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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772261/maternal-immune-activation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-produces-unique-behavioral-changes-in-c57bl-6-mouse-offspring
#1
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764575/-association-between-overweight-obesity-in-parents-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-offspring
#2
Ting Qiu, Bing-Bing Guo, Li-Zhen Wang, Heng Zhang, Yin Xu, Xin-Ye Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between overweight/obesity in parents before maternal pregnancy and the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in offspring. METHODS: A total of 36 children who were diagnosed with ASD (ASD group) and 72 normal children matched for sex and age (control group) were enrolled. A questionnaire survey was performed to collect the general information, including body height and body weight of parents before maternal pregnancy and maternal weight gain during pregnancy...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738852/altered-maternal-immune-networks-are-associated-with-adverse-child-neurodevelopment-impact-of-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy
#3
Tamara S Bodnar, Charlis Raineki, Wladimir Wertelecki, Lyubov Yevtushok, Larisa Plotka, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Gordon Honerkamp-Smith, Alan Wells, Matthieu Rolland, Todd S Woodward, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Christina D Chambers, Joanne Weinberg
Cytokines and chemokines are potent modulators of brain development and as such, dysregulation of the maternal immune system can result in deviations in the fetal cytokine balance, altering the course of typical brain development, and putting the individual on a "pathway to pathology". In the current study, we used a multi-variate approach to evaluate networks of interacting cytokines and investigated whether alterations in the maternal immune milieu could be linked to alcohol-related and alcohol-independent child neurodevelopmental delay...
May 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732167/bugs-in-the-program-can-pregnancy-drugs-and-smoking-disturb-molecular-reprogramming-of-the-fetal-germline-increasing-heritable-risk-for-autism-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#4
Jill Escher
In a seeming paradox, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has surged, while at the same time research has pointed to the strong heritability of this neurodevelopmental pathology. Here an autism research philanthropist suggests a biological phenomenon of exogenously induced 'gamete disruption' that could reconcile these seemingly contradictory observations. Mining information from her own family history and that of her fellow autism parents, while also engaging with the scientific community, she proposes that a subset of the autisms may be rooted in a variety of molecular glitches in parental gametes induced by certain acute exposures during the parents' own fetal or neonatal development...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713443/prenatal-mercury-exposure-and-features-of-autism-a-prospective-population-study
#5
Jean Golding, Dheeraj Rai, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Alan Emond, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph Hibbeln, Caroline Taylor
Background: Mercury (Hg) has been suspected of causing autism in the past, especially a suspected link with vaccinations containing thiomersal, but a review of the literature shows that has been largely repudiated. Of more significant burden is the total quantity of Hg in the environment. Here, we have used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test whether prenatal exposure from total maternal blood Hg in the first half of pregnancy is associated with the risk of autism or of extreme levels of autistic traits...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709497/reduced-cortical-excitability-neuroplasticity-and-salivary-cortisol-in-11-13-year-old-children-born-to-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Jago M Van Dam, Amy J Garrett, Luke A Schneider, Nicolette A Hodyl, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Suzette Coat, Janet A Rowan, William M Hague, Julia B Pitcher
BACKGROUND: Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in utero are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental difficulties, including autism and impaired motor control. However, the underlying neurophysiology is unknown. METHODS: Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we assessed cortical excitability, long-term depression (LTD)-like neuroplasticity in 45 GDM-exposed and 12 control children aged 11-13 years. Data were analysed against salivary cortisol and maternal diabetes severity and treatment (insulin [N = 22] or metformin [N = 23]) during pregnancy...
April 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701446/prenatal-organophosphate-pesticide-exposure-and-traits-related-to-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-a-population-living-in-proximity-to-agriculture
#7
Sharon K Sagiv, Maria H Harris, Robert B Gunier, Katherine R Kogut, Kim G Harley, Julianna Deardorff, Asa Bradman, Nina Holland, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides has been linked with poorer neurodevelopment and behaviors related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in previous studies, including in the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a birth cohort living in the agricultural Salinas Valley in California. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of prenatal exposure to OP pesticides with traits related to ASD, in childhood and adolescents in CHAMACOS...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701247/does-perinatal-exposure-to-exogenous-oxytocin-influence-child-behavioural-problems-and-autistic-like-behaviours-to-20-years-of-age
#8
A J Guastella, M N Cooper, C R H White, M K White, C E Pennell, A J O Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide and hormone oxytocin is known to have a significant impact on social cognition and behaviour in humans. There is growing concern regarding the influence of exogenous oxytocin (OT) administration in early life on later social and emotional development, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). No study has examined offspring development in relation to the dose of exogenous oxytocin administered during labour. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1992, 2,900 mothers were recruited prior to the 18th week of pregnancy, delivering 2,868 live offspring...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681245/pregnancy-risk-factors-related-to-autism-an-italian-case-control-study-in-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-their-siblings-and-of-typically-developing-children
#9
E Grossi, L Migliore, F Muratori
This study, carried out in two Italian Institutions, assesses the frequency of 27 potential autism risk factors related to pregnancy and peri- and postnatal periods by interviewing mothers who had children with autism, children with autism and one or two typically developing siblings, or only typically developing children. The clinical sample included three case groups: 73 children and adolescents with autism (Group A), 35 children and adolescents with autism (Group A1) having 45 siblings (Group B) and 96 typically developing children (Group C) matched for gender and age...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669486/diet-the-keystone-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
S Peretti, M Mariano, C Mazzocchetti, M Mazza, M C Pino, A Verrotti Di Pianella, M Valenti
Children with autism are characterized by an impairment of social interaction and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Autism is a heterogeneous span of disorders with unknown aetiology. Research has grown significantly and has suggested that environmental risk factors acting during the prenatal period could influence the neurodevelopment of offspring. The literature suggests that the maternal diet during pregnancy has a fundamental role in the etiopathogenesis of autism. Indeed, a maternal diet that is high in some nutrients has been associated with an increase or reduction in the risk of develop Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)...
April 19, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609622/16p11-2-microdeletion-syndrome-a-case-report
#11
D Dell'Edera, C Dilucca, A Allegretti, F Simone, M G Lupo, C Liccese, R Davanzo
BACKGROUND: The recurrent ∼ 600 kb 16p11.2 microdeletion is among the most commonly known genetic etiologies of autism spectrum disorder, overweightness, and related neurodevelopmental disorders. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient is a 2-year-old white girl from the first pregnancy of a non-consanguineous healthy young white couple (father 33-years old and mother 29-years old). Our patient and her parents' DNA were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization-array platform...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599960/association-between-maternal-antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-updated-meta-analysis
#12
Xi-Hong Zhou, Yong-Jiang Li, Jian-Jun Ou, Ya-Min Li
Studies have investigated the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children exposed in utero to antidepressant, with inconsistent results. Given the substantial public health implications on this topic, here, we presented an updated meta-analysis of the association between maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy and ASD. Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases were systematically searched. A random effects model was used to pool the adjusted relative risk (RR) for cohort studies and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for case-control studies as well as their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588970/prevalence-risk-factors-and-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy-in-kenyan-children
#13
Charles J Kind, Charles R J C Newton, Symon M Kariuki
Objective: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, clinical features, and neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy and acute symptomatic seizures in school-aged children in Kilifi, Kenya. Methods: Randomly selected children (N = 11,223) were screened for epilepsy and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Those who screened positive were invited for further clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), and neuropsychological evaluations. Prevalence was measured by dividing cases by screened population, providing Agresti-Coull confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584590/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-child-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-danish-nationwide-case-cohort-study
#14
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction may adversely affect fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential fetal programming by abnormal maternal thyroid function on child neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: The design was a case-cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003). From the eligible cohort of 71,706 women, a random 12% sub-cohort (n = 7624) was selected, and all women (n = 2276) whose child was diagnosed with seizures, specific developmental disorder (SDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) up to December 31, 2010, were identified...
April 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#15
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559544/vitamin-d-is-crucial-for-maternal-care-and-offspring-social-behaviour-in-rats
#16
Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Caitlin S Wyrwoll
Early life vitamin D plays a prominent role in neurodevelopment and subsequent brain function, including schizophrenic-like outcomes and increasing evidence for an association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate how early life vitamin D deficiency during rat pregnancy and lactation alters maternal care and influences neurodevelopment and affective, cognitive and social behaviours in male adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU/kg) for five weeks before timed mating, and diet exposure was maintained until weaning of offspring on postnatal day (PND) 23...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558816/prenatal-primary-prevention-of-mental-illness-by-micronutrient-supplements-in-pregnancy
#17
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549549/maternal-exposures-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-jamaican-children
#18
MacKinsey A Christian, Maureen Samms-Vaughan, MinJae Lee, Jan Bressler, Manouchehr Hessabi, Megan L Grove, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington, Charlene Coore Desai, Jody-Ann Reece, Katherine A Loveland, Eric Boerwinkle, Mohammad H Rahbar
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Many maternal exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding potentially interfere with neurodevelopment. Using data from two age- and sex-matched case-control studies in Jamaica (n = 298 pairs), results of conditional logistic regression analyses suggest that maternal exposures to fever or infection (matched odds ratio (MOR) = 3.12, 95% CI 1.74-5.60), physical trauma (MOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.01-4.05), and oil-based paints (MOR 1...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529521/prenatal-dexamethasone-treatment-in-the-context-of-at-risk-cah-pregnancies-long-term-behavioral-and-cognitive-outcome
#19
Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Dexamethasone (DEX) is used to prevent prenatal virilization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Since treatment has to be started before the genotype of the fetus is known, 7 out of 8 fetuses will be exposed to DEX without benefit. Previously, we have observed negative effects on cognition and behavior in DEX treated children. Here we evaluated neuropsychological functions, psychopathology and autistic traits in non-CAH DEX-treated adults exposed during the first trimester of fetal life (duration 6...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482387/the-effects-of-maternal-asthma-during-pregnancy-on-child-cognitive-and-behavioral-development-a-systematic-review
#20
Olivia M Whalen, Frini Karayanidis, Vanessa E Murphy, Alison E Lane, Carly A Mallise, Linda E Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Maternal asthma during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of negative perinatal outcomes. However, little is known about the direct effects of maternal asthma on infant cognitive development. We examined the evidence for an impact of maternal asthma during pregnancy on cognitive and behavioral development of the child. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and manual search of the databases for all available studies until January 9th, 2018...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
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