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Transcription factor regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229962/overexpression-of-hsa-mir-939-follows-by-ngfr-down-regulation-and-apoptosis-reduction
#1
Fahimeh Hosseini Aghdaei, Bahram M Soltani, Sadat Dokanehiifard, Seyed Javad Mowla, Masoud Soleimani
Neurotrophin receptors play a crucial role in neuronal survival, differentiation and regeneration. Nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) or P75(NTR) is a neurotrophin receptor that is involved in many pathological conditions including cancers. Genetic factors that are involved in regulation of neurotrophin receptors are under intense investigation. MiRNAs are novel regulators of signalling pathways that are candidates for regulation of neurotrophin receptors. Computational programs predicted that NGFR gene is a bona fide target for hsa-miR- 939...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#2
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222387/baicalein-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#3
Li-Jiao Chen, Bi-Bo Hu, Xin-Lian Shi, Man-Man Ren, Wen-Bin Yu, Sheng-Dan Cen, Rong-Dang Hu, Hui Deng
OBJECTIVE: Periodontium regeneration is one of the most important processes for periodontitis therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) play a vital role in the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues. Our study aimed to investigated the mechanisms underlying the promotion of hPLDCs osteogenic differentiation by baicalein. DESIGN: hPDLCs were obtained from periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues by primary culture. The MTT assay was used to determine the growth curves of hPDLCs treated with different concentrations of baicalein (1...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218909/a-twist2-dependent-progenitor-cell-contributes-to-adult-skeletal-muscle
#4
Ning Liu, Glynnis A Garry, Stephen Li, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Efrain Sanchez-Ortiz, Beibei Chen, John M Shelton, Priscilla Jaichander, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable regenerative potential due to satellite cells, an injury-responsive stem cell population located beneath the muscle basal lamina that expresses Pax7. By lineage tracing of progenitor cells expressing the Twist2 (Tw2) transcription factor in mice, we discovered a myogenic lineage that resides outside the basal lamina of adult skeletal muscle. Tw2(+) progenitors are molecularly and anatomically distinct from satellite cells, are highly myogenic in vitro, and can fuse with themselves and with satellite cells...
February 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216149/direct-generation-of-human-neuronal-cells-from-adult-astrocytes-by-small-molecules
#5
Longfei Gao, Wuqiang Guan, Min Wang, Huihan Wang, Jiali Yu, Qing Liu, Binlong Qiu, Yongchun Yu, Yifang Ping, Xiuwu Bian, Li Shen, Gang Pei
Astrocytes, due to the proximity to neuronal lineage and capability to proliferate, are ideal starting cells to regenerate neurons. Human fetal astrocytes have been successfully converted into neuronal cells by small molecules, which offered a broader range of further applications than transcription factor-mediated neuronal reprogramming. Here we report that human adult astrocytes could also be converted into neuronal cells by a different set of small molecules. These induced cells exhibited typical neuronal morphologies, expressed neuronal markers, and displayed neuronal electrophysiological properties...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215222/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-inflammatory-associated-bone-diseases
#6
T-H Lin, J Pajarinen, L Lu, A Nabeshima, L A Cordova, Z Yao, S B Goodman
Inflammation is a defensive mechanism for pathogen clearance and maintaining tissue homeostasis. In the skeletal system, inflammation is closely associated with many bone disorders including fractures, nonunions, periprosthetic osteolysis (bone loss around orthopedic implants), and osteoporosis. Acute inflammation is a critical step for proper bone-healing and bone-remodeling processes. On the other hand, chronic inflammation with excessive proinflammatory cytokines disrupts the balance of skeletal homeostasis involving osteoblastic (bone formation) and osteoclastic (bone resorption) activities...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213718/reprogramming-cell-fates-by-small-molecules
#7
REVIEW
Xiaojie Ma, Linghao Kong, Saiyong Zhu
Reprogramming cell fates towards pluripotent stem cells and other cell types has revolutionized our understanding of cellular plasticity. During the last decade, transcription factors and microRNAs have become powerful reprogramming factors for modulating cell fates. Recently, many efforts are focused on reprogramming cell fates by non-viral and non-integrating chemical approaches. Small molecules not only are useful in generating desired cell types in vitro for various applications, such as disease modeling and cell-based transplantation, but also hold great promise to be further developed as drugs to stimulate patients' endogenous cells to repair and regenerate in vivo...
February 17, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210955/the-effects-of-igf-1-on-tnf-%C3%AE-treated-drg-neurons-by-modulating-atf3-and-gap-43-expression-via-pi3k-akt-s6k-signaling-pathway
#8
Lei Zhang, Yaping Yue, Meishuo Ouyang, Huaxiang Liu, Zhenzhong Li
Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in the development and progression of numerous neurological disorders. Recent reports have challenged the concept that TNF-α exhibits only deleterious effects of pro-inflammatory destruction, and have raised the awareness that it may play a beneficial role in neuronal growth and function in particular conditions, which prompts us to further investigate the role of this cytokine. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a cytokine possessing powerful neuroprotective effects in promoting neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, neurite elongation, and neurite regeneration...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210626/osteogenic-differentiation-capacity-of-in-vitro-cultured-human-skeletal-muscle-for-expedited-bone-tissue-engineering
#9
Chunlei Miao, Lulu Zhou, Lufeng Tian, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Zhang, Fanghong Yang, Tianyi Liu, Shengjian Tang, Fangjun Liu
Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209718/demethylation-of-h3k27-is-essential-for-the-induction-of-direct-cardiac-reprogramming-by-mir-combo
#10
Sophie Dal-Pra, Conrad P Hodgkinson, Maria Mirotsou, Imke Kirste, Victor J Dzau
Rationale: Direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardac omyocytes has recently emerged as a novel and promising approach to regenerate the injured myocardium. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of this approach in vitro and in vivo using a combination of four microRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, miR-208 and miR-499) that we named miR combo. However, the mechanism of miR combo mediated direct cardiac reprogramming is currently unknown. Objective: Here we investigated the possibility that miR combo initiated direct cardiac reprogramming through an epigenetic mechanism...
February 16, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#11
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207787/hyaluronic-acid-synthesis-is-required-for-zebrafish-tail-fin-regeneration
#12
Xiaohu Ouyang, Nicholas J Panetta, Maya D Talbott, Alexander Y Payumo, Caroline Halluin, Michael T Longaker, James K Chen
Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and whole-mount expression analyses of zebrafish larvae, we have identified hyaluronan synthase 3 (has3) as an upregulated gene during caudal fin regeneration. has3 expression is induced in the wound epithelium within hours after tail amputation, and its onset and maintenance requires fibroblast growth factor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and transforming growth factor-ß signaling. Inhibition of hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis by the small molecule 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) impairs tail regeneration in zebrafish larvae by preventing injury-induced cell proliferation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205638/effects-of-mir-146a-on-the-osteogenesis-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-bone-regeneration
#13
Qing Xie, Wei Wei, Jing Ruan, Yi Ding, Ai Zhuang, Xiaoping Bi, Hao Sun, Ping Gu, Zi Wang, Xianqun Fan
Increasing evidence has indicated that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) coordinates with microRNAs (miRNAs) to form intracellular networks regulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) osteogenesis. This study aimed to identify specific miRNAs in rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) during BMP2-induced osteogenesis, we selected the most significantly down-regulated miRNA, miR-146a, to systematically investigate its role in regulating osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Overexpressing miR-146a notably repressed ADSC osteogenesis, whereas knocking down miR-146a greatly promoted this process...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204808/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-capacity-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-human-bone-marrow-and-umbilical-cord
#14
Kulisara Marupanthorn, Chairat Tantrawatpan, Pakpoom Kheolamai, Duangrat Tantikanlayaporn, Sirikul Manochantr
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can give rise to different cell types of the mesodermal lineages. They are powerful sources for cell therapy in regenerative medicine as they can be isolated from various tissues, and can be expanded and induced to differentiate into multiple lineages. Recently, the umbilical cord has been suggested as an alternative source of MSCs. Although MSCs derived from the umbilical cord can be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts with a phenotypic similarity to that of bone marrow-derived MSCs, the differentiation ability is not consistent...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202394/platelet-rich-plasma-prp-induces-chondroprotection-via-increasing-autophagy-anti-inflammatory-markers-and-decreasing-apoptosis-in-human-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#15
Mayssam Moussa, Daniel Lajeunesse, George Hilal, Oula El Atat, Gaby Haykal, Rim Serhal, Antonio Chalhoub, Charbel Khalil, Nada Alaaeddine
OBJECTIVES: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#16
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197914/sumoylation-in-development-and-differentiation
#17
Adeline F Deyrieux, Van G Wilson
Tissue morphogenesis is a fascinating aspect of both developmental biology and regeneration of certain adult organs, and timely control of cellular differentiation is a key to these processes. During development, events interrupting cellular differentiation and leading to organ failure are embryonic lethal; likewise, perturbation of differentiation in regenerating tissues leads to dysfunction and disease. At the molecular level, cellular differentiation is orchestrated by a well-coordinated cascade of transcription factors (TFs) and chromatin remodeling complexes that drive gene expression...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197667/discovery-and-progress-of-direct-cardiac-reprogramming
#18
REVIEW
Hidenori Kojima, Masaki Ieda
Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs)...
February 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197156/fine-mapping-of-carbon-assimilation-rate-8-a-quantitative-trait-locus-for-flag-leaf-nitrogen-content-stomatal-conductance-and-photosynthesis-in-rice
#19
Shunsuke Adachi, Kazuaki Yoshikawa, Utako Yamanouchi, Takanari Tanabata, Jian Sun, Taiichiro Ookawa, Toshio Yamamoto, Rowan F Sage, Tadashi Hirasawa, Junichi Yonemaru
Increasing the rate of leaf photosynthesis is one important approach for increasing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). Exploiting the natural variation in CO2 assimilation rate (A) between rice cultivars using quantitative genetics is one promising means to identify genes contributing to higher photosynthesis. In this study, we determined precise location of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8 (CAR8) by crossing a high-yielding indica cultivar with a Japanese commercial cultivar. Fine mapping suggested that CAR8 encodes a putative Heme Activator Protein 3 (OsHAP3) subunit of a CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor called OsHAP3H...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195307/effect-of-obeticholic-acid-on-liver-regeneration-following-portal-vein-embolization-in-an-experimental-model
#20
P B Olthof, F Huisman, F G Schaap, K P van Lienden, R J Bennink, R F van Golen, M Heger, J Verheij, P L Jansen, S W Olde Damink, T M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: The bile salt-activated transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key mediator of proliferative bile salt signalling, which is assumed to play a role in the early phase of compensatory liver growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a potent FXR agonist (obeticholic acid, OCA) on liver growth following portal vein embolization (PVE). METHODS: Rabbits were allocated to receive daily oral gavage with OCA (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (control group) starting 7 days before PVE (n = 18 per group), and continued until 7 days after PVE...
February 13, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
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