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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324102/duodenal-mucosa-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-shows-distinctive-inflammatory-profile-and-microbiota
#1
Silvia Pellegrini, Valeria Sordi, Andrea Mario Bolla, Diego Saita, Roberto Ferrarese, Filippo Canducci, Massimo Clementi, Francesca Invernizzi, Alberto Mariani, Riccardo Bonfanti, Graziano Barera, Pier Alberto Testoni, Claudio Doglioni, Emanuele Bosi, Lorenzo Piemonti
Context: Increasing evidences suggest a correlation between gut and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the gut inflammatory profile and microbiota in patients with T1D, compared to healthy controls (CTRL) and patients with celiac disease (CD) as gut inflammatory disease controls. Design/Setting/Participants: The inflammatory status and microbiome composition were evaluated in biopsies of the duodenal mucosa of patients with T1D (n=19), CD (n=19) and CTRL (n=16), recruited at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, in Milan, Italy, between 2009 and 2015...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318588/comparative-composition-diversity-and-abundance-of-oligosaccharides-in-early-lactation-milk-from-commercial-dairy-and-beef-cows
#2
William M Sischo, Diana M Short, Mareen Geissler, Apichaya Bunyatratchata, Daniela Barile
Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318296/administration-of-lactobacillus-johnsonii-fi9785-to-chickens-affects-colonisation-by-campylobacter-jejuni-and-the-intestinal-microbiota
#3
R Mañes-Lázaro, P M Van Diemen, C Pin, M J Mayer, M P Stevens, A Narbad
1. Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis in the world largely from contaminated poultry meat. New control measures to reduce or eliminate this pathogen from the animal gastrointestinal tract are urgently required, and the use of probiotics as competitive exclusion agents is a promising biocontrol measure to reduce C. jejuni in the food chain. 2. In this study, we assessed the potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785, which has shown efficacy against Clostridium perfringens, to combat C...
March 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318126/infant-colic-is-still-a-mysterious-disorder-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#4
EDITORIAL
Anna Pärtty, Marko Kalliomäki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317481/gut-microbiota-a-new-marker-of-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Antonio Garcia-Rios, Jose David Torres-Peña, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the major cause of death in the developed countries. Moreover, the cardiovascular risk factors leading towards the development of CVD, mainly type 2 diabetes and obesity, are on the rise. The current preventive and therapeutic management, centred on the control of traditional risk factors, is clearly not enough to stop this pandemic. Therefore, the search for new biomarkers in CVD is a priority in most clinical research programs. Currently, interest in gut microbiota has peaked due to its association with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316999/does-the-gut-microbiota-influence-immunity-and-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathophysiology
#6
Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Aldona Medrek, Paulina Madej, Wirginia Michlicka, Pawel Dobrakowski
Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316967/the-role-of-mucosal-immunity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#7
REVIEW
Zerina Hodzic, Alexa M Bolock, Misty Good
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity. Although the precise cause is not well understood, the main risk factors thought to contribute to NEC include prematurity, formula feeding, and bacterial colonization. Recent evidence suggests that NEC develops as a consequence of intestinal hyper-responsiveness to microbial ligands upon bacterial colonization in the preterm infant, initiating a cascade of aberrant signaling events, and a robust pro-inflammatory mucosal immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316379/high-fat-diet-alters-gut-microbiota-and-the-expression-of-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptides-preceding-changes-of-circulating-inflammatory-cytokines
#8
Xiulan Guo, Jinchao Li, Renyong Tang, Guodong Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Richard J Wood, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for many diseases including intestinal cancer. One of the responsible mechanisms is the chronic inflammation driven by obesity. However, it remains to be defined whether diet-induced obesity exacerbates the intestinal inflammatory status by cytokines produced in adipose tissue or the high fat diet first alters the gut microbiota and then drives intestinal inflammation. To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HF, 60%) and sacrificed them sequentially after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and then compositions of gut microbiota and expressions of antimicrobial peptides were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316118/late-preterm-birth-has-direct-and-indirect-effects-on-infant-gut-microbiota-development-during-the-first-six-months-of-life
#9
M Forsgren, E Isolauri, S Salminen, S Rautava
AIM: Preterm infants display aberrant gut microbial colonisation. We investigated whether the differences in gut microbiota between late preterm and full-term infants results from prematurity or external exposures. METHODS: This study comprised 43 late preterm infants (34(0/7) - 36(6/7) ) and 75 full-term infants based on faecal samples collected following birth and at two to four weeks and six months of age. We assessed clinically relevant bacteria using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316036/targeting-the-microbiome-in-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
Allyson Zabell, W H Wilson Tang
Heart failure is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world today. While there have been major advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure over the past decades, disease progression remains inevitable in the majority of patients and effective therapies to prevent heart failure are still lacking. Research has turned to better understand the gut microbiome because alterations in their ecosystems have been associated with various downstream chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#12
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315161/the-effect-of-live-feeds-bathed-with-the-red-seaweed-asparagopsis-armata-on-the-survival-growth-and-physiology-status-of-sparus-aurata-larvae
#13
S Castanho, G Califano, F Soares, R Costa, L Mata, P Pousão-Ferreira, L Ribeiro
Larval rearing is affected by a wide range of microorganisms that thrive in larviculture systems. Some seaweed species have metabolites capable of reducing the bacterial load. However, no studies have yet tested whether including seaweed metabolites on larval rearing systems has any effects on the larvae development. This work assessed the development of Sparus aurata larvae fed preys treated with an Asparagopsis armata product. Live prey, Brachionus spp. and Artemia sp., were immersed in a solution containing 0...
March 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#14
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314858/identification-and-characterization-of-a-20%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-from-the-anaerobic-gut-bacterium-butyricicoccus-desmolans-atcc-43058
#15
Saravanan Devendran, Celia Méndez-Garcia, Jason M Ridlon
Members of the gastrointestinal microbiota are known to convert glucocorticoids to androstanes, which can be subsequently converted to potent androgens by other members of the gut microbiota or host tissues. Butyricicoccus desmolans and Clostridium cadaveris has previously been reported for steroid-17,20-desmolase and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-HSDH) activities that were responsible for androstane formation from cortisol, however the gene encoding these enzymes has yet to be reported. In this work, we identified and located a gene encoding 20β-HSDH in both B...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304369/the-role-of-adaptive-immunity-as-an-ecological-filter-on-the-gut-microbiota-in-zebrafish
#16
Keaton Stagaman, Adam R Burns, Karen Guillemin, Brendan Jm Bohannan
All animals live in intimate association with communities of microbes, collectively referred to as their microbiota. Certain host traits can influence which microbial taxa comprise the microbiota. One potentially important trait in vertebrate animals is the adaptive immune system, which has been hypothesized to act as an ecological filter, promoting the presence of some microbial taxa over others. Here we surveyed the intestinal microbiota of 68 wild-type zebrafish, with functional adaptive immunity, and 61 rag1(-) zebrafish, lacking functional B- and T-cell receptors, to test the role of adaptive immunity as an ecological filter on the intestinal microbiota...
March 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303904/microbiota-a-key-orchestrator-of-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Soumen Roy, Giorgio Trinchieri
The microbiota is composed of commensal bacteria and other microorganisms that live on the epithelial barriers of the host. The commensal microbiota is important for the health and survival of the organism. Microbiota influences physiological functions from the maintenance of barrier homeostasis locally to the regulation of metabolism, haematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity and other functions systemically. The microbiota is also involved in the initiation, progression and dissemination of cancer both at epithelial barriers and in sterile tissues...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303126/the-influence-of-host-stress-on-the-mechanism-of-infection-lost-microbiomes-emergent-pathobiomes-and-the-role-of-interkingdom-signaling
#18
John C Alverdy, James N Luo
Mammals constantly face stressful situations, be it extended periods of starvation, sleep deprivation from fear of predation, changing environmental conditions, or loss of habitat. Today, mammals are increasingly exposed to xenobiotics such as pesticides, pollutants, and antibiotics. Crowding conditions such as those created for the purposes of meat production from animals or those imposed upon humans living in urban environments or during world travel create new levels of physiologic stress. As such, human progress has led to an unprecedented exposure of both animals and humans to accidental pathogens (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302989/bacterial-microbiota-associated-with-the-glacier-ice-worm-is-dominated-by-both-worm-specific-and-glacier-derived-facultative-lineages
#19
Takumi Murakami, Takahiro Segawa, Roman Dial, Nozomu Takeuchi, Shiro Kohshima, Yuichi Hongoh
The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species...
March 9, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302863/transfer-of-dysbiotic-gut-microbiota-has-beneficial-effects-on-host-liver-metabolism
#20
Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Audren Fournel, Jerome Gilleron, Pascale Klopp, Aurelie Waget, Franck Ceppo, Alysson Marlin, Roshan Padmanabhan, Jason S Iacovoni, François Tercé, Patrice D Cani, Jean-François Tanti, Remy Burcelin, Claude Knauf, Mireille Cormont, Matteo Serino
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
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