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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691757/microbiota-transplantation-concept-methodology-and-strategy-for-its-modernization
#1
REVIEW
Faming Zhang, Bota Cui, Xingxiang He, Yuqiang Nie, Kaichun Wu, Daiming Fan
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become a research focus of biomedicine and clinical medicine in recent years. The clinical response from FMT for different diseases provided evidence for microbiota-host interactions associated with various disorders, including Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, liver cirrhosis, gut-brain disease and others. To discuss the experiences of using microbes to treat human diseases from ancient China to current era should be important in moving standardized FMT forward and achieving a better future...
April 24, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689727/vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-the-gut-microbiota
#2
Sinian Li, Yiming Shao, Kanglan Li, Changmei HuangFu, Wenjie Wang, Zhou Liu, Zhiyou Cai, Bin Zhao
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), the second most common cause of dementia in elderly people, is a term that refers to all forms of cognitive disorders that can be attributed to cerebrovascular disease such as manifestations of discrete infarctions, brain hemorrhages, and white matter lesions. The gut microbiota (GM) has emerged recently as an essential player in the development of VCI. The GM may affect the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions through the brain-gut axis via neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689651/high-relative-abundance-of-firmicutes-and-increased-tnf-%C3%AE-levels-correlate-with-obesity-in-children
#3
Yaneth C Orbe-Orihuela, Alfredo Lagunas-Martínez, Margarita Bahena-Román, Vicente Madrid-Marina, Kirvis Torres-Poveda, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro, Araceli Méndez-Padrón, Cinthya E Díaz-Benítez, Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza, Diana Antúnez-Ortiz, Miguel Cruz, Ana I Burguete-García
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation among pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines and the two main gut microbiota phyla in obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anthropometric data were obtained from 890 children under 14 years old to determine the degree of obesity. Serum cytokine concentration was measured by ELISA. Relative abundance of gut microbiota in feces was evaluated by quantitative RealTime PCR assays. RESULTS: Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were statistically higher in overweigth/ obese children (OW/O) than in lean (NW), Increased TNF-α levels were found in obese children that also have a high relative abundance of Firmicutes...
January 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689301/distinct-consequences-of-amoxicillin-and-ertapenem-exposure-in-the-porcine-gut-microbiome
#4
Sheila Connelly, Poorani Subramanian, Nur A Hasan, Rita R Colwell, Michael Kaleko
The gut microbiome influences many, if not all, aspects of human health. Antibiotics, while lifesaving, have the unintended consequence of killing commensal microbiota inhabiting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which can lead to overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Here, porcine models were developed to evaluate changes to the gut microbiome caused by two distinct types of beta-lactam antibiotics delivered via common administration routes, oral amoxicillin and intravenous ertapenem...
April 21, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688915/clinical-and-microbiological-effect-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-supplementation-in-celiac-patients-with-persistent-ibs-type-symptoms-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-trial
#5
Ruggiero Francavilla, Maria Piccolo, Antonio Francavilla, Lorenzo Polimeno, Francesco Semeraro, Fernanda Cristofori, Stefania Castellaneta, Michele Barone, Flavia Indrio, Marco Gobbetti, Maria De Angelis
GOALS: The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a probiotic mixture in patients with celiac disease (CD) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms despite a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). BACKGROUND: About 30% of patients with CD adherent to a GFD suffer from IBS-type symptoms; a possible cause resides in the imbalances of the intestinal microbiota in CD. Probiotics may represent a potential treatment. STUDY: CD patients with IBS-type symptoms entered a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688458/preterm-infants-have-distinct-microbiomes-not-explained-by-mode-of-delivery-breastfeeding-duration-or-antibiotic-exposure
#6
Cecilie Dahl, Hein Stigum, Jørgen Valeur, Nina Iszatt, Virissa Lenters, Shyamal Peddada, Jørgen V Bjørnholt, Tore Midtvedt, Siddhartha Mandal, Merete Eggesbø
Background: Preterm infants have low gut microbial diversity and few anaerobes. It is unclear whether the low diversity pertains to prematurity itself or is due to differences in delivery mode, feeding mode or exposure to antibiotics. Methods: The Norwegian Microbiota Study (NoMIC) was established to examine the colonization of the infant gut and health outcomes. 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon-sequenced samples from 519 children (160 preterms), collected at 10 days, 4 months and 1 year postnatally, were used to calculate alpha diversity...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688220/the-effects-of-sequencing-platforms-on-phylogenetic-resolution-in-16-s-rrna-gene-profiling-of-human-feces
#7
Tae Woong Whon, Won-Hyong Chung, Mi Young Lim, Eun-Ji Song, Pil Soo Kim, Dong-Wook Hyun, Na-Ri Shin, Jin-Woo Bae, Young-Do Nam
High-quality and high-throughput sequencing technologies are required for therapeutic and diagnostic analyses of human gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the various commercial sequencing platforms for studying human gut microbiota. We generated fecal bacterial sequences from 170 Korean subjects using the GS FLX+ (V1-4), Illumina MiSeq (V1-3, V3-4 and V4), and PacBio (V1-9) systems. Comparative analyses revealed that the PacBio data showed the weakest relationship with the reference whole-metagenome shotgun datasets...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687905/modulation-of-intestinal-paracellular-transport-by-bacterial-pathogens
#8
Jennifer Lising Roxas, V K Viswanathan
The passive and regulated movement of ions, solutes, and water via spaces between cells of the epithelial monolayer plays a critical role in the normal intestinal functioning. This paracellular pathway displays a high level of structural and functional specialization, with the membrane-spanning complexes of the tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes ensuring its integrity. Tight junction proteins, like occludin, tricellulin, and the claudin family isoforms, play prominent roles as barriers to unrestricted paracellular transport...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687647/gut-microbiota-from-microorganisms-to-metabolic-organ-influencing-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Richard W Stephens, Lidia Arhire, Mihai Covasa
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and the host as it pertains to the regulation of energy balance and obesity. METHODS: The paper begins with a brief description of the gut microbiota environment, distribution, and its unique symbiotic relationship with the host. The way that enviromental factors influence microbiota composition and subsequent impact on the host are then described. Next, the mechanisms linking gut dysbiosis with obesity are discussed, and finally current challenges and limitations in understanding the role of gut microbiota in control of obesity are presented...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687645/gut-microbes-and-health-a-focus-on-the-mechanisms-linking-microbes-obesity-and-related-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Marialetizia Rastelli, Claude Knauf, Patrice D Cani
The past decade has been characterized by tremendous progress in the field of the gut microbiota and its impact on host metabolism. Although numerous studies show a strong relationship between the composition of gut microbiota and specific metabolic disorders associated with obesity, the key mechanisms are still being studied. The present review focuses on specific complex pathways as well as key interactions. For instance, the nervous routes are explored by examining the enteric nervous system, the vagus nerve, and the brain, as well as the endocrine routes (i...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687552/gut-microbial-functional-maturation-and-succession-during-human-early-life
#11
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruiz, Inmaculada Acuña, Ruy Jáuregui, Nico Jehmlich, Sven-Bastian Haange, Martin von Bergen, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687200/are-probiotics-effective-in-targeting-alcoholic-liver-diseases
#12
Meegun Hong, Dae Hee Han, Jitaek Hong, Dong Joon Kim, Ki Tae Suk
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Despite intensive research in the last two decades, there is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for treating ALD. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut-liver axis and gut microbiome on the pathogenesis of ALD. Alcohol may induce intestinal dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability, which in turn result in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and translocation of microbial products from the gut to the liver (bacterial translocation)...
April 23, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686799/differential-microbial-communities-of-omnivorous-and-herbivorous-cattle-in-southern-china
#13
Susanna K P Lau, Jade L L Teng, Tsz Ho Chiu, Elaine Chan, Alan K L Tsang, Gianni Panagiotou, Shao-Lun Zhai, Patrick C Y Woo
In Hong Kong, cattle were traditionally raised by farmers as draft animals to plough rice fields. Due to urbanization in the 20th century, they were gradually abandoned and became wild cattle straying in suburban Hong Kong. Recently, these cattle were observed to have become omnivorous by eating leftover barbeque food waste in country parks. Microbiome analysis was performed on fecal samples of the omnivorous cattle using deep sequencing and the resulting microbiome was compared with that of traditional herbivorous cattle in Southern China...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686658/gut-microbiota-profiling-and-gut-brain-crosstalk-in-children-affected-by-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-and-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections
#14
Andrea Quagliariello, Federica Del Chierico, Alessandra Russo, Sofia Reddel, Giulia Conte, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Bruno Dallapiccola, Francesco Cardona, Antonio Gasbarrini, Lorenza Putignani
Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686654/high-fat-diet-induces-dysbiosis-of-gastric-microbiota-prior-to-gut-microbiota-in-association-with-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#15
Cong He, Dandan Cheng, Chao Peng, Yanshu Li, Yin Zhu, Nonghua Lu
Accumulating evidence suggests that high-fat diet (HFD) induced metabolic disorders are associated with dysbiosis of gut microbiota. However, no study has explored the effect of HFD on the gastric microbiota. This study established the HFD animal model to determine the impact of HFD on the gastric microbiota and its relationship with the alterations of gut microbiota. A total of 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (CD) or HFD for 12 weeks (12CD group and 12HFD group) and 24 weeks (24CD group and 24HFD group) ( n = 10 mice per group)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686603/indole-a-signaling-molecule-produced-by-the-gut-microbiota-negatively-impacts-emotional-behaviors-in-rats
#16
Mathilde Jaglin, Moez Rhimi, Catherine Philippe, Nicolas Pons, Aurélia Bruneau, Bénédicte Goustard, Valérie Daugé, Emmanuelle Maguin, Laurent Naudon, Sylvie Rabot
Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686533/gut-dysbiosis-and-muscle-aging-searching-for-novel-targets-against-sarcopenia
#17
REVIEW
Anna Picca, Francesca Fanelli, Riccardo Calvani, Giuseppina Mulè, Vito Pesce, Alex Sisto, Cecilia Pantanelli, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
Advanced age is characterized by several changes, one of which is the impairment of the homeostasis of intestinal microbiota. These alterations critically influence host health and have been associated with morbidity and mortality in older adults. "Inflammaging," an age-related chronic inflammatory process, is a common trait of several conditions, including sarcopenia. Interestingly, imbalanced intestinal microbial community has been suggested to contribute to inflammaging. Changes in gut microbiota accompanying sarcopenia may be attenuated by supplementation with pre- and probiotics...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686404/systems-biology-in-hepatology-approaches-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Adil Mardinoglu, Jan Boren, Ulf Smith, Mathias Uhlen, Jens Nielsen
Detailed insights into the biological functions of the liver and an understanding of its crosstalk with other human tissues and the gut microbiota can be used to develop novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of liver-associated diseases, including fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biological network models, including metabolic, transcriptional regulatory, protein-protein interaction, signalling and co-expression networks, can provide a scaffold for studying the biological pathways operating in the liver in connection with disease development in a systematic manner...
April 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686297/microbiota-accessible-carbohydrates-suppress-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-murine-model
#19
Andrew J Hryckowian, William Van Treuren, Samuel A Smits, Nicole M Davis, Jackson O Gardner, Donna M Bouley, Justin L Sonnenburg
Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic diarrhoeal pathogen, and C. difficile infection (CDI) represents a major health care concern, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths per year in the United States alone 1 . Several enteric pathogens, including C. difficile, leverage inflammation and the accompanying microbial dysbiosis to thrive in the distal gut 2 . Although diet is among the most powerful available tools for affecting the health of humans and their relationship with their microbiota, investigation into the effects of diet on CDI has been limited...
April 23, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685983/gut-microbiome-analysis-identifies-potential-aetiological-factors-in-acute-gastroenteritis
#20
Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Alexander P Underwood, Juan Merif, Stephen M Riordan, William D Rawlinson, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush
The morbidity and mortality resulting from acute gastroenteritis and associated chronic sequelae represent a substantial burden on health care systems worldwide. Few studies have investigated changes in the gut microbiome following an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Using non-directed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, the faecal microbiota of 475 patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined. Patient age was correlated to the overall microbial composition, with a decrease in Faecalibacterium observed in older patients...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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