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Cytokine dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223969/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-prolyl-oligopeptidase-induces-in-vitro-secretion-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-by-peritoneal-macrophages
#1
Brina Portugal, Flávia N Motta, Andre F Correa, Diego O Nolasco, Hugo de Almeida, Kelly G Magalhães, Ana L V Atta, Francisco D Vieira, Izabela M D Bastos, Jaime M Santana
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that leads to death over 1 million people per year worldwide and the biological mediators of this pathology are poorly established, preventing the implementation of effective therapies to improve outcomes in TB. Host-bacterium interaction is a key step to TB establishment and the proteases produced by these microorganisms seem to facilitate bacteria invasion, migration and host immune response evasion. We presented, for the first time, the identification, biochemical characterization, molecular dynamics (MDs) and immunomodulatory properties of a prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (POPMt)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223515/rational-design-of-adjuvants-targeting-the-c-type-lectin-mincle
#2
Alexiane Decout, Sandro Silva-Gomes, Daniel Drocourt, Sophie Barbe, Isabelle André, Francisco J Cueto, Thierry Lioux, David Sancho, Eric Pérouzel, Alain Vercellone, Jacques Prandi, Martine Gilleron, Gérard Tiraby, Jérôme Nigou
The advances in subunit vaccines development have intensified the search for potent adjuvants, particularly adjuvants inducing cell-mediated immune responses. Identification of the C-type lectin Mincle as one of the receptors underlying the remarkable immunogenicity of the mycobacterial cell wall, via recognition of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), has opened avenues for the rational design of such molecules. Using a combination of chemical synthesis, biological evaluation, molecular dynamics simulations, and protein mutagenesis, we gained insight into the molecular bases of glycolipid recognition by Mincle...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222998/dynamics-of-apc-recruitment-at-the-site-of-injection-following-injection-of-vaccine-adjuvants
#3
Susan van Aalst, Irene Stephanie Ludwig, Peter Johannes Sylvester van Kooten, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden, Femke Broere
Vaccines often contain adjuvants to strengthen the response to the vaccine antigen. However, their modes of action at the site of injection (SOI) are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the local effects of adjuvant on the innate immune system in mice. We investigated the safe, widely used adjuvants MF59 and aluminum hydroxide (alum), as well as trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) and the Toll-Like-Receptor-ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4). We assessed muscle immune cell infiltration after adjuvant injection and observed 16h post immunization (hpi) an increased influx with CFA, MF59 and TDB, but not with alum, LPS or Pam3CSK4...
February 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219660/modelling-and-investigation-of-the-cd4-t-cells-macrophages-paradox-in-melanoma-immunotherapies
#4
Raluca Eftimie, Haneen Hamam
It is generally accepted that tumour cells can be eliminated by M1 anti-tumour macrophages and CD8(+) T cells. However, experimental results over the past 10-15 years have shown that B16 mouse melanoma cells can be eliminated by the CD4(+) T cells alone (either Th1 or Th2 sub-types), in the absence of CD8(+) T cells. In some studies, elimination of B16 melanoma was associated with a Th1 immune response (i.e., elimination occurred in the presence of cytokines produced by Th1 cells), while in other studies melanoma elimination was associated with a Th2 immune response (i...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217371/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-pancreatitis
#5
REVIEW
Murli Manohar, Alok Kumar Verma, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Nathan L Sanders, Anil Mishra
Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213682/mathematical-modelling-of-cytokines-mmps-and-fibronectin-fragments-in-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#6
Michelle Baker, Bindi S Brook, Markus R Owen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease which causes pain and stiffness in joints. OA progresses through excessive degradation of joint cartilage, eventually leading to significant joint degeneration and loss of function. Cytokines, a group of cell signalling proteins, present in raised concentrations in OA joints, can be classified into pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory groups. They mediate cartilage degradation through several mechanisms, primarily the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of collagen-degrading enzymes...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212103/simulation-of-healing-threshold-in-strain-induced-inflammation-through-a-discrete-informatics-model
#7
Israr Ibrahim, Sanjay Venkata Oruganti, Ramana Pidaparti
Respiratory diseases such as asthma and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as acute lung injury involve inflammation at the cellular level. The inflammation process is very complex and is characterized by the emergence of cytokines along with other changes in cellular processes. Due to the complexity of the various constituents that makes up the inflammation dynamics, it is necessary to develop models that can complement experiments to fully understand inflammatory diseases. In this study, we developed a discrete informatics model based on cellular automata (CA) approach to investigate the influence of elastic field (stretch/strain) on the dynamics of inflammation and account for probabilistic adaptation based on statistical interpretation of existing experimental data...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209713/mir-718-represses-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-through-targeting-pten
#8
Parisa Kalantari, Omid F Harandi, Sarika Agarwal, Florentina Rus, Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Daniel R Caffrey, Douglas T Golenbock
Bacterial sepsis involves a complex interaction between the host immune response and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS binds Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, which leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are essential for a potent innate immune response against pathogens. The innate immune system is tightly regulated as excessive inflammation can lead to organ failure and death. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as important regulators of the innate immune system. Here, we determined the function of miR-718, which is conserved across mammals and overlaps with the 5 UTR of the Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase (IRAK1) gene...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205646/connexin30-3-is-expressed-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-is-responsive-to-leukemia-inhibitory-factor
#9
Mikako Saito, Yuma Asai, Keiichi Imai, Shoya Hiratoko, Kento Tanaka
The expression of 19 connexin (Cx) isoforms was observed in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line, EB3. Their expression patterns could be classified into either pluripotent state-specific, differentiating stage-specific, or non-specific Cxs. We focused on Cx30.3 as typical of the first category. Cx30.3 was pluripotent state-specific and upregulated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a specific cytokine that maintains the pluripotent state of ES cell, via a Jak signaling pathway. Cx30.3 protein was localized to both the cell membrane and cytosol...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202530/therapeutic-potential-of-bacteria-against-solid-tumors
#10
Haralampos Hatzikirou, Juan Carlos Lopez Alfonso, Sara Leschner, Siegfried Weiss, Michael Meyer-Hermann
Intentional bacterial infections can produce efficacious anti-tumor responses in mice, rats, dogs and humans. However, low overall success rates and intense side-effects prevent such approaches from being employed clinically. In this work, we titered bacteria and/or the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in a set of established murine models of cancer. To interpret the experiments conducted, we considered and calibrated a tumor-effector cell recruitment model under the influence of functional tumor-associated vasculature...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194116/dynamic-and-static-exercises-differentially-affect-plasma-cytokine-content-in-elite-endurance-and-strength-trained-athletes-and-untrained-volunteers
#11
Leonid V Kapilevich, Anna N Zakharova, Anastasia V Kabachkova, Tatyana A Kironenko, Sergei N Orlov
Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193067/biorecognition-in-organic-field-effect-transistors-biosensors-the-role-of-the-density-of-states-of-the-organic-semiconductor
#12
Marcello Berto, Stefano Casalini, Michele Di Lauro, Simone L Marasso, Matteo Cocuzza, Denis Perrone, Marcello Pinti, Andrea Cossarizza, Candido F Pirri, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren, Francesco Zerbetto, Carlo A Bortolotti, Fabio Biscarini
Biorecognition is a central event in biological processes in the living systems that is also widely exploited in technological and health applications. We demonstrate that the Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistor (EGOFET) is an ultrasensitive and specific device that allows us to quantitatively assess the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition between a human antibody and its antigen, namely, the inflammatory cytokine TNFα at the solid/liquid interface. The EGOFET biosensor exhibits a superexponential response at TNFα concentration below 1 nM with a minimum detection level of 100 pM...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191842/synthesis-and-functional-characterization-of-novel-sialyl-lewisx-mimic-decorated-liposomes-for-e-selectin-mediated-targeting-to-inflamed-endothelial-cells
#13
Chanikarn Chantarasrivong, Akiharu Ueki, Ryutaro Ohyama, Johan Unga, Shinya Nakamura, Isao Nakanishi, Yuriko Higuchi, Shigeru Kawakami, Hiromune Ando, Akihiro Imamura, Hideharu Ishida, Fumiyoshi Yamashita, Makoto Kiso, Mitsuru Hashida
Sialyl LewisX (sLeX) is a natural ligand of E-selectin that is overexpressed by inflamed and tumor endothelium. Although sLeX is a potential ligand for drug targeting, synthesis of the tetrasaccharide is complicated with many reaction steps. In this study, structurally simplified novel sLeX analogs were designed and linked with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethyleneglycol-2000 (DSPE-PEG) for E-selectin-mediated liposomal delivery. The sLeX structural simplification strategies include (1) replacement of the Gal-GlcNAc disaccharide unit with lactose to reduce many initial steps and (2) substitution of neuraminic acid with a negatively charged group, i...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188892/the-dental-monomer-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hema-counteracts-lipopolysaccharide-induced-il-1%C3%AE-release-possible-role-of-glutathione
#14
Anette Kocbach Bolling, Anita Solhaug, Else Morisbak, Jørn A Holme, Jan Tore Samuelsen
Methacrylate monomers, like 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), are common components of resin based dental materials. Leakage of unpolymerized monomers after placement and curing leads to human exposure. HEMA is known to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cytokine release. In this study we explore a possible role of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in this effect. In the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line, HEMA (<2mM) did not induce cell death, but reduced cellular GSH levels, increased cellular ROS and decreased the IL-1β release from LPS-stimulated cells...
February 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188764/modulation-of-cerebral-rage-expression-following-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-in-rats-subjected-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a key mediator of neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a dualistic role in cerebral ischemia, depending on whether it originates from neuronal, inducible or endothelial synthase. Although a dynamic interplay between RAGE and NO pathways exists, its relevance in ischemic stroke has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on RAGE expression in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo)...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185924/high-throughput-dynamic-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-splenic-dendritic-cells-from-mice-infected-with-schistosoma-japonicum
#16
Lin Chen, Qingzhou Chen, Wei Hou, Li He
Dendritic cells are the initiation and key point of immune response and play a role in immune regulation. So we explored the mechanisms involved in immune regulation of dendritic cells (DCs) against schistosomiasis using mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Splenic DCs from normal mice and mice with acute and chronic S. japonicum infection were sorted by flow cytometry. The numbers and functions of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DCs were determined by high-throughput analysis. All DEGs with transcription-level fold changes of ≥2 were selected and matched to corresponding genes in databases...
February 7, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182293/standardizing-the-freeze-thaw-preparation-of-growth-factors-from-platelet-lysate
#17
Gabriel Strandberg, Felix Sellberg, Pehr Sommar, Martin Ronaghi, Norbert Lubenow, Folke Knutson, David Berglund
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, the focus on the regenerative properties of platelets (PLTs) has intensified and many PLT-derived growth factors are readily used in medical settings. A general lack of standardization in the preparation of these growth factors remains, however, and this study therefore examines the dynamics of growth factors throughout the freeze-thaw procedure. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plateletpheresis (PA) and PLT-poor plasma (PPP) samples were collected from 10 healthy donors...
February 9, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170538/microglia-activation-and-recruitment-of-circulating-macrophages-during-ischemic-experimental-branch-retinal-vein-occlusion
#18
Andreas Ebneter, Despina Kokona, Nadia Schneider, Martin S Zinkernagel
Purpose: To characterize retinal microglia activation and macrophage recruitment in experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: Experimental BRVO was induced in Balb/c mice and histologic changes were studied. Tissue hypoxia was visualized using pimonidazole hydrochloride. Monocyte-derived retinal cells were quantified using histology and flow cytometry. To investigate the dynamics of invading blood-borne macrophages, chimera mice were generated using bone marrow grafts from Cx3cr1(gfp/gfp) mice to rescue lethally irradiated wild-type BALB/c mice...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168553/ccr2-contributes-to-the-recruitment-of-monocytes-and-leads-to-kidney-inflammation-and-fibrosis-development
#19
Tarcio Teodoro Braga, Matheus Correa-Costa, Reinaldo Correia Silva, Mario Costa Cruz, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Joao Santana da Silva, Katia Regina Perez, Iolanda Midea Cuccovia, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
Chemokines are a large family of proteins that, once associated to its receptor on leukocytes, stimulate their movement and migration from blood to tissues. Once in the tissue, immune cells trigger inflammation that, when uncontrolled, leads to fibrosis development. Among the immune cells, macrophages take a special role in fibrosis formation, since macrophage depletion reflects less collagen deposition. The majority of tissue macrophages is derived from monocytes, especially monocytes expressing the chemokine receptor CCR2...
February 6, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167544/nanoliposomal-buparvaquone-immunomodulates-leishmania-l-infantum-infected-macrophages-and-is-highly-effective-in-murine-model
#20
Thais Alves da Costa-Silva, Andrés Jimenez Galisteo, José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Leandro R S Barbosa, Andre Gustavo Tempone
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal parasitic neglected disease affecting 1.5 million people worldwide. Based on the drug repositioning approach, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of buparvaquone (BPQ) and to stablish a safe regimen to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of BPQ entrapped into negatively charged nanoliposomes (BPQ-LP) in Leishmania (L.) infantum infected hamsters. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ζ-potential were applied in order to study the influence of BPQ on the liposome structure...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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