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Transcription factor regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641110/sox11-expression-promotes-regeneration-of-some-retinal-ganglion-cell-types-but-kills-others
#1
Michael W Norsworthy, Fengfeng Bei, Riki Kawaguchi, Qing Wang, Nicholas M Tran, Yi Li, Benedikt Brommer, Yiming Zhang, Chen Wang, Joshua R Sanes, Giovanni Coppola, Zhigang He
At least 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send distinct messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Available strategies of promoting axon regeneration act on only some of these types. Here we tested the hypothesis that overexpressing developmentally important transcription factors in adult RGCs could reprogram them to a "youthful" growth-competent state and promote regeneration of other types. From a screen of transcription factors, we identified Sox11 as one that could induce substantial axon regeneration...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641102/live-or-die-depends-on-who-you-are
#2
Takaaki Kuwajima, Carol Mason
In this issue of Neuron, Welsbie et al. (2017) and Norsworthy et al. (2017) implicate the transcription factor Sox11 as a key player after optic nerve injury-in DLK signaling of RGC cell death, and in RGC regeneration and survival but only in certain RGCs.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629517/erythropoietin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-insects-suggests-a-prevertebrate-evolution-of-erythropoietin-like-signaling
#3
Ralf Heinrich, Verena Günther, Natasa Miljus
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the "classical" homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage. Studies on insects (Locusta migratoria, Chorthippus biguttulus, Tribolium castaneum) revealed Epo-mediated neuroprotection and neuroregeneration...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624869/incorporation-of-cerium-oxide-into-hydroxyapatite-coating-protects-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-against-h2o2-induced-inhibition-of-osteogenic-differentiation
#4
Kai Li, Qingyi Shen, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Oxidative stress exerts a key influence in osteoporosis in part by inhibiting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). With their unique antioxidant properties and reported biocompatibility, cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics exhibit promising potential for the treatment of osteoporosis resulting from oxidative stress. In this study, protective effects of CeO2-incorporated hydroxyapatite coatings (HA-10Ce and HA-30Ce) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of H2O2-treated BMSCs were examined...
June 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624210/low-dose-gene-therapy-for-murine-pku-using-episomal-naked-dna-vectors-expressing-pah-from-its-endogenous-liver-promoter
#5
Hiu Man Grisch-Chan, Andrea Schlegel, Tanja Scherer, Gabriella Allegri, Raphael Heidelberger, Panagiota Tsikrika, Marco Schmeer, Martin Schleef, Cary O Harding, Johannes Häberle, Beat Thöny
Limited duration of transgene expression, insertional mutagenesis, and size limitations for transgene cassettes pose challenges and risk factors for many gene therapy vectors. Here, we report on physiological expression of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) by delivery of naked DNA/minicircle (MC)-based vectors for correction of homozygous enu2 mice, a model of human phenylketonuria (PKU). Because MC vectors lack a defined size limit, we constructed a MC vector expressing a codon-optimized murine Pah cDNA that includes a truncated intron and is under the transcriptional control of a 3...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623968/oxygen-and-tissue-culture-affect-placental-gene-expression
#6
O Brew, M H F Sullivan
INTRODUCTION: Placental explant culture is an important model for studying placental development and functions. We investigated the differences in placental gene expression in response to tissue culture, atmospheric and physiologic oxygen concentrations. METHODS: Placental explants were collected from normal term (38-39 weeks of gestation) placentae with no previous uterine contractile activity. Placental transcriptomic expressions were evaluated with GeneChip(®) Human Genome U133 Plus 2...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616023/genetically-modifying-transcription-factors-to-promote-cns-axon-regeneration
#7
Saloni T Mehta, John L Bixby, Vance P Lemmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612715/-ppar%C3%AE-transcription-factor-controls-in%C3%A2-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-the-expression-of-gdf3-that-stimulates-myogenic-cell-fusion-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#8
Rémi Mounier, Bénédicte Chazaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608628/the-role-of-microrna-143-5p-in-the-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-odontoblasts-by-targeting-runx2-via-the-opg-rankl-signaling-pathway
#9
Fu-Liang Zhan, Xin-Yang Liu, Xing-Bo Wang
This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which microRNA-143-5p (miR-143-5p) targets runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) into odontoblasts, through regulating the osteoprotegerin receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (OPG/RANKL) signaling pathway. Following transfection, DPSCs were divided into blank, control, miR-143-5p mimics, miR-143-5p inhibitors, miR-143-5p inhibitors + siRunx2 and siRunx2 groups. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodules were detected using ALP kit and alizarin red staining...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607151/the-transcriptional-co-repressor-tle3-regulates-myogenic-differentiation-by-repressing-the-activity-of-the-myod-transcription-factor
#10
Shoichiro Kokabu, Chihiro Nakatomi, Takuma Matsubara, Yusuke Ono, William N Addison, Jonathan W Lowery, Mariko Urata, Aaron M Hudnall, Suzuro Hitomi, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Tsuyoshi Sato, Kenji Osawa, Tetsuya Yoda, Vicki Rosen, Eijiro Jimi
Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells that provide myonuclei for postnatal muscle growth, maintenance, and repair/regeneration in adults. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent, but they are activated in response to muscle injury, in which case they proliferate extensively and exhibit upregulated expression of the transcription factor MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis. MyoD forms a heterodimer with E proteins through their basic helix-loophelix (bHLH) domain, binds to E boxes in the genome, and thereby activates transcription at muscle-specific promoters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607093/prostaglandin-e2-is-essential-for-efficacious-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell-function-augmenting-regeneration-and-strength
#11
Andrew T V Ho, Adelaida R Palla, Matthew R Blake, Nora D Yucel, Yu Xin Wang, Klas E G Magnusson, Colin A Holbrook, Peggy E Kraft, Scott L Delp, Helen M Blau
Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606930/foxn1-transcription-factor-in-epithelial-growth-and-wound-healing
#12
Anna I Grabowska, Tomasz Wilanowski
FOXN1 is a pro-differentiation transcription factor in the skin epithelium. Recently it has also emerged as an important player in controlling skin wound healing process as it actively participates in reepithelialization and is thought to be responsible for the scar formation. FOXN1-positivity is also a feature of pigmented keratinocytes, including nevi, and FOXN1 is an attribute of benign epithelial tumors. Lack of FOXN1 favors skin regeneration process which is displayed by nude mice pointing to FOXN1 as a "switch" between regeneration vs...
June 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606672/three-dimensional-sphere-forming-cells-are-unique-multipotent-cell-population-in-dental-pulp-cells
#13
Sung Hee Lee, Andrew Inaba, Neha Mohindroo, Deepika Ganesh, Charlotte Ellen Martin, Nadia Chugal, Reuben H Kim, Mo K Kang, No-Hee Park, Ki-Hyuk Shin
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are typically cultured as adherent monolayer using a conventional tissue culture technique. However, this technique incompletely reproduces an in vivo microenvironment of stem cells and results in the loss of stemness properties. Three-dimensional (3D) sphere culture is one of the most widely used 3D culture techniques that have been developed to recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment. However, the stemness and multilineage differentiation capacity of spheres derived from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have not been well investigated...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605223/homeobox-c10-inhibits-the-osteogenic-differentiation-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Guoqing Li, Nannan Han, Haoqing Yang, Liping Wang, Xiao Lin, Shu Diao, Juan Du, Rui Dong, Songlin Wang, Zhipeng Fan
PURPOSE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable cell source for tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the directed differentiation of MSCs remain unclear which impedes potential clinical applications. Recent studies have discovered that HOX genes are involved in the differentiation regulation of MSCs and bone formation. In this study, we investigate the HOXC10 function in the osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were used in this study...
June 12, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602824/distribution-of-bdnf-and-trkb-isoforms-in-growing-antler-tissues-of-red-deer
#15
M Colitti
Antlers are the cranial appendages of deer that regenerate each year. This renewal provides a model to explore molecules involved in mammalian organ regeneration. The cellular distributions of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the isoforms of its cognate receptor Trk tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) were localized by immunohistochemistry in sections of growing red deer antler. BDNF and TrkB full length were widely expressed in the integument, perichondrium, periosteum and bone. The truncated isoform receptor was particularly evidenced in integument and vascular inner dermis, but very light reaction was observed in cartilage and bone, both at the site of endochondral and intramembranous ossification...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599486/knockout-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-10-suppresses-hepatic-cell-proliferation-in-a-partially-hepatectomized-mouse-model
#16
Seung-Ho Heo, Eui-Suk Jeong, Kyoung-Sun Lee, Jin-Hee Seo, Woon-Kyu Lee, Yang-Kyu Choi
The liver has marked regenerative capabilities, and numerous signaling pathways are involved in liver regeneration. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad pathway, which is also involved in liver regeneration, regulates numerous biological processes. Krüppel-like factor 10 (KLF10) has been reported to activate the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway; however, the exact functions of KLF10 under various pathophysiological conditions remain unclear. In the present study, the role of KLF10 in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) was investigated using KLF10-knockout (KO) mice...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595999/p63-transcription-factor-regulates-nuclear-shape-and-expression-of-nuclear-envelope-associated-genes-in-epidermal-keratinocytes
#17
Valentina Rapisarda, Igor Malashchuk, Inemo E Asamaowei, Krzysztof Poterlowicz, Michael Y Fessing, Andrey A Sharov, Iakowos Karakesisoglou, Vladimir A Botchkarev, Andrei Mardaryev
The maintenance of a proper nuclear architecture and 3D organization of the genes, enhancer elements and transcription machinery plays an essential role in tissue development and regeneration. Here we show that in the developing skin, epidermal progenitor cells of mice lacking p63 transcription factor display alterations in the nuclear shape accompanied by marked decrease in expression of several nuclear envelop-associated components (Lamin B1, Lamin A/C, SUN1, Nesprin-3, Plectin) compared to controls. Furthermore, ChIP-qPCR assay showed enrichment of p63 on Sun1, Syne3 and Plec promoters, suggesting them as p63 targets...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589555/common-and-distinctive-functions-of-the-hippo-effectors-taz-and-yap-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell-function
#18
Congshan Sun, Vanessa De Mello, Abdalla Mohamed, Huascar P Ortuste Quiroga, Amaya Garcia-Munoz, Abdullah Al Bloshi, Annie M Tremblay, Alexander von Kriegsheim, Elaina Collie-Duguid, Neil Vargesson, David Matallanas, Henning Wackerhage, Peter S Zammit
Hippo pathway downstream effectors Yap and Taz play key roles in cell proliferation and regeneration, regulating gene expression especially via Tead transcription factors. To investigate their role in skeletal muscle stem cells, we analysed Taz in vivo and ex vivo in comparison to Yap. siRNA knockdown or retroviral-mediated expression of wildtype human or constitutively active TAZ mutants in satellite cells showed that TAZ promoted proliferation, a function shared with YAP. However, at later stages of myogenesis, TAZ also enhanced myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, whereas YAP inhibits such differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588551/functional-thyroid-follicular-cells-differentiation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-suspension-culture
#19
Ayumi Arauchi, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Tatsuya Shimizu, Teruo Okano
The replacement of regenerated thyroid follicular cells (TFCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with hypothyroidism. Here, we have succeeded in inducing functional TFCs from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in scalable suspension culture. Differentiation of iPSCs with Activin A treatment produced Sox17- and FoxA2-expressing definitive endodermal cells that also expressed thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1. Further treatment with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) induced TFCs expressing various types of thyroid proteins including TSH receptor, sodium-iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580283/foxa2-and-pdx1-cooperatively-regulate-postnatal-maturation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#20
Aimée Bastidas-Ponce, Sara S Roscioni, Ingo Burtscher, Erik Bader, Michael Sterr, Mostafa Bakhti, Heiko Lickert
OBJECTIVE: The transcription factors (TF) Foxa2 and Pdx1 are key regulators of beta-cell (β-cell) development and function. Mutations of these TFs or their respective cis-regulatory consensus binding sites have been linked to maturity diabetes of the young (MODY), pancreas agenesis, or diabetes susceptibility in human. Although Foxa2 has been shown to directly regulate Pdx1 expression during mouse embryonic development, the impact of this gene regulatory interaction on postnatal β-cell maturation remains obscure...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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