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Transcription factor regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725177/characterization-of-lgr5-progenitor-cell-transcriptomes-after-neomycin-injury-in-the-neonatal-mouse-cochlea
#1
Shasha Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Pengfei Yu, Yao Hu, Han Zhou, Lingna Guo, Xiaochen Xu, Xiaocheng Zhu, Muhammad Waqas, Jieyu Qi, Xiaoli Zhang, Yan Liu, Fangyi Chen, Mingliang Tang, Xiaoyun Qian, Haibo Shi, Xia Gao, Renjie Chai
Lgr5+ supporting cells (SCs) are enriched hair cell (HC) progenitors in the cochlea. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that HC injury can spontaneously activate Lgr5+ progenitors to regenerate HCs in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Promoting HC regeneration requires the understanding of the mechanism of HC regeneration, and this requires knowledge of the key genes involved in HC injury-induced self-repair responses that promote the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitors. Here, as expected, we found that neomycin-treated Lgr5+ progenitors (NLPs) had significantly greater HC regeneration ability, and greater but not significant proliferation ability compared to untreated Lgr5+ progenitors (ULPs) in response to neomycin exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717251/transdifferentiated-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-are-a-new-potential-cell-source-for-endothelial-regeneration
#2
Xuechong Hong, Andriana Margariti, Alexandra Le Bras, Laureen Jacquet, Wei Kong, Yanhua Hu, Qingbo Xu
Endothelial dysfunction is widely implicated in cardiovascular pathological changes and development of vascular disease. In view of the fact that the spontaneous endothelial cell (EC) regeneration is a slow and insufficient process, it is of great interest to explore alternative cell sources capable of generating functional ECs. Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) composes the majority of the vascular wall and retains phenotypic plasticity in response to various stimuli. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of the conversion of SMC into functional EC through the use of reprogramming factors...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711779/hyperactive-foxo1-results-in-lack-of-tip-stalk-identity-and-deficient-microvascular-regeneration-during-kidney-injury
#3
Lan T H Dang, Takahide Aburatani, Graham A Marsh, Bryce G Johnson, Stella Alimperti, Christine J Yoon, Angela Huang, Suzanne Szak, Naoki Nakagawa, Ivan Gomez, Shuyu Ren, Sarah K Read, Chris Sparages, Alfred C Aplin, Roberto F Nicosia, Chris Chen, Giovanni Ligresti, Jeremy S Duffield
Loss of the microvascular (MV) network results in tissue ischemia, loss of tissue function, and is a hallmark of chronic diseases. The incorporation of a functional vascular network with that of the host remains a challenge to utilizing engineered tissues in clinically relevant therapies. We showed that vascular-bed-specific endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit differing angiogenic capacities, with kidney microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) being the most deficient, and sought to explore the underlying mechanism...
July 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#4
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700649/autophagy-mediates-cell-cycle-response-by-regulating-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-of-pax6-in-limbal-stem-cells-under-ultraviolet-a-stress
#5
Maria Laggner, Andreas Pollreisz, Gerald Schmidinger, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Ying-Ting Chen
Limbal stem cells (LSC) account for homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Solar ultraviolet A (UVA) is the major source causing oxidative damage in the ocular surface. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation mechanism, is essential for physiologic function and stress defense of stem cells. PAX6, a master transcription factor governing corneal homeostasis by regulating cell cycle and cell fate of LSC, responds to oxidative stress by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Impaired autophagy and deregulated PAX6 have been reported in oxidative stress-related ocular surface disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689509/formononetin-a-methoxy-isoflavone-enhances-bone-regeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-cortical-bone-defect
#6
Krishna Bhan Singh, Manisha Dixit, Kapil Dev, Rakesh Maurya, Divya Singh
The bone regeneration and healing effect of formononetin was evaluated in a cortical bone defect model that predominantly heals by intramembranous ossification. For this study, female Balb/c mice were ovariectomised (OVx) and a drill-hole injury was generated in the midfemoral bones of all animals. Treatment with formononetin commenced the day after and continued for 21 d. Parathyroid hormone (PTH1-34) was used as a reference standard. Animals were killed at days 10 and 21. Femur bones were collected at the injury site for histomorphometry studies using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and confocal microscopy...
July 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686713/transcriptome-wide-comparison-of-the-impact-of-atoh1-and-mir-183-family-on-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-multipotent-otic-progenitor-cells
#7
Michael Ebeid, Prashanth Sripal, Jason Pecka, Kirk W Beisel, Kelvin Kwan, Garrett A Soukup
Over 5% of the global population suffers from disabling hearing loss caused by multiple factors including aging, noise exposure, genetic predisposition, or use of ototoxic drugs. Sensorineural hearing loss is often caused by the loss of sensory hair cells (HCs) of the inner ear. A barrier to hearing restoration after HC loss is the limited ability of mammalian auditory HCs to spontaneously regenerate. Understanding the molecular mechanisms orchestrating HC development is expected to facilitate cell replacement therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684459/dclk1-expressing-tuft-cells-critical-modulators-of-the-intestinal-niche
#8
Moritz Middelhoff, C Benedikt Westphalen, Yoku Hayakawa, Kelley S Yan, Michael D Gershon, Timothy C Wang, Michael Quante
Dclk1-expressing tuft cells constitute a unique intestinal epithelial lineage that is distinct from enterocytes, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells. Tuft cells express taste-related receptors and distinct transcription factors, and interact closely with the enteric nervous system, suggesting a chemosensory cell lineage. In addition, recent work has shown that tuft cells interact closely with cells of the immune system, with a critical role in the cellular regulatory network governing responses to luminal parasites...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683495/osteoimmunology-influence-of-the-immune-system-on-bone-regeneration-and-consumption
#9
Andreas Limmer, Dieter C Wirtz
Background Stimulating bone regeneration is a central aim in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. Although the replacement of bone with artificial materials like cement or apatite helps to keep up bone stability, new bone often cannot be regenerated. Increasing research efforts have led to the clinical application of growth factors stimulating bone growth (e.g. bone morphogenic protein, BMP) and inhibitors preventing bone consumption (e.g. RANKL blocking antibodies). These factors mostly concentrate on stimulating osteoblast or preventing osteoclast activity...
June 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681159/selectable-marker-independent-transformation-of-recalcitrant-maize-inbred-b73-and-sorghum-p898012-mediated-by-morphogenic-regulators-baby-boom-and-wuschel2
#10
Muruganantham Mookkan, Kimberly Nelson-Vasilchik, Joel Hague, Zhanyuan J Zhang, Albert P Kausch
Discriminatory co-expression of maize BBM and WUS transcriptional factor genes promoted somatic embryogenesis and efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of recalcitrant maize inbred B73 and sorghum P898012 genotypes without use of a selectable marker gene. The use of morphogenic regulators to overcome barriers in plant transformation is a revolutionary breakthrough for basic plant science and crop applications. Current standard plant transformation systems are bottlenecks for genetic, genomic, and crop improvement studies...
July 5, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677758/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-subventricular-zone-and-dentate-gyrus-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Xin-Jie Bao, Geng-Chao Wang, Fu-Xing Zuo, Xue-Yuan Li, Jun Wu, Guo Chen, Wan-Chen Dou, Yi Guo, Qin Shen, Ren-Zhi Wang
Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ), as well as in the subgranular zone contributes to brain maintenance and regeneration. In the adult brain, dopamine (DA) can regulate the endogenous neural stem cells within these two regions, while a DA deficit may affect neurogenesis. Notably, the factors that regulate in vivo neurogenesis in these subregions have not yet been fully characterized, particularly following DA depletion. In thi study, we performed RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptomic changes in the SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG) of mice in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677757/hypertrophic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-suppressed-by-xanthotoxin-via-the-p38%C3%A2-mapk-hdac4-pathway
#12
Zhen Cao, Yun Bai, Chuan Liu, Ce Dou, Jianmei Li, Junyu Xiang, Chunrong Zhao, Zhao Xie, Qiang Xiang, Shiwu Dong
Chondrocyte hypertrophy is a physiological process in endochondral ossification. However, the hypertrophic‑like alterations of chondrocytes at the articular surface may result in osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, the generation of fibrocartilage with a decreased biological function in tissue engineered cartilage, has been attributed to chondrocyte hypertrophy. Therefore, suppressing chondrocyte hypertrophy in OA and the associated regeneration of non‑active cartilage is of primary concern. The present study examined the effects of xanthotoxin (XAT), which is classified as a furanocoumarin, on chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674804/regulation-and-or-repression-of-cholinergic-differentiation-of-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-using-rnai-directed-against-transcription-factor-l3-lhx8
#13
Takayuki Manabe, Akio Wanaka
Techniques for controlling the expression of a specific gene in embryonic stem cells are effective and important for clarifying the functions of the gene. Regarding differentiation of cells into nervous system components, these techniques would play key roles in elucidating, not only the differentiation mechanisms of neuronal and glial cells but also how neuronal phenotypes are determined. In this chapter, we describe a RNA interference method for suppressing cholinergic differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells by knockdown of expression of the transcription factor L3/Lhx8, a Lim homeobox gene family protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673818/distinct-cis-elements-in-the-3-utr-of-the-c-elegans-cebp-1-mrna-mediate-its-regulation-in-neuronal-development
#14
Panid Sharifnia, Kyung Won Kim, Zilu Wu, Yishi Jin
The 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of mRNAs mediate post-transcriptional regulation of genes in many biological processes. Cis elements in 3' UTRs can interact with RNA-binding factors in sequence-specific or structure-dependent manners, enabling regulation of mRNA stability, translation, and localization. Caenorhabditis elegans CEBP-1 is a conserved transcription factor of the C/EBP family, and functions in diverse contexts, from neuronal development and axon regeneration to organismal growth. Previous studies revealed that the levels of cebp-1 mRNA in neurons depend on its 3' UTR and are also negatively regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase RPM-1...
June 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672960/baicalin-promotes-the-viability-of-schwann-cells-in-vitro-by-regulating-neurotrophic-factors
#15
Wenpu Zuo, Huayu Wu, Kun Zhang, Peizhen Lv, Fuben Xu, Weizhe Jiang, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
The proliferation and migration of Schwann cells (SCs) are key events in the process of peripheral nerve repair. This is required to promote the growth of SCs and is a challenge during the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Baicalin is a natural herb-derived flavonoid compound, which has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects on rats with permanent brain ischemia and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells. The association of baicalin with neuroprotection leads to the suggestion that baicalin may exert effects on the growth of SCs...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670514/delayed-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-aged-nos2-knockout-mice
#16
Deming Li, Jun Li, Gaiping Wang, Yanli Qin, Zhipeng Niu, Ziwei Li, Cunshuan Xu
OBJECTIVE: Patients over 60 years of age have higher mortality and morbidity after major liver resections. Nitric oxide (NO) derived from the catalytic activity of Nos2 plays a beneficial role in liver regeneration (LR) after partial hepatectomy (PH). In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of Nos2 knockout (KO) on LR in aged mice after PH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 52 two-year-old Nos2 KO and 46 the same age wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2/3 PH...
July 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670366/inhibitory-effect-of-dihydroartemisinin-on-chondrogenic-and-hypertrophic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Zhen Cao, Chuan Liu, Yun Bai, Ce Dou, Jian-Mei Li, Duo-Wei Shi, Shi-Wu Dong, Qiang Xiang
Chondrocytes located in hyaline cartilage may maintain phenotype while the chondrocytes situated in calcified cartilage differentiate into hypertrophy. Chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two subsequent processes during endochondral ossification. However, it is necessary for chondrocytes to hold homeostasis and to inhibit hypertrophic differentiation in stem cell-based regenerated cartilage. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is derived from artemisia apiacea which has many biological functions such as anti-malarial and anti-tumor...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664762/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-age-related-macular-degeneration
#18
Peter Bracha, Nicholas A Moore, Thomas A Ciulla
In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), stem cells could possibly replace or regenerate disrupted pathologic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and produce supportive growth factors and cytokines such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor.  Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived RPE was first subretinally transplanted in a neovascular AMD patient in 2014. Areas covered: Induced PSCs are derived from the introduction of transcription factors to adult cells under specific cell culture conditions, followed by differentiation into RPE cells...
June 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660411/hif1a-overexpression-using-cell-penetrating-dna-binding-protein-induces-angiogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Mijeong Jeon, Yooseok Shin, Jaeeun Jung, Ui-Won Jung, Jae-Hoon Lee, Jae-Seung Moon, Ilkoo Kim, Jin-Su Shin, Sang-Kyou Lee, Je Seon Song
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1A) is an important transcription factor for angiogenesis. Recent studies have used the protein transduction domain (PTD) to deliver genes, but the PTD has not been used to induce the expression of HIF1A. This study aimed at using a novel PTD (Hph-1-GAL4; ARVRRRGPRR) to overexpress the HIF1A and identify the effects on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of HIF1A was induced using Hph-1-GAL4 in human umbilical vein/vascular endothelium cells (HUVEC). The expression levels of genes were analyzed by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 2 and 4 days, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659490/rhoa-inhibitor-treatment-at-acute-phase-of-spinal-cord-injury-may-induce-neurite-outgrowth-and-synaptogenesis
#20
Stephanie Devaux, Dasa Cizkova, Khalil Mallah, Melodie-Anne Karnoub, Zahra Laouby, Firas Kobeissy, Juraj Blasko, Serge Nataf, Laurent Pays, Celine Meriaux, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet
The therapeutic use of RhoA inhibitors (RhoAi) has been experimentally tested in spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in such a process, an in vitro neuroproteomic-systems biology platform was developed in which the pan-proteomic profile of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cell line ND7/23 DRG was assessed in a large array of culture conditions using RhoAi and/or conditioned media obtained from SCI ex-vivo derived spinal cord slices. A fine mapping of the spatio-temporal molecular events of the RhoAi treatment in SCI was performed...
June 28, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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