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Fecal microbe transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125667/profiling-living-bacteria-informs-preparation-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantations
#1
Nathaniel D Chu, Mark B Smith, Allison R Perrotta, Zain Kassam, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115022/gut-microbial-degradation-of-organophosphate-insecticides-induces-glucose-intolerance-via-gluconeogenesis
#2
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Krishnan Swaminathan, Gilles Mithieux, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran, Mani Dhivakar, Ayothi Parthasarathy, D D Venkatesh Babu, Leishman John Thumburaj, Allen J Freddy, Vasudevan Dinakaran, Shanavas Syed Mohamed Puhari, Balakrishnan Rekha, Yacob Jenifer Christy, Sivakumar Anusha, Ganesan Divya, Kannan Suganya, Boominathan Meganathan, Narayanan Kalyanaraman, Varadaraj Vasudevan, Raju Kamaraj, Maruthan Karthik, Balakrishnan Jeyakumar, Albert Abhishek, Eldho Paul, Muthuirulan Pushpanathan, Rajamani Koushick Rajmohan, Kumaravel Velayutham, Alexander R Lyon, Subbiah Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080)...
January 24, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113162/omics-tech-gut-on-a-chip-and-bacterial-engineering-new-approaches-for-treating-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#3
Leslie Mertz
It was six years ago that fecal transplantation first received prominent media attention and the public began to fully appreciate that the bacteria and other microbes in their bodies could have a real impact on health.
September 2016: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092309/microbiota-targeted-therapies-on-the-intensive-care-unit
#4
Bastiaan W Haak, Marcel Levi, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition and diversity of the microbiota of the human gut, skin, and several other sites is severely deranged in critically ill patients on the ICU, and it is likely that these disruptions can negatively affect outcome. We here review new and ongoing studies that investigate the use of microbiota-targeted therapeutics in the ICU, and provide recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Practically every intervention in the ICU as well as the physiological effects of critical illness itself can have a profound impact on the gut microbiota...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#5
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008842/-microbiota-and-representations-of-the-human-body
#6
Betty Dodet
Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997854/the-emerging-metabolic-view-of-clostridium-difficile-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Andrew J Hryckowian, Kali M Pruss, Justin L Sonnenburg
It is widely accepted that Clostridium difficile exploits dysbiosis and leverages inflammation to thrive in the gut environment, where it can asymptomatically colonize humans or cause a toxin-mediated disease ranging in severity from frequent watery diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Here, we synthesize recent findings from the gut microbiota and enteric pathogenesis fields to inform the next steps toward a better understanding of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this review, we present a model in which the lifestyle of C...
December 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965663/alteration-in-the-gut-microbiota-provokes-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#8
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Sajid Nadeem, Shikha Negi, Girish Nair, Javed N Agrewala
The microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the lungs, liver, and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799307/nkt-cell-deficient-mice-harbor-an-altered-microbiota-that-fuels-intestinal-inflammation-during-chemically-induced-colitis
#9
Thirumahal Selvanantham, Qiaochu Lin, Cynthia Xinyi Guo, Anuradha Surendra, Stephanie Fieve, Nichole K Escalante, David S Guttman, Catherine J Streutker, Susan J Robertson, Dana J Philpott, Thierry Mallevaey
NKT cells are unconventional T cells that respond to self and microbe-derived lipid and glycolipid Ags presented by the CD1d molecule. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells influence immune responses in numerous diseases. Although only a few studies have examined their role during intestinal inflammation, it appears that iNKT cells protect from Th1-mediated inflammation but exacerbate Th2-mediated inflammation. Studies using iNKT cell-deficient mice and chemically induced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis have led to inconsistent results...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795585/the-gut-microbiome-and-its-role-in-obesity
#10
Cindy D Davis
The human body is host to a vast number of microbes, including bacterial, fungal and protozoal microoganisms, which together constitute our microbiota. Evidence is emerging that the intestinal microbiome is intrinsically linked with overall health, including obesity risk. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders are characterized by specific alterations in the composition and function of the human gut microbiome. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota can influence both sides of the energy balance equation; namely, as a factor influencing energy utilization from the diet and as a factor that influences host genes that regulate energy expenditure and storage...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774001/the-significance-of-the-enteric-microbiome-on-the-development-of-childhood-disease-a-review-of-prebiotic-and-probiotic-therapies-in-disorders-of-childhood
#11
REVIEW
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418314/gut-microbiota-directs-ppar%C3%AE-driven-reprogramming-of-the-liver-circadian-clock-by-nutritional-challenge
#12
Mari Murakami, Paola Tognini, Yu Liu, Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Pierre Baldi, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The liver circadian clock is reprogrammed by nutritional challenge through the rewiring of specific transcriptional pathways. As the gut microbiota is tightly connected to host metabolism, whose coordination is governed by the circadian clock, we explored whether gut microbes influence circadian homeostasis and how they distally control the peripheral clock in the liver. Using fecal transplant procedures we reveal that, in response to high-fat diet, the gut microbiota drives PPARγ-mediated activation of newly oscillatory transcriptional programs in the liver...
September 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327243/role-of-the-microbiome-probiotics-and-dysbiosis-therapy-in-critical-illness
#13
Paul E Wischmeyer, Daniel McDonald, Rob Knight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of 'health-promoting' microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis) in ICU is believed to contribute to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). This review discusses new understanding of ICU dysbiosis, new data for probiotics and fecal transplantation in ICU, and new data characterizing the ICU microbiome. RECENT FINDINGS: ICU dysbiosis results from many factors, including ubiquitous antibiotic use and overuse...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312892/microbial-community-transplant-results-in-increased-and-long-term-oxalate-degradation
#14
Aaron W Miller, Kelly F Oakeson, Colin Dale, M Denise Dearing
Gut microbes are essential for the degradation of dietary oxalate, and this function may play a role in decreasing the incidence of kidney stones. However, many oxalate-degrading bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics and the use of oxalate-degrading probiotics has only led to an ephemeral reduction in urinary oxalate. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of using whole-community microbial transplants from a wild mammalian herbivore, Neotoma albigula, to increase oxalate degradation over the long term in the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus...
August 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27286042/long-term-microbiota-and-virome-in-a-z%C3%A3-rich-patient-after-fecal-transplantation-against-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Felix Broecker, Jochen Klumpp, Karin Moelling
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infections that are refractory to conventional treatment. FMT introduces fecal microbes into the patient's intestine that prevent the recurrence of C. difficile, leading to rapid expansion of bacteria characteristic of healthy microbiota. However, the long-term effects of FMT remain largely unknown. The C. difficile patient described in this paper revealed protracted microbiota adaptation processes from 6 to 42 months post-FMT...
May 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183608/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-governs-colonic-homeostasis-by-controlling-epithelial-differentiation-and-the-luminal-microbiota
#16
Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Takako Serizawa, Nobumi Suzuki, Kosuke Sakitani, Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Hayato Nakagawa, Hideaki Ijichi, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
Dendritic cells (DCs) mediate host immune responses to gut microbes and play critical roles in inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we examined the role of TGF-β signaling in DCs in colonic homeostasis. CD11c-cre Tgfbr2(fl/fl) mice developed spontaneous colitis, and CD11c-cre Tgfbr2(fl/+) mice exhibited susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Colitis in these mice was characterized by goblet cell depletion and dysbiosis caused by Enterobacteriaceae enrichment. Wild-type mice gavaged with Enterobacteriaceae from CD11c-cre Tgfbr2(fl/fl) mice feces showed severe colitis after dextran sulfate sodium treatment, whereas those treated with Notch inhibitor exhibited attenuated colonic injury with increased goblet cell numbers, thickened mucus layer, and fewer fecal Enterobacteriaceae Wild-type mice transplanted with CD11c-cre Tgfbr2(fl/fl) bone marrow developed colitis showing increased Jagged1 and Jagged2 in DCs, increased Hes1 levels in epithelium, and goblet cell depletion...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161356/how-to-manipulate-the-microbiota-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Susana Fuentes, Willem M de Vos
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. This is a natural process that occurs already at birth; infants are rapidly colonized by a specific microbial community, the composition of which strongly depends on the mode of delivery and which therefore most likely originates from the mother (Palmer et al. 2007; Tannock et al...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133778/microbial-therapeutic-interventions
#18
REVIEW
Nicole G Grady, Elaine O Petrof, Erika C Claud
The microbiome comprises all the microbes living in and on the human body. Human cells are greatly outnumbered by bacterial cells; thus human health depends on the health of the microbial ecosystem. For the immature preterm infant, the microbiome also influences intestinal and immune system development. This has implications for short term morbidities such as neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, but also long term health outcomes. Optimization of the preterm infant microbiome is a growing topic of interest...
December 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121964/pretreatment-gut-microbiome-predicts-chemotherapy-related-bloodstream-infection
#19
Emmanuel Montassier, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Tonya Ward, Stephane Corvec, Thomas Gastinne, Gilles Potel, Phillipe Moreau, Marie France de la Cochetiere, Eric Batard, Dan Knights
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia, or bloodstream infection (BSI), is a leading cause of death among patients with certain types of cancer. A previous study reported that intestinal domination, defined as occupation of at least 30 % of the microbiota by a single bacterial taxon, is associated with BSI in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. However, the impact of the intestinal microbiome before treatment initiation on the risk of subsequent BSI remains unclear. Our objective was to characterize the fecal microbiome collected before treatment to identify microbes that predict the risk of BSI...
April 28, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074706/the-effects-of-antibiotics-on-the-microbiome-throughout-development-and-alternative-approaches-for-therapeutic-modulation
#20
REVIEW
Amy Langdon, Nathan Crook, Gautam Dantas
The widespread use of antibiotics in the past 80 years has saved millions of human lives, facilitated technological progress and killed incalculable numbers of microbes, both pathogenic and commensal. Human-associated microbes perform an array of important functions, and we are now just beginning to understand the ways in which antibiotics have reshaped their ecology and the functional consequences of these changes. Mounting evidence shows that antibiotics influence the function of the immune system, our ability to resist infection, and our capacity for processing food...
April 13, 2016: Genome Medicine
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