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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#1
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#2
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#3
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
December 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137374/maternal-immune-activation-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-from-rodents-to-nonhuman-and-human-primates
#4
REVIEW
Milo Careaga, Takeshi Murai, Melissa D Bauman
A subset of women who are exposed to infection during pregnancy have an increased risk of giving birth to a child who will later be diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder. Although epidemiology studies have primarily focused on the association between maternal infection and an increased risk of offspring schizophrenia, mounting evidence indicates that maternal infection may also increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. A number of factors, including genetic susceptibility, the intensity and timing of the infection, and exposure to additional aversive postnatal events, may influence the extent to which maternal infection alters fetal brain development and which disease phenotype (autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, other neurodevelopmental disorders) is expressed...
March 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129495/the-association-between-antenatal-exposure-to-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-autism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Hilary K Brown, Neesha Hussain-Shamsy, Yona Lunsky, Cindy-Lee E Dennis, Simone N Vigod
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the relationship between antenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and child autism, with specific attention to maternal mental illness (MMI) as a potential confounding factor. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from database inception to January 28, 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Keywords included terms for SSRIs, pregnancy, and autism...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127411/protein-restricted-diet-during-pregnancy-after-insemination-alters-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-progeny
#6
Tamio Furuse, Kunio Miyake, Takashi Kohda, Hideki Kaneda, Takae Hirasawa, Ikuko Yamada, Tomoko Kushida, Misho Kashimura, Kimio Kobayashi, Fumitoshi Ishino, Takeo Kubota, Shigeharu Wakana
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that hyponutrition during the fetal period increases the risk of mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism-spectrum disorder, which has been experimentally supported using animal models. However, previous experimental hyponutrition or protein-restricted (PR) diets affected stages other than the fetal stage, such as formation of the egg before insemination, milk composition during lactation, and maternal nursing behavior...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102992/environmental-factors-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-scoping-review-for-the-years-2003-2013
#7
M Ng, J G de Montigny, M Ofner, M T Do
INTRODUCTION: The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been rapidly rising in the past decade. The etiology of this disorder, however, is largely unknown, although the environmental relative to the genetic contribution is substantial. We conducted a scoping review to comprehensively assess the current state of knowledge of the environmental factors present from preconception to early life associated with ASD, and to identify research gaps. METHODS: We searched electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ERIC for articles on potential risk factors or protective factors from the physical and social environments associated with ASD and its subclassifications published between 1 January, 2003, and 12 July, 2013...
January 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102228/maternal-immune-activation-causes-behavioral-impairments-and-altered-cerebellar-cytokine-and-synaptic-protein-expression
#8
Gurudutt Pendyala, Shinnyi Chou, Yoosun Jung, Pierluca Coiro, Elizabeth Spartz, Ragunathan Padmashri, Ming Li, Anna Dunaevsky
Emerging epidemiology studies indicate that maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from inflammatory stimuli such as viral or bacterial infections during pregnancy serves as a risk factor for multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although alterations in the cortex and hippocampus of MIA offspring have been described, less evidence exists on the impact on the cerebellum. Here, we report altered expression of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebellum of MIA offspring, including increase in the neuroinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its receptor TNFR1...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099978/association-of-perinatal-risk-factors-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Darios Getahun, Michael J Fassett, Morgan R Peltier, Deborah A Wing, Anny H Xiang, Vicki Chiu, Steven J Jacobsen
Objective To examine the association between exposures to perinatal factors and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Study Design A retrospective cohort study of ASD among children born in Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals between 1991 and 2009 (n = 594,638). Medical records were used to determine exposure to perinatal (antepartum and intrapartum) complications. ASD was diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). Result Children with ASD were more likely to be exposed to perinatal complications (HR = 1...
February 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034801/testing-the-correlation-between-experimentally-induced-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-autistic-like-symptoms-in-the-rat-offspring
#10
Francesca Melancia, Michela Servadio, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Viviana Trezza
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the central nervous system. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not functioning until mid-gestation, transport of maternal thyroid hormones across the placenta is essential during the early phases of gestation. Maternal thyroid deficiency has been associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in the newborns. The relationship between maternal hypothyroidism and the onset of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring, however, is still debated...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031963/folic-acid-supplementation-what-is-new-fetal-obstetric-long-term-benefits-and-risks
#11
REVIEW
Hind N Moussa, Susan Hosseini Nasab, Ziad A Haidar, Sean C Blackwell, Baha M Sibai
The association between folic acid supplementation, prior to conception and/or during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, has been the subject of numerous studies. The worldwide recommendation of folic acid is at least 0.4 mg daily for all women of reproductive age, and 4-5 mg in high-risk women. In addition, evidence shows that folic acid supplementation could modulate other adverse pregnancy outcomes, specifically, in pregnancies complicated by seizure disorders, preeclampsia, anemia, fetal growth restriction and autism...
June 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984183/repeated-prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-results-in-cerebellar-hypoplasia-and-ataxia
#12
Stacey L Main, Randy J Kulesza
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, social and communication defects, and is commonly associated with difficulties with motor coordination. The etiology of ASD, while mostly idiopathic, has been linked to hereditary factors and teratogens, such as valproic acid (VPA). VPA is used clinically to treat epilepsy, mood disorders, and in the prevention of migraines. The use of VPA during pregnancy significantly increases the risk of ASD in the offspring...
October 27, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893896/association-between-influenza-infection-and-vaccination-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Ousseny Zerbo, Yinge Qian, Cathleen Yoshida, Bruce H Fireman, Nicola P Klein, Lisa A Croen
Importance: Maternal infections and fever during pregnancy are associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association between influenza vaccination during pregnancy and ASD. Objective: To investigate the association between influenza infection and vaccination during pregnancy and ASD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 196 929 children born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010, at a gestational age of at least 24 weeks...
January 2, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892236/1-in-100-babies-the-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-pathway
#14
Kerry Lyons
Alcohol consumed during pregnancy is the nation's leading preventable cause of developmental disabilities and birth defects. One in 100 babies is estimated to be born with alcohol-related damage, according to the World Health Organization. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are more common than autism but are under-diagnosed.
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876552/long-term-altered-immune-responses-following-fetal-priming-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#15
Destanie R Rose, Milo Careaga, Judy Van de Water, Kim McAllister, Melissa D Bauman, Paul Ashwood
Infection during pregnancy can lead to activation of the maternal immune system and has been associated with an increased risk of having an offspring later diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or schizophrenia (SZ). Most maternal immune activation (MIA) studies to date have been in rodents and usually involve the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). However, since NDD are based on behavioral changes, a model of MIA in non-human primates could potentially provide data that helps illuminate complex behavioral and immune outputs in human NDD...
November 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875541/new-perspective-on-impact-of-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-on-neurodevelopment-autism-in-the-offspring-children-a-systematic-review
#16
Yunfei Gao, Chao Sheng, Ri-Hua Xie, Wen Sun, Elizabeth Asztalos, Diane Moddemann, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Mark Walker, Shi Wu Wen
It has been conclusively established that folic acid supplementation prior to and during early pregnancy (up to 12 weeks of gestation) can prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). We hypothesized that folate effects may extend from neuro-structural defects to alterations in neuro-behavioural and emotional skills including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other developmental disorders. The objective of this review was to comprehensively evaluate evidence on the impact of folic acid on neurodevelopment other than NTDs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860117/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-e-core-a-national-multi-stakeholder-modified-delphi-consensus-study
#17
B H Al Wattar, K Tamilselvan, R Khan, A Kelso, A Sinha, A M Pirie, D McCorry, K S Khan, S Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of core outcomes for studies on pregnant women with epilepsy. DESIGN: Delphi consensus study. POPULATION: Healthcare professionals, and patient representatives with lived experience of epilepsy in the UK. METHODS: We used a modified Delphi method and a consultation meeting to achieve consensus. Potential outcomes were identified by systematic review, and were scored using a Likert scale anchored between 1 (least important) and 5 (most important)...
November 16, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847193/extremely-low-gestational-age-and-very-low-birthweight-for-gestational-age-are-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-large-cohort-study-of-10-year-old-children-born-at-23-27-weeks-gestation
#18
Robert M Joseph, Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, Tim Heeren, Jean A Frazier, Janice Ware, Deborah Hirtz, Alan Leviton, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: No prospective cohort study of high-risk children has used rigorous exposure assessment and optimal diagnostic procedures to examine the perinatal antecedents of autism spectrum disorder separately among those with and without cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify perinatal factors associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder with and without intellectual disability (intelligence quotient <70) in children born extremely preterm...
November 12, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819277/the-transgenerational-inheritance-of-autism-like-phenotypes-in-mice-exposed-to-valproic-acid-during-pregnancy
#19
Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck Gonzales, Ki Chan Kim, Sung Min Yang, Ji-Woon Kim, Darine Froy Mabunga, Jae Hoon Cheong, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneously pervasive developmental disorder in which various genetic and environmental factors are believed to underlie its development. Recently, epigenetics has been suggested as a novel concept for ASD aetiology with a proposition that epigenetic marks can be transgenerationally inherited. Based on this assumption of epigenetics, we investigated the transgenerational inheritance of ASD-like behaviours and their related synaptic changes in the VPA animal model of ASD...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751685/perinatal-issues-for-women-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Cath Rogers, Laurence Lepherd, Rahul Ganguly, Sebastian Jacob-Rogers
PROBLEM: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an increasingly commonly diagnosed disability. People with ASD commonly report challenges in social interaction and a heightened sensory perception. These challenges may be particularly difficult for women during pregnancy, birthing and beyond. BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the experiences and needs of birthing women who have ASD. There is a large body of literature about women who have autistic children, but almost nothing about women who may have this disability themselves...
October 14, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
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