martinez-Fierro, Brenda Paz-Michel
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disorder of synovial joints, in which there is progressive softening and disintegration of the articular cartilage. OA is the most common form of arthritis, and is the primary cause of disability and impaired quality of life in the elderly. Despite considerable medical necessity, no treatment has yet been proven to act as a disease‑modifying agent that may halt or reverse the structural progression of OA. The replacement of the joint with a prosthesis appears to be the best option in the advanced stages of the disease...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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