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Cytokine dynamics

Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ying Wang, Lili Wang, Haoyu Yang, Weichang Yuan, Jingyi Ren, Yanping Bai
Circulating T follicular helper (cTfh) cells are known to be involved in numerous immune-mediated diseases, but their pathological role in psoriasis is less fully investigated. Herein, we aimed to identify whether cTfh cells contributed to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The frequency and function of cTfh cells were compared between patients with psoriasis vulgaris and healthy controls, and the infiltration of Tfh cells was detected between lesional and nonlesional skin tissues of psoriasis patients. Moreover, the dynamic change of cTfh cells before and after acitretin treatment was evaluated...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
José Peña, Haiyin Chen-Harris, Jonathan E Allen, Mona Hwang, Maher Elsheikh, Shalini Mabery, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Adam T Zemla, Richard A Bowen, Monica K Borucki
In vivo serial passage of non-pathogenic viruses has been shown to lead to increased viral virulence, and although the precise mechanism(s) are not clear, it is known that both host and viral factors are associated with increased pathogenicity. Under- or overnutrition leads to a decreased or dysregulated immune response and can increase viral mutant spectrum diversity and virulence. The objective of this study was to identify the role of viral mutant spectra dynamics and host immunocompetence in the development of pathogenicity during in vivo passage...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Carolina Rodriguez-Tirado, Takanori Kitamura, Yu Kato, Jeffery W Pollard, John S Condeelis, David Entenberg
Metastasis to secondary sites such as the lung, liver and bone is a traumatic event with a mortality rate of approximately 90% (1). Of these sites, the lung is the most difficult to assess using intravital optical imaging due to its enclosed position within the body, delicate nature and vital role in sustaining proper physiology. While clinical modalities (positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT)) are capable of providing noninvasive images of this tissue, they lack the resolution necessary to visualize the earliest seeding events, with a single pixel consisting of nearly a thousand cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hosana G Rodrigues, Marco A R Vinolo, Fabio T Sato, Juliana Magdalon, Carolina M C Kuhl, Ana S Yamagata, Ana Flávia M Pessoa, Gabriella Malheiros, Marinilce F Dos Santos, Camila Lima, Sandra H Farsky, Niels O S Camara, Maria R Williner, Claudio A Bernal, Philip C Calder, Rui Curi
INTRODUCTION: Impaired wound healing has been widely reported in diabetes. Linoleic acid (LA) accelerates the skin wound healing process in non-diabetic rats. However, LA has not been tested in diabetic animals. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether oral administration of pure LA improves wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Dorsal wounds were induced in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats treated or not with LA (0...
2016: PloS One
Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo Cai Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Priya Sakthivel, Dunja Bruder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of noncaseating granuloma is a hallmark of pulmonary sarcoidosis. This review summarizes recent progress made to explain the cellular dynamics within the granuloma structure that may considerably differ between the two clinically distinct variants, that is, acute and chronic sarcoidosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Compelling evidence exists that in acute but not chronic sarcoidosis CD4 T lymphocytes specifically recognizing the auto-antigen vimentin on human leukocyte antigen-DR3 molecules accumulate in sarcoid granuloma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Dirk Fahrenkamp, Jinyu Li, Sabrina Ernst, Hildegard Schmitz-Van de Leur, Nicolas Chatain, Andrea Küster, Steffen Koschmieder, Bernhard Lüscher, Giulia Rossetti, Gerhard Müller-Newen
STAT5 is an essential transcription factor in hematopoiesis, which is activated through tyrosine phosphorylation in response to cytokine stimulation. Constitutive activation of STAT5 is a hallmark of myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia. Using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, a model of the STAT5 phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain interface was generated providing first structural information on the activated STAT5 dimer including a sequence, for which no structural information is available for any of the STAT proteins...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Sascha Rutz, Wenjun Ouyang
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles as a negative regulator of immune responses to microbial antigens. Loss of IL-10 results in the spontaneous development of inflammatory bowel disease as a consequence of an excessive immune response to the gut microbiota. IL-10 also functions to prevent excessive inflammation during the course of infection. IL-10 can be produced in response to pro-inflammatory signals by virtually all immune cells, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrew Abboud, Qi Mi, Ava Puccio, David Okonkwo, Marius Buliga, Gregory Constantine, Yoram Vodovotz
Inflammation induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex mediator of morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated the utility of both data-driven and mechanistic models in settings of traumatic injury. We hypothesized that differential dynamic inflammation programs characterize TBI survivors vs. non-survivors, and sought to leverage computational modeling to derive novel insights into this life/death bifurcation. Thirteen inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were determined using Luminex™ in serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 31 TBI patients over 5 days...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Rekik A Muluye, Yuhong Bian, Li Wang, Paulos N Alemu, Huantian Cui, Xiaofei Peng, Shanshan Li
Background: Level of fatigue is related to the metabolic energy available to tissues and cells, mainly through mitochondrial respiration, as well fatigue is the most common symptom of poorly functioning mitochondria. Hence, dysfunction of these organelles may be the cause of the fatigue seen in Chronic fatigue (CF). Placenta has been used for treatment of fatigue and various disease, moreover peptides has known protect mitochondrial viability, and alleviate fatigue. These properties of placenta and peptides may link with its effect on mitochondria; therefore, it is highly important to investigate the effectiveness of placenta peptide on fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Chaoyi Qin, Jun Gu, Ruiqi Liu, Fei Xu, Hong Qian, Qian He, Wei Meng
OBJECTIVE: The present study is an exploration of the dynamic changes of plasma mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) and inflammatory level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with acute MI and 33 control participants were included in the study. Blood samples were collected on admission, 12 hours post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 24 hours post-PCI, and 48 hours post-PCI. White blood cell (WBC) count and Creactive protein (CRP) level were determined...
October 5, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Hui Zhang, Chuanchao Zhang, Jinting Yan, Zhongshuai Sun, Shuhui Song, Yazhou Sun, Caixia Guo
Spermatogenesis is threatened by DNA alkylating agents, one major category of DNA damaging agents. Currently, little is known about the alterations in transcriptome profiling of the mouse spermatogenic cells in response to DNA alkylation at distinct stages of spermatogenesis. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in pachytene spermatocytes (PS) and round spermatids (RS) at 0 or 30min following Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment and with untreated controls. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparison of the three groups in PS and RS, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Gene
Guido Wabnitz, Emre Balta, Yvonne Samstag
T-cells need to be tightly regulated during their activation and effector phase to assure an appropriate defence against cancer or pathogens and - vice versa - to avoid autoimmune reactions. Regulatory signals are provided via the immune synapse between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or target cells. The stability and kinetics of immune synapse formation is critical for proper T-cell functions. It requires dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton necessary for organized spatio-temporal redistribution of receptors and adhesion molecules...
September 27, 2016: Advances in Biological Regulation
Sheikh Fayaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Khairy M A Zoheir, Saleh A Bakheet, Abdulaziz M S Alsaad, Othman A Al-Shabanah, Sabry M Attia
We set out to investigate the influence of STA-21, a dynamic STAT-3 inhibitor, on the expansion and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to determine its potential mechanisms of action in a mouse model of collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). To this end, arthritis was induced via intravenous (IV) injection of Balb/c mice with a cocktail of antibodies directed against type II collagen (1.5μg/mouse, IV), followed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a dose of (25μg/mouse, i.p.) on day 3. Mice were then left untreated or were simultaneously treated with STA-21 (0...
October 3, 2016: Immunobiology
Lidiana Flora Vidoto da Costa, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Elizabeth Cristina Perez, Mario Mariano, Maria Anete Lallo
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an opportunist intracellular pathogen of mammals. The adaptive immune response is essential to eliminate E. cuniculi, but evidence is mounting that the response initiated by the innate immune response may ultimately define whether or not the parasite can survive. B-1 cells may act as antigen-presenting cells or differentiate into phagocytes, playing different roles in many infection models. However, the role of these cells in the dynamics of Encephalitozoon sp. infections is still unknown...
September 28, 2016: Immunobiology
Christopher J Sifuentes, Jung-Woong Kim, Anand Swaroop, Pamela A Raymond
Purpose: Zebrafish neurons regenerate from Müller glia following retinal lesions. Genes and signaling pathways important for retinal regeneration in zebrafish have been described, but our understanding of how Müller glial stem cell properties are regulated is incomplete. Mammalian Müller glia possess a latent neurogenic capacity that might be enhanced in regenerative therapies to treat degenerative retinal diseases. Methods: To identify transcriptional changes associated with stem cell properties in zebrafish Müller glia, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis from isolated cells at 8 and 16 hours following an acute photic lesion, prior to the asymmetric division that produces retinal progenitors...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Keiji Uematsu, Fumihiko Okumura, Syunsuke Tonogai, Akiko Joo-Okumura, Dawit Hailu Alemayehu, Akihiko Nishikimi, Yoshinori Fukui, Kunio Nakatsukasa, Takumi Kamura
Proper dynamic regulation of the spindle is essential for successful cell division. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate spindle dynamics in mitosis are not fully understood. In this study, we show that Cullin 5-interacting suppressor of cytokine signaling box protein ASB7 ubiquitinates DDA3, a regulator of spindle dynamics, thereby targeting it for proteasomal degradation. The presence of microtubules (MTs) prevented the ASB7-DDA3 interaction, thus stabilizing DDA3. Knockdown of ASB7 decreased MT polymerization and increased the proportion of cells with unaligned chromosomes, and this phenotype was rescued by deletion of DDA3...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Anna Winberg, Olga Nagaeva, Ivan Nagaev, Catarina Lundell, Ignacio Arencibia, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Eva Rönmark, Christina E West
BACKGROUND: There is need for prognostic markers for symptomatic food allergy since current diagnostic methods are insufficient and/or time and labor consuming. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cytokine mRNA profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge series in schoolchildren with suspected allergy to milk, egg or cod and in healthy controls. Analyses of fecal inflammatory biomarkers before and after the challenge were included...
December 2016: Cytokine
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