Read by QxMD icon Read

Cytokine dynamics

Carrie K Hui Mingalone, Zhiyi Liu, Judith M Hollander, Kirsten D Garvey, Averi L Gibson, Rose E Banks, Ming Zhang, Timothy E McAlindon, Heber C Nielsen, Irene Georgakoudi, Li Zeng
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of chronic disability whose mechanism of pathogenesis is largely elusive. Local inflammation is thought to play a key role in OA progression, especially in injury-associated OA. While multiple inflammatory cytokines are detected, the timing and extent of overall inflammatory activities in early OA and the manner by which joint inflammation correlates with cartilage structural damage are still unclear. We induced OA via destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in NFκB luciferase reporter mice, whose bioluminescent signal reflects the activity of NFκB, a central mediator of inflammation...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Bingqing Xie, Bharathi Laxman, Somaye Hashemifar, Randi Stern, T Conrad Gilliam, Natalia Maltsev, Steven R White
Basal airway epithelial cells (AEC) constitute stem/progenitor cells within the central airways and respond to mucosal injury in an ordered sequence of spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation to needed cell types. However, dynamic gene transcription in the early events after mucosal injury has not been studied in AEC. We examined gene expression using microarrays following mechanical injury (MI) in primary human AEC grown in submersion culture to generate basal cells and in the air-liquid interface to generate differentiated AEC (dAEC) that include goblet and ciliated cells...
2018: PloS One
Marie Pariollaud, Julie Gibbs, Thomas Hopwood, Sheila Brown, Nicola Begley, Ryan Vonslow, Toryn Poolman, Baoqiang Guo, Ben Saer, D Heulyn Jones, James P Tellam, Stefano Bresciani, Nicholas Co Tomkinson, Justyna Wojno-Picon, Anthony Wj Cooper, Dion A Daniels, Ryan P Trump, Daniel Grant, William Zuercher, Timothy M Willson, Andrew S MacDonald, Brian Bolognese, Patricia L Podolin, Yolanda Sanchez, Andrew Si Loudon, David W Ray
Recent studies reveal that airway epithelial cells are critical pulmonary circadian pacemaker cells, mediating rhythmic inflammatory responses. Using mouse models, we now identify the rhythmic circadian repressor REV-ERB as essential to the mechanism coupling the pulmonary clock to innate immunity, involving both myeloid, and bronchial epithelial cells in temporal gating and determining amplitude of response to inhaled endotoxin. Dual mutation of REV-ERBα and its paralog REV-ERBβ in bronchial epithelia further augmented inflammatory responses and chemokine activation, but also initiated a basal inflammatory state, revealing a critical homeostatic role for REV-ERB proteins in the suppression of the endogenous pro-inflammatory mechanism in un-challenged cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xiaoni Ai, Wenbo Lu, Kewu Zeng, Chun Li, Yong Jiang, Peng-Fei Tu
Emerging awareness of cardiac macrophages' role in inflammation after myocardial infarction indicates that overabundant pro-inflammatory macrophages induce accentuated myocardial injury. The investigation of macrophages-cardiomyocytes interaction and inflammation-induced dynamic damage in myocardial infarction, especially in a spatiotemporally controlled manner, remains a huge challenge. Here, we developed an in vitro model using a microfluidic co-culture system to mimic inflammatory cardiac injury. To our knowledge, on-chip pathological models focused on inflammation-induced myocardial injury have not been reported...
March 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ana Laura Fitas, Catarina Martins, Luís Miguel Borrego, Lurdes Lopes, Anne Jörns, Sigurd Lenzen, Catarina Limbert
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops in distinct stages, before and after disease onset. Whether the natural course translates into different immunologic patterns is still uncertain. This study aimed at identifying peripheral immune patterns at key time-points, in T1D children undergoing remission phase. METHODS: Children with new-onset T1D and healthy age and gender-matched controls were recruited at a paediatric hospital. Peripheral blood samples were evaluated by flow cytometry at three longitudinal time-points: onset (T1), remission phase (T2) and established disease (T3)...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Ivy Sandquist, Jay Kolls
T-helper cells that produce IL-17 are recognized as a significant subset within cell-mediated adaptive immunity. These cells are implicated in both the pathology of inflammatory disorders as well as the clearance of extracellular infections and the maintenance of the microbiota. However, the dynamic nature of this cell type has created controversy in understanding Th17 induction as well as Th17 phenotyping, since these cells may switch from Th17 to Treg or Th17 to Th1 cytokine profiles under certain conditions...
2018: F1000Research
Alexandra Frelau, Marc Pracht, Samuel Le Sourd, Alexandra Lespagnol, Romain Corre, Cédric Ménard, Karin Tarte, Jean Mosser, Julien Edeline
PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are becoming the reference treatment for several types of cancers. Many patients show remarkable efficacy and low toxicity. However, some patients have a better outcome than others with PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors. So, it is crucial to identify biomarkers of response. We review here the available data of several potential biomarkers of efficacy. The expression of PD-L1, detected by immunohistochemistry on tumor cells and immune cells is a good predictive biomarker of response for some cancers; however, this method is not standardized, and there are different antibodies, different cut-off values, and different targets (tumor or microenvironment)...
March 7, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Xin Wang, Yi Zhang, Wenjun Ji, Jun Ao
Fracture hematoma formation describes a transitional phase that involves a dynamic and tightly choreographed interaction between the fibrin matrix, cells, and cytokines that guides the ensuing bone repair. Here we propose a novel hypothesis to explain why hematomas in conjunction with critical sized bone defects are prone to differentiate into fibrous tissues, which eventually results in non-unions of the bone. We postulate that certain hematoma qualities are triggers that influence cell biological behaviours and that the release of certain growth factors determines what pattern of remodelling will prevail: intramembranous or endochondral ossification...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Fumihiko Katakura, Yuji Sugie, Kiyotaka Hayashi, Kohei Nishiya, Jiro Miyamae, Masaharu Okano, Teruyuki Nakanishi, Tadaaki Moritomo
The development of mammalian megakaryocytes and platelets is regulated by numerous cytokine signals, primarily through the thrombopoietin (TPO)/c-MPL axis. Although non-mammalian vertebrates are known to possess nucleated thrombocytes functionally equivalent to mammalian platelets, the dynamics of the thrombocyte development remains unclear. Here we identified TPO and a splice variant (TPO-v) caused by the intron retention in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both the tpo and its variant transcripts were highly expressed in heart and liver...
March 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Nancy B Schwartz, Miriam S Domowicz
Proteoglycans are diverse, complex extracellular/cell surface macromolecules composed of a central core protein with covalently-linked glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains; both of these components contribute to the growing list of important bio-active functions attributed to proteoglycans. Increasingly, attention has been paid to the roles of proteoglycans in nervous tissue development due to their highly regulated spatio/temporal expression patterns, whereby they promote/inhibit neurite outgrowth, participate in specification and maturation of various precursor cell types, and regulate cell behaviors like migration, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, and plasticity...
March 7, 2018: FEBS Letters
Shilpa Sharma, Ravi Shankar Akundi
BACKGROUND: Depression is a widespread phenomenon with varying degrees of pathology in different patients. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the cause and continuance of depression. Some of these include, but not limited to, the monoamine hypothesis, the neuroendocrine hypothesis, and the more recent epigenetic and inflammatory hypotheses. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we review all the above hypotheses with a focus on the role of mitochondria as the connecting link...
March 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Marianne C Jacobsen, Maria D I Manunta, Emma S Pincott, Matthew Fenton, Gavin L Simpson, Nigel J Klein, Michael Burch
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is implicated in endothelial dysfunction and graft damage after pediatric heart transplantation. CMV specific immune responses are thought to be necessary for CMV viral control but there is little data in pediatric heart transplantation. METHODS: We studied 28 consecutive pediatric heart transplant recipients for 1-year posttransplant. CMV-specific T cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in response to ex-vivo stimulation with CMV lysates or peptides were measured...
March 5, 2018: Transplantation
Dulshara Sachini Amarasekara, Hyeongseok Yun, Sumi Kim, Nari Lee, Hyunjong Kim, Jaerang Rho
Cytokines play a pivotal role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Osteoclasts (OCs), the sole bone resorbing cells, are regulated by numerous cytokines. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand play a central role in OC differentiation, which is also termed osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclastogenic cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-11, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23, and IL-34, promote OC differentiation, whereas anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-27, and IL-33, downregulate OC differentiation...
February 2018: Immune Network
Huaqiao Tang, Nana Long, Lin Lin, Yao Liu, Jianlong Li, Fenghui Sun, Lijuan Guo, Fen Zhang, Min Dai
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a very damaging and widespread pathogen, which is associated with many diseases and causes serious infections. MRSA infection can modulate the effects of drugs, which may occur through an influence on cytochrome P450 (CYP450), the drug-metabolizing enzyme in the liver. In this study, we evaluated the underlying mechanism of drug failure or poisoning in MRSA infection. Materials and methods: Mice were infected with three different doses of MRSA and the changes in CYP450 expression, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers were evaluated...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Sonia Missiroli, Simone Patergnani, Natascia Caroccia, Gaia Pedriali, Mariasole Perrone, Maurizio Previati, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Carlotta Giorgi
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are tightly associated with very dynamic platforms termed mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). MAMs provide an excellent scaffold for crosstalk between the ER and mitochondria and play a pivotal role in different signaling pathways that allow rapid exchange of biological molecules to maintain cellular health. However, dysfunctions in the ER-mitochondria architecture are associated with pathological conditions and human diseases. Inflammation has emerged as one of the various pathways that MAMs control...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Weiqi Kong, Yunhui Gong, Rong Zhou, Yanyun Wang, Yanping Zhang, Xiaolei Luo, Lin Zhang, Tao Wang
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to elucidate whether soluble ST2 (sST2), a preeclampsia (PE)-related cytokine, in the maternal or fetal circulation could be transported to the other circulatory system across the placenta. METHODS: A placental perfusion model in a closed system was established and optimized. HPLC was performed to determine the dynamics of antipyrine levels in the perfusate. Placentas (n = 18) collected from healthy controls and PE patients were perfused without additional treatment or with added sST2 in the maternal or fetal circulation...
March 2018: Placenta
Zetao Chen, Lingling Chen, Runheng Liu, Yixiong Lin, Shoucheng Chen, Shifeier Lu, Zhengmei Lin, Zhuofan Chen, Chengtie Wu, Yin Xiao
A barrier membrane is a major component of guided bone regeneration (GBR), which is traditionally viewed as a physical barrier. Due to its "foreign body" nature, the implantation of a barrier membrane would inevitably modulate immune response and subsequently affect bone dynamics, which has long been neglected. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigated the osteoimmunomodulatory effects of barrier collagen membranes. It is found that barrier collagen membranes elicit significant effects on modulating the osteoimmune response of macrophages, by upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18) and osteogenic factors (BMP2/6, WNT10b, OSM)...
February 27, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Michela Manni, Sanjay Gupta, Edd Ricker, Yurii Chinenov, Sung Ho Park, Man Shi, Tania Pannellini, Rolf Jessberger, Lionel B Ivashkiv, Alessandra B Pernis
Age-associated B cells (ABCs) are a subset of B cells dependent on the transcription factor T-bet that accumulate prematurely in autoimmune settings. The pathways that regulate ABCs in autoimmunity are largely unknown. SWAP-70 and DEF6 (also known as IBP or SLAT) are the only two members of the SWEF family, a unique family of Rho GTPase-regulatory proteins that control both cytoskeletal dynamics and the activity of the transcription factor IRF4. Notably, DEF6 is a newly identified human risk variant for systemic lupus erythematosus...
February 26, 2018: Nature Immunology
Antoine L Carre, Michael S Hu, Aaron W James, Kenichiro Kawai, Michael G Galvez, Michael T Longaker, H Peter Lorenz
BACKGROUND: Acute wound healing is a dynamic process that results in the formation of scar tissue. The mechanisms of this process are not well understood; numerous signaling pathways are thought to play a major role. Here, the authors have identified β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling as an early acute-phase reactant in acute wound healing and scar formation. METHODS: The authors created 6-mm full-thickness excisional cutaneous wounds on adult β-catenin-dependent Wnt signal (BAT-gal) reporter mice...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"