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Transcription factor regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150917/regulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily
#1
Jelena Krstic, Drenka Trivanovic, Hristina Obradovic, Tamara Kukolj, Diana Bugarski, Juan F Santibanez
The ability to differentiate into cells of different lineage, such as muscle, bone, cartilage and fat, is the chief value of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can be used with the final aim to regenerate damaged tissue. Due to potential use, as well as importance in tissue development, a number of questions have been raised regarding the molecular mechanisms of MSC differentiation. As one of the crucial mediators in organism development, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily directs MSCs commitment in the selection of differentiation pathways...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138868/hdac-inhibitor-lmk%C3%A2-235-promotes-the-odontoblast-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-cells
#2
Zhao Liu, Ting Chen, Qianqian Han, Ming Chen, Jie You, Fuchun Fang, Ling Peng, Buling Wu
The role of dental pulp cells (DPCs) in hard dental tissue regeneration had received increasing attention because DPCs can differentiate into odontoblasts and other tissue‑specific cells. In recent years, epigenetic modifications had been identified to serve an important role in cell differentiation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been widely studied by many researchers. However, the effects of HDAC4 and HDAC5 on the differentiation of DPCs and the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138823/mechanical-strain-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-ovariectomized-rats-via-the-phosphoinositide-3%C3%A2-kinase-akt-signaling-pathway
#3
Ningjuan Ouyang, Peng Zhang, Runqing Fu, Guofang Shen, Lingyong Jiang, Bing Fang
Osteoporosis has become an overwhelming public health problem worldwide. As an elementary physiological factor to regulate bone formation and regeneration, mechanical strain may be used as a non‑invasive intervention in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of continuous mechanical strain (CMS) on osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from ovariectomized rats (OVX BMSCs)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127046/function-of-the-myogenic-regulatory-factors-myf5-myod-myogenin-and-mrf4-in-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-and-regenerative-myogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Peter S Zammit
Discovery of the myogenic regulatory factor family of transcription factors MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 was a seminal step in understanding specification of the skeletal myogenic lineage and control of muscle differentiation during development. These factors are also involved in specification of the muscle satellite cell lineage, which becomes the resident stem cell compartment in adult skeletal muscle. While MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 have subtle roles in mature muscle, they again play a crucial role in directing satellite cell function to regenerate skeletal muscle: linking the genetic control of developmental and regenerative myogenesis...
November 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127045/the-myogenic-regulatory-factors-determinants-of-muscle-development-cell-identity-and-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
J Manuel Hernández-Hernández, Estela G García-González, Caroline E Brun, Michael A Rudnicki
The Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs) Myf5, MyoD, myogenin and MRF4 are members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors that control the determination and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells during embryogenesis and postnatal myogenesis. The dynamics of their temporal and spatial expression as well as their biochemical properties have allowed the identification of a precise and hierarchical relationship between the four MRFs. This relationship establishes the myogenic lineage as well as the maintenance of the terminal myogenic phenotype...
November 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126771/bmp-2-plasmid-dna-loaded-chitosan-films-a-new-strategy-for-bone-engineering
#6
Juan Li, Jun Lin, Wenke Yu, Xiaojia Song, Qiaoling Hu, Jing-Hong Xu, Huiming Wang, Christian Mehl
OBJECTIVES: Bone defects are common in every area of medicine and remain a clinical challenge. Tissue engineering has led to promising new strategies in accelerating bone repair. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play crucial roles in bone regeneration, but are required in supra-physiological doses, which are expensive and produce severe side effects. METHODS: To address these issues, we prepared BMP-2 plasmid DNA-loaded chitosan films, and examined their effects on mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell morphology, proliferation, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121865/temporally-distinct-transcriptional-regulation-of-myocyte-dedifferentiation-and-myofiber-growth-during-muscle-regeneration
#7
Ke'ale W Louie, Alfonso Saera-Vila, Phillip E Kish, Justin A Colacino, Alon Kahana
BACKGROUND: Tissue regeneration requires a series of steps, beginning with generation of the necessary cell mass, followed by cell migration into damaged area, and ending with differentiation and integration with surrounding tissues. Temporal regulation of these steps lies at the heart of the regenerative process, yet its basis is not well understood. The ability of zebrafish to dedifferentiate mature "post-mitotic" myocytes into proliferating myoblasts that in turn regenerate lost muscle tissue provides an opportunity to probe the molecular mechanisms of regeneration...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121271/genome-wide-identification-of-arabidopsis-lbd29-target-genes-reveals-the-molecular-events-behind-auxin-induced-cell-reprograming-during-callus-formation
#8
Chongyi Xu, Huifen Cao, Enjun Xu, Shiqi Zhang, Yuxin Hu
Auxin-induced callus formation represents an important cell reprograming process during in vitro regeneration of plants, in which the pericycle or pericycle-like cells within plant organs are reprogramed into the pluripotent cell mass termed callus that is generally required for subsequent regeneration of root or shoot. However, the molecular events behind cell reprograming during auxin-induced callus formation are largely elusive. We previously identified that auxin-induced LBD transcription factors act as the master regulators to trigger auxin-induced callus formation...
November 7, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119879/magnesium-and-zinc-borate-enhance-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-in-vitro
#9
Yao-Jen Liu, Wen-Ta Su, Po-Hung Chen
Various biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds blended with biochemical signal molecules with adequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties have attracted significant interest in hard tissue engineering regeneration. We evaluated the distinct effects of magnesium borate, zinc borate, and boric acid blended into chitosan scaffold for osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth cells are a potential source of functional osteoblasts for applications in bone tissue engineering, but the efficiency of osteoblastic differentiation is low, thereby significantly limiting their clinical applications...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115531/liver-dual-arterial-blood-supply-maintains-liver-regeneration-analysis-of-signaling-pathways-in-rats
#10
Jian-Liang Qiao, Juan Sun, Jun Li, Jun-Jing Zhang, Xing-Kai Meng
Liver dual arterial blood supply (LDABS) could increase blood supply to the liver and maintain normal liver regeneration in patients with compromised portal vein. The current study attempted to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats randomly received partial hepatectomy (PH) alone or PH followed by LDABS. Liver regeneration was assessed by histological examination, liver function and liver regeneration rate (LRR). Whole‑genome oligo microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression profile between rats receiving PH and rats receiving PH plus LDABS...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113774/restricted-presence-of-pou6f2-in-human-corneal-endothelial-cells-uncovered-by-extension-of-the-promoter-level-expression-atlas
#11
Masahito Yoshihara, Susumu Hara, Motokazu Tsujikawa, Satoshi Kawasaki, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Masayoshi Itoh, Hideya Kawaji, Kohji Nishida
Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are essential for maintaining the clarity of the cornea. Because CECs have limited proliferative ability, interest is growing in their potentially therapeutic regeneration from pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of human CEC differentiation remain largely unknown. To determine the key regulators of CEC characteristics, here we generated a comprehensive promoter-level expression profile of human CECs, using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) with a single molecule sequencer...
November 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113341/knockout-of-toll-like-receptor-impairs-nerve-regeneration-after-a-crush-injury
#12
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Pao-Jen Kuo, Shu-Hsuan Liu, Chia-Jung Wu, Tsu-Hsiang Lu, Yi-Chan Wu, Chia-Wei Lin
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the initiation of Schwann cell activation and subsequent recruitment of macrophages for clearance of degenerated myelin and neuronal debris after nerve injury. The present study was designed to investigate the regenerative outcome and expression of myelination-related factors in Tlr-knockout mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Materials and methods: A standard sciatic nerve crush injury, induced by applying constant pressure to the nerve with a No...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109687/low-intensity-ultrasound-induced-anti-inflammatory-effects-are-mediated-by-several-new-mechanisms-including-gene-induction-immunosuppressor-cell-promotion-and-enhancement-of-exosome-biogenesis-and-docking
#13
Qian Yang, Gayani K Nanayakkara, Charles Drummer, Yu Sun, Candice Johnson, Ramon Cueto, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Peng Tang, Li-Wen Liu, Shuping Ge, Xiao-Dong Zhou, Mohsin Khan, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders. Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS. Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1) LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2) LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells), MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells); (3) LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4) LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5) Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6) LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109239/graded-elevation-of-c-jun-in-schwann-cells-in-vivo-gene-dosage-determines-effects-on-development-re-myelination-tumorigenesis-and-hypomyelination
#14
Shaline V Fazal, Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Laura J Wagstaff, Nicolo Musner, Georg Otto, Martin Janz, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
Schwann cell c-Jun is implicated in adaptive and maladaptive functions in peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, this transcription factor promotes the repair Schwann cell phenotype and regeneration, and it promotes Schwann cell mediated neurotrophic support in models of peripheral neuropathies. However, c-Jun is associated with tumour formation in some systems, it potentially supresses myelin genes, and has been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies. To clarify these issues, and determine how c-Jun levels determine its function, we have generated, c-Jun OE/+ and c-Jun OE/OE mice, with graded expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells, and examined these lines during development, in adulthood and after injury using RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative electron microscopic morphometry, Western blotting and functional tests...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108672/foxa-transcription-factor-fork-head-maintains-the-intestinal-stem-progenitor-cell-identities-in-drosophila
#15
Qing Lan, Min Cao, Rahul K Kollipara, Jeffrey B Rosa, Ralf Kittler, Huaqi Jiang
Understanding how somatic stem cells respond to tissue needs is important, since aberrant somatic stem cell behaviors may lead to tissue degeneration or tumorigenesis. Here, from an in vivo RNAi screen targeting transcription factors that regulate intestinal regeneration, we uncovered a requirement for the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor Fork head (Fkh) in the maintenance of intestinal stem/progenitor cell identities. FoxA/Fkh maintains the expressions of stem/progenitor cell markers and is required for stem cell proliferation during intestinal homeostasis and regeneration...
September 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108021/hippo-tgf-%C3%AE-and-src-mapk-pathways-regulate-transcription-of-the-upd3-cytokine-in-drosophila-enterocytes-upon-bacterial-infection
#16
Philip Houtz, Alessandro Bonfini, Xi Liu, Jonathan Revah, Aurélien Guillou, Mickael Poidevin, Korneel Hens, Hsin-Yi Huang, Bart Deplancke, Yu-Chen Tsai, Nicolas Buchon
Cytokine signaling is responsible for coordinating conserved epithelial regeneration and immune responses in the digestive tract. In the Drosophila midgut, Upd3 is a major cytokine, which is induced in enterocytes (EC) and enteroblasts (EB) upon oral infection, and initiates intestinal stem cell (ISC) dependent tissue repair. To date, the genetic network directing upd3 transcription remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have identified the key infection-responsive enhancers of the upd3 gene and show that distinct enhancers respond to various stresses...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106981/zinc-chelation-and-klf9-knockdown-cooperatively-promote-axon-regeneration-after-optic-nerve-injury
#17
Ephraim F Trakhtenberg, Yiqing Li, Qian Feng, Janice Tso, Paul A Rosenberg, Jeffrey L Goldberg, Larry I Benowitz
The inability of axons to regenerate over long-distances in the central nervous system (CNS) limits the recovery of sensory, motor, and cognitive functions after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although pre-clinical studies have identified a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon growth after CNS damage, the extent of recovery remains quite limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Here, we used traumatic injury to the mouse optic nerve as a model system to test the effects of combining several treatments that have recently been found to promote axon regeneration without the risks associated with manipulating known tumor suppressors or oncogenes...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106055/lnc-ntf3-5-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-maxillary-sinus-membrane-stem-cells-via-sponging-mir-93-3p
#18
Wei Peng, Shuang-Xi Zhu, Jin Wang, Li-Li Chen, Jun-Quan Weng, Song-Ling Chen
BACKGROUND: The function and the mechanism of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on the osteogenic differentiation of maxillary sinus membrane stem cells (MSMSCs) remain largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of lnc-NTF3-5 and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Osterix (OSX), and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in MSMSCs during the process osteogenic differentiation. Then the function of lnc-NTF3-5 was evaluated by loss- and gain-of-function techniques, as well as qRT-PCR, western blot, and Alizarin Red staining...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106040/the-effect-of-temporal-manipulation-of-tgf%C3%AE-3-and-fgf2-on-the-derivation-of-proliferative-chondrocytes-from-mensenchymal-stem-cells-a-study-monitored-by-qrt-pcr-and-molecular-beacon-based-nanosensors
#19
Li Min Tay, Christian Wiraja, Yingnan Wu, Zheng Yang, Eng Hin Lee, Chenjie Xu
Proliferative chondrocytes are critical to realize regeneration of damaged epiphyseal growth plate. However, acquiring autologous replacement cells involves highly-invasive procedures and often results in limited cell quantity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a potential source of chondrogenic cells for the treatment of cartilage disorders and injuries. The temporal effect of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on the derivation of proliferative chondrocytes from MSCs in 3D agarose was investigated by manipulating the duration of TGFβ3 and FGF2 treatment...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102719/micrornas-in-skeletal-muscle-development
#20
REVIEW
Gi Fay Mok, Estefania Lozano-Velasco, Andrea Münsterberg
A fundamental process during both embryo development and stem cell differentiation is the control of cell lineage determination. In developing skeletal muscle, many of the diffusible signaling molecules, transcription factors and more recently non-coding RNAs that contribute to this process have been identified. This has facilitated advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the control of cell fate choice. Here we will review the role of non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), in embryonic muscle development and differentiation, and in satellite cells of adult muscle, which are essential for muscle growth and regeneration...
November 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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