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Transcription factor tissue engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781077/embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-to-functional-arterial-endothelial-cells-through-sequential-activation-of-etv2-and-notch1-signaling-by-hif1%C3%AE
#1
Kit Man Tsang, James S Hyun, Kwong Tai Cheng, Micaela Vargas, Dolly Mehta, Masuko Ushio-Fukai, Li Zou, Kostandin V Pajcini, Jalees Rehman, Asrar B Malik
The generation of functional arterial endothelial cells (aECs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) holds great promise for vascular tissue engineering. However, the mechanisms underlying their generation and the potential of aECs in revascularizing ischemic tissue are not fully understood. Here, we observed that hypoxia exposure of mouse ESCs induced an initial phase of HIF1α-mediated upregulation of the transcription factor Etv2, which in turn induced the commitment to the EC fate. However, sustained activation of HIF1α in these EC progenitors thereafter induced NOTCH1 signaling that promoted the transition to aEC fate...
July 24, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776092/hepatocytic-differentiation-of-ips-cells-on-decellularized-liver-tissue
#2
Mitsuhi Hirata, Tetsuji Yamaoka
Decellularized tissues (DETs) have been attracting great attention as scaffolds for tissue-engineering approaches. Recently, some studies have reported that decellularized liver tissues (DLT) can provide an excellent environment for the hepatocytic differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells that were already committed to the hepatocyte lineage. However, the effects of DLT on the hepatocytic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) have not yet been established. Here we studied the hepatocytic differentiation of iPSs on DLT and decellularized heart tissues (DHT) in order to determine the tissue-specific effects of DETs on iPSs differentiation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714175/schwann-cells-secrete-extracellular-vesicles-to-promote-and-maintain-the-proliferation-and-multipotency-of-hdpcs
#3
Ziyue Li, Yan Liang, Kuangwu Pan, Hui Li, Mei Yu, Weihua Guo, Guoqing Chen, Weidong Tian
OBJECTIVES: Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glial cells in peripheral nerve system, involved in neuropathies with great regenerative potential. Dental pulp cells have been reported to maintain neurogenic potential. In contrast, the regulatory role of SCs on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) development remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SC secretion and SC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) were collected and used to treat hDPCs; and proliferation and multiple differentiation of hDPCs were detected after EVs treatments...
August 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711779/hyperactive-foxo1-results-in-lack-of-tip-stalk-identity-and-deficient-microvascular-regeneration-during-kidney-injury
#4
Lan T H Dang, Takahide Aburatani, Graham A Marsh, Bryce G Johnson, Stella Alimperti, Christine J Yoon, Angela Huang, Suzanne Szak, Naoki Nakagawa, Ivan Gomez, Shuyu Ren, Sarah K Read, Chris Sparages, Alfred C Aplin, Roberto F Nicosia, Chris Chen, Giovanni Ligresti, Jeremy S Duffield
Loss of the microvascular (MV) network results in tissue ischemia, loss of tissue function, and is a hallmark of chronic diseases. The incorporation of a functional vascular network with that of the host remains a challenge to utilizing engineered tissues in clinically relevant therapies. We showed that vascular-bed-specific endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit differing angiogenic capacities, with kidney microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) being the most deficient, and sought to explore the underlying mechanism...
July 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705193/spatial-regulation-of-monolignol-biosynthesis-and-laccase-genes-control-developmental-and-stress-related-lignin-in-flax
#5
Julien Le Roy, Anne-Sophie Blervacq, Anne Créach, Brigitte Huss, Simon Hawkins, Godfrey Neutelings
BACKGROUND: Bast fibres are characterized by very thick secondary cell walls containing high amounts of cellulose and low lignin contents in contrast to the heavily lignified cell walls typically found in the xylem tissues. To improve the quality of the fiber-based products in the future, a thorough understanding of the main cell wall polymer biosynthetic pathways is required. In this study we have carried out a characterization of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in flax along with some of their regulation mechanisms...
July 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699694/the-epigenomics-of-schizophrenia-in-the-mouse
#6
REVIEW
Behnam Javidfar, Royce Park, Bibi S Kassim, Lucy K Bicks, Schahram Akbarian
Large-scale consortia including the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, the Common Minds Consortium, BrainSeq and PsychENCODE, and many other studies taken together provide increasingly detailed insights into the genetic and epigenetic risk architectures of schizophrenia (SCZ) and offer vast amounts of molecular information, but with largely unexplored therapeutic potential. Here we discuss how epigenomic studies in human brain could guide animal work to test the impact of disease-associated alterations in chromatin structure and function on cognition and behavior...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690010/tailoring-surface-nanoroughness-of-electrospun-scaffolds-for-skeletal-tissue-engineering
#7
Honglin Chen, Xiaobin Huang, Minmin Zhang, Febriyani Damanik, Matthew B Baker, Anne Leferink, Huipin Yuan, Roman Truckenmüller, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Lorenzo Moroni
Electrospun scaffolds provide a promising approach for tissue engineering as they mimic the physical properties of extracellular matrix. Previous studies have demonstrated that electrospun scaffolds with porous features on the surface of single fibers, enhanced cellular attachment and proliferation. Yet, little is known about the effect of such topographical cues on cellular differentiation. Here, we aimed at investigating the influence of surface roughness of electrospun scaffolds on skeletal differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs)...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687929/periostin-promotes-ectopic-osteogenesis-of-ctla4-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Fei Zhang, Zhigang Rong, Zhengdong Wang, Zehua Zhang, Dong Sun, Shiwu Dong, Jianzhong Xu, Fei Dai
The improved ectopic osteogenesis of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-Ig-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs-CTLA4) has been demonstrated but the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has recently been reported to play a vital role in bone formation and periostin (POSTN) has been suggested as a key member in constructing the ECM in bone tissue. We found that POSTN expression in the MSCs-CTLA4 group is significantly enhanced compared with that in the MSCs group, not only in tissue-engineered bone (TEB) with femur heterotopic transplantation in vivo but also under the immune activation condition in vitro...
July 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686585/constructing-cellular-niche-properties-by-localized-presentation-of-wnt-proteins-on-synthetic-surfaces
#9
Molly Lowndes, Sergi Junyent, Shukry J Habib
Wnt signaling is crucial during embryonic development and for the maintenance of adult tissues. Depending on the tissue type, the Wnt pathway can promote stem cell self-renewal and/or direct lineage commitment. Wnt proteins are subject to lipid modification, often restricting them to act in a localized manner on responsive cells. Most methods for inducing Wnt signaling in stem cell cultures do not control the spatial presentation of the protein. To recreate the local presentation of Wnt proteins often seen in vivo, we previously developed a method to immobilize the protein onto synthetic surfaces...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677757/hypertrophic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-suppressed-by-xanthotoxin-via-the-p38%C3%A2-mapk-hdac4-pathway
#10
Zhen Cao, Yun Bai, Chuan Liu, Ce Dou, Jianmei Li, Junyu Xiang, Chunrong Zhao, Zhao Xie, Qiang Xiang, Shiwu Dong
Chondrocyte hypertrophy is a physiological process in endochondral ossification. However, the hypertrophic‑like alterations of chondrocytes at the articular surface may result in osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, the generation of fibrocartilage with a decreased biological function in tissue engineered cartilage, has been attributed to chondrocyte hypertrophy. Therefore, suppressing chondrocyte hypertrophy in OA and the associated regeneration of non‑active cartilage is of primary concern. The present study examined the effects of xanthotoxin (XAT), which is classified as a furanocoumarin, on chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676126/umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-predictive-obstetric-factors-for-cell-proliferation-and-chondrogenic-differentiation
#11
Léonore Avercenc-Léger, Philippe Guerci, Jean-Marc Virion, Ghislaine Cauchois, Sébastien Hupont, Rachid Rahouadj, Jacques Magdalou, Jean-François Stoltz, Danièle Bensoussan, Céline Huselstein, Loïc Reppel
BACKGROUND: The umbilical cord is becoming a notable alternative to bone marrow (BM) as a source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Although age-dependent variations in BM-MSC are well described, less data are available for MSC isolated from Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSC). We initiated a study to identify whether obstetric factors influenced MSC properties. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between a large number of obstetric factors collected during pregnancy and until peripartum (related to the mother, the labor and delivery, and the newborn) with WJ-MSC proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation parameters...
July 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659188/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-shoot-and-root-tissue-of-bacopa-monnieri-identifies-potential-genes-related-to-triterpenoid-saponin-biosynthesis
#12
Gajendra Singh Jeena, Shahnoor Fatima, Pragya Tripathi, Swati Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
BACKGROUND: Bacopa monnieri commonly known as Brahmi is utilized in Ayurveda to improve memory and many other human health benefits. Bacosides enriched standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri is being marketed as a memory enhancing agent. In spite of its well known pharmacological properties it is not much studied in terms of transcripts involved in biosynthetic pathway and its regulation that controls the secondary metabolic pathway in this plant. The aim of this study was to identify the potential transcripts and provide a framework of identified transcripts involved in bacosides production through transcriptome assembly...
June 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656211/notch-signaling-pathway-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-enhancing-bmp9-smad-signaling
#13
Junjie Cao, Yalin Wei, Jing Lian, Lunyun Yang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jiaying Xie, Qiang Liu, Jinyong Luo, Baicheng He, Min Tang
Notch is an important pathway in that it regulates cell-to-cell signal transduction, which plays an essential role in skeletal remodeling. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)9 has been regarded as one of the most efficient BMPs by which to induce osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Understanding the interaction between Notch and BMP9 signaling is a critical issue for optimizing the application of MSCs and BMPs in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the BMP9‑induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631614/3d-printed-bioceramic-scaffolds-with-antibacterial-and-osteogenic-activity
#14
Yongliang Zhang, Dong Zhai, Mengchi Xu, Qingqiang Yao, Huiying Zhu, Jiang Chang, Chengtie Wu
Bacterial infection poses a significant risk with the wide application of bone graft materials. Designing bone grafts with good antibacterial performance and excellent bone-forming activity is of particular significance for bone tissue engineering. In our study, a 3D printing method was used to prepare β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioceramic scaffolds. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on graphene oxide (GO) to form a homogeneous nanocomposite (named Ag@GO) with different Ag-to-graphene oxide mass ratios, with this being synthesized via the liquid chemical reduction approach...
June 20, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624655/biological-responses-to-m13-bacteriophage-modified-titanium-surfaces-in-vitro
#15
Yuhua Sun, Yiting Li, Baohua Wu, Jianxin Wang, Xiong Lu, Shuxin Qu, Jie Weng, Bo Feng
Phage-based materials have showed great potential in tissue engineering application. However, it is unknown what inflammation response will happen to this kind of materials. This work is to explore the biological responses to M13 bacteriophage (phage) modified titanium surfaces in vitro from the aspects of their interaction with macrophages, osteoblasts and mineralization behavior. Pretreated Ti surface, Ti surfaces with noncrosslinked phage film (APP) and crosslinked phage film (APPG) were compared. Phage films could limit the macrophage adhesion and activity due to inducing adherent-cell apoptosis...
June 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607561/the-transcription-factor-nrf2-protects-angiogenic-capacity-of-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-in-high-oxygen-radical-stress-conditions
#16
Hendrik Gremmels, Olivier G de Jong, Diënty H Hazenbrink, Joost O Fledderus, Marianne C Verhaar
BACKGROUND: Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) have shown a promise in tissue engineering of vascular constructs, where they act as endothelial progenitor cells. After implantation, ECFCs are likely to be subjected to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes in response to ROS. METHODS: Stable knockdown of Nrf2 and Keap1 was achieved by transduction with lentiviral shRNAs; activation of Nrf2 was induced by incubation with sulforaphane (SFN)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602122/transcriptome-wide-analyses-of-human-neonatal-articular-cartilage-and-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-cartilage-provide-a-new-molecular-target-for-evaluating-engineered-cartilage
#17
Rodrigo A Somoza, Diego Correa, Ivan Labat, Hal Sternberg, Megan E Forrest, Ahmad M Khalil, Michael D West, Paul Tesar, Arnold I Caplan
Cellular differentiation comprises a progressive, multistep program that drives cells to fabricate a tissue with specific and site distinctive structural and functional properties. Cartilage constitutes one of the potential differentiation lineages that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can follow under the guidance of specific bioactive agents. Single agents such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 in unchanging culture conditions have been historically used to induce in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs...
July 28, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585213/microrna-and-adipogenesis
#18
Ayse Basak Engin
In obesity, the process of adipogenesis largely determines the number of adipocytes in body fat depots. Adipogenesis is regulated by several adipocyte-selective microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors that modulate adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. However, some miRNAs block expression of master regulators of adipogenesis. Additionally, specific miRNAs have been implicated in adipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte functions. While, each miRNA targets multiple mRNAs, which may coordinate or antagonize each other's functions, several miRNAs are dysregulated in other tissues during obesity-related comorbidities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585205/adipose-tissue-hypoxia-in-obesity-and-its-impact-on-preadipocytes-and-macrophages-hypoxia-hypothesis
#19
Atilla Engin
Obese subjects exhibit lower adipose tissue oxygen consumption in accordance with the lower adipose tissue blood flow. Thus, compared with lean subjects, obese subjects have 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF expression together with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) activity also requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling. HIF-1alpha is an important signaling molecule for hypoxia to induce the inflammatory responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585198/fat-cell-and-fatty-acid-turnover-in-obesity
#20
Atilla Engin
The ratio of free fatty acid (FFA) turnover decreases significantly with the expansion of white adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and dietary saturated fatty acid levels significantly correlate with an increase in fat cell size and number. Inhibition of adipose triglyceride lipase leads to an accumulation of triglyceride, whereas inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase leads to the accumulation of diacylglycerol. The G0/G1 switch gene 2 increases lipid content in adipocytes and promotes adipocyte hypertrophy through the restriction of triglyceride turnover...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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