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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650741/microbial-culturomics-application-for-global-health-noncontiguous-finished-genome-sequence-and-description-of-pseudomonas-massiliensis-strain-cb-1-t-sp-nov-in-brazil
#1
Lucie Bardet, Teresa Cimmino, Clémence Buffet, Caroline Michelle, Jaishriram Rathored, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Saber Khelaifia, Jônatas Abrahão, Didier Raoult, Jean-Marc Rolain
Culturomics is a new postgenomics field that explores the microbial diversity of the human gut coupled with taxono-genomic strategy. Culturomics, and the microbiome science more generally, are anticipated to transform global health diagnostics and inform the ways in which gut microbial diversity contributes to human health and disease, and by extension, to personalized medicine. Using culturomics, we report in this study the description of strain CB1(T) ( = CSUR P1334 = DSM 29075), a new species isolated from a stool specimen from a 37-year-old Brazilian woman...
June 26, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650341/two-rheumatoid-arthritis-specific-autoantigens-correlate-microbial-immunity-with-autoimmune-responses-in-joints
#2
Annalisa Pianta, Sheila L Arvikar, Klemen Strle, Elise E Drouin, Qi Wang, Catherine E Costello, Allen C Steere
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immunological triggers at mucosal sites, such as the gut microbiota, may promote autoimmunity that affects joints. Here, we used discovery-based proteomics to detect HLA-DR-presented peptides in synovia or peripheral blood mononuclear cells and identified 2 autoantigens, N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase (GNS) and filamin A (FLNA), as targets of T and B cell responses in 52% and 56% of RA patients, respectively. Both GNS and FLNA were highly expressed in synovia. GNS appeared to be citrullinated, and GNS antibody values correlated with anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649603/the-gut-brain-axis-is-intestinal-inflammation-a-silent-driver-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#3
Madelyn C Houser, Malú G Tansey
The state of the intestinal environment can have profound effects on the activity of the central nervous system through the physiological contributions of the microbiota, regulation of intestinal barrier function, and altered activity of peripheral neurons. The common language employed for much of the gut-brain communication is the modulation of immune activity. Chronic proinflammatory immune activity is increasingly being recognized as a fundamental element of neurodegenerative disorders, and in Parkinson's disease, inflammation in the intestine appears particularly relevant in pathogenesis...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649469/distinct-patterns-in-the-gut-microbiota-after-surgical-or-medical-therapy-in-obese-patients
#4
Daniel A Medina, Juan P Pedreros, Dannae Turiel, Nicolas Quezada, Fernando Pimentel, Alex Escalona, Daniel Garrido
Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649413/identification-of-donor-microbe-species-that-colonize-and-persist-long-term-in-the-recipient-after-fecal-transplant-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile
#5
Ranjit Kumar, Nengjun Yi, Degui Zhi, Peter Eipers, Kelly T Goldsmith, Paula Dixon, David K Crossman, Michael R Crowley, Elliot J Lefkowitz, J Martin Rodriguez, Casey D Morrow
Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with recurrent C. difficile colitis. Although fecal microbiota transplantation helps to re-establish a normal gut function in patients, the extent of the repopulation of the recipient microbial community varies. To further understand this variation, it is important to determine the fate of donor microbes in the patients following fecal microbiota transplantation. We have developed a new method that utilizes the unique single nucleotide variants of gut microbes to accurately identify microbes in paired fecal samples from the same individual taken at different times...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649371/recent-advances-in-microbial-fermentation-for-dairy-and-health
#6
REVIEW
Daragh Hill, Ivan Sugrue, Elke Arendt, Colin Hill, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648868/immune-modulating-effects-in-mouse-dendritic-cells-of-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-isolated-from-individuals-following-omnivorous-vegetarian-and-vegan-diets
#7
Diomira Luongo, Lucia Treppiccione, Alida Sorrentino, Ilario Ferrocino, Silvia Turroni, Monica Gatti, Raffaella Di Cagno, Yolanda Sanz, Mauro Rossi
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria play a primary role in modulation of gut immunity. By considering that microbiota composition depends on various factors, including diet, we asked whether functional differences could characterize faecal populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria isolated from individuals with different dietary habits. 155 healthy volunteers who followed omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diets were recruited at four Italian centres (Turin, Parma, Bologna and Bari). Faecal samples were collected; lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were isolated on selective media and their immunomodulatory activity was tested in mouse dendritic cells (DCs)...
June 22, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647339/the-effects-of-amoxicillin-and-vancomycin-on-parameters-reflecting-cholesterol-metabolism
#8
S Baumgartner, D Reijnders, M C J M Konings, A K Groen, D Lütjohann, G H Goossens, E E Blaak, J Plat
BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646502/the-liver-gut-microbiota-axis-modulates-hepatotoxicity-of-tacrine-in-the-rat
#9
Lian Yee Yip, Chiu Cheong Aw, Sze Han Lee, Yi Shuen Hong, Han Chen Ku, Winston Hecheng Xu, Jessalyn Mei Xuan Chan, Eleanor Jing Yi Cheong, Kern Rei Chng, Amanda Hui Qi Ng, Niranjan Nagarajan, Ratha Mahendran, Yuan Kun Lee, Edward R Browne, Eric Chun Yong Chan
The gut microbiota possesses diverse metabolic activities but its contribution towards heterogeneous toxicological responses is poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the role of the liver-gut microbiota axis in underpinning the hepatotoxicity of tacrine. We employed an integrated strategy combining pharmacokinetics, toxicology, metabonomics, genomics and metagenomics to elucidate and validate the mechanism of tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in Lister hooded rats. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats demonstrated 3...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645724/micronutrient-deficiencies-and-the-human-gut-microbiota
#10
Núria Mach, Allison Clark
Little is known about how micronutrient deficiencies affect the human gut microbiota. A study by Hibberd et al. illustrates how these deficiencies affect the composition and function of gut microbiota, and further, how different species realize changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism to cope with micronutrient shortages.
June 20, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645266/poorer-outcomes-among-cancer-patients-diagnosed-with-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-united-states-community-hospitals
#11
Andrew Delgado, Ivan A Reveles, Felicia T Cabello, Kelly R Reveles
BACKGROUND: Cancer predisposes patients to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to health care exposures and medications that disrupt the gut microbiota or reduce immune response. Despite this association, the national rate of CDI among cancer patients is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear how CDI affects clinical outcomes in cancer. The objective of this study was to describe CDI incidence and health outcomes nationally among cancer patients in the United States (U.S.). METHODS: Data for this study were obtained from the U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#12
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644365/apropos-gut-microbiota-differences-in-children-from-distinct-socioeconomic-levels-living-in-the-same-urban-area-in-brazil
#13
Sheldon Waugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644357/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-cesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#14
Mei Chin Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne G E Neo, Wei Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of cesarean-born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (P < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643625/microbial-interactions-and-interventions-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Terence Van Raay, Emma Allen-Vercoe
Recently, several lines of evidence that indicate a strong link between the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and aspects of the gut microbiota have become apparent. However, it remains unclear how changes in the gut microbiota might influence carcinogenesis or how regional organization of the gut might influence the microbiota. In this review, we discuss several leading theories that connect gut microbial dysbiosis with CRC and set this against a backdrop of what is known about proximal-distal gut physiology and the pathways of CRC development and progression...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#16
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642740/multigenerational-influences-of-the-fut2-gene-on-the-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#17
Philipp Rausch, Sven Künzel, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A Grassl, Philip Rosenstiel, John F Baines
The FUT2 gene encodes an α-1,2-fucosyltransferase responsible for the expression of ABO histo-blood-group antigens on mucosal surfaces and bodily secretions. Individuals who carry at least one functional allele are known as "secretors," whereas those homozygous for loss-of-function mutations are known as "non-secretors." Non-secretor individuals are more susceptible to chronic inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's Disease, which may be mediated by alterations in the microbiota. Here, we investigated the dynamics of microbial community assembly with respect to genotype using a Fut2-deficient mouse model, taking the genotype of the maternal lineage over two generations into account...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642381/chemical-transformation-of-xenobiotics-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#18
REVIEW
Nitzan Koppel, Vayu Maini Rekdal, Emily P Balskus
The human gut microbiota makes key contributions to the metabolism of ingested compounds (xenobiotics), transforming hundreds of dietary components, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals into metabolites with altered activities, toxicities, and lifetimes within the body. The chemistry of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism is often distinct from that of host enzymes. Despite their important consequences for human biology, the gut microbes, genes, and enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641532/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-as-a-new-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#19
Jens Oellgaard, Signe Abitz Winther, Tobias Schmidt Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
BACKGROUND: The intake of animal products in food has been associated with both the development of insulin resistance and gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Through the digestion of animal protein and other constituents of animal products, the commensal bacteria in the gut (the gut microbiota) forms metabolites that can contribute to the development of both insulin resistance and cancer. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is such a molecule and has recently drawn a lot of attention as it may be a risk factor for - and a link between - the gut microbiota and cardiovascular and renal disease...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641031/treatment-options-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-safety-evaluation
#20
Danny Issa, Julia Wattacheril, Arun J Sanyal
Introduction There is an urgent as yet unmet need to develop highly effective and safe therapeutics for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The remarkable progress in understanding NAFLD pathogenesis allowed the identification of injury pathways which may be recruited as therapy targets. Areas covered This article reviews the safety and tolerability data of the NAFLD therapies and explains the mechanistic basis for each of the established and investigational drugs. Treatment targets include: weight loss, anti-metabolic agents such as lipid lowering and anti-diabetic drugs, inflammation, fibrosis and others such as targeting gut microbiota, immune modulation and apoptosis...
June 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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