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herpes virus

Koh-Hei Yamada, Ryuichi Majima, Toyofumi Yamaguchi, Naoki Inoue
Background Previously, we established a reporter cell line for human cytomegalovirus and screened anti-human cytomegalovirus compounds using the cell line. In this study, we characterized one of the identified compounds, 2,4-diamino-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (coded as 35C10). Methods 50% Effective concentrations (EC50s) and 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50s) of 35C10 and its derivatives in human fibroblasts were determined by X-gal staining of the cells infected with human cytomegalovirus Towne strain expressing β-galactosidase...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Swetha G Pinninti, David W Kimberlin
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease...
March 12, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Kai Zheng, Qiuying Liu, Shaoxiang Wang, Zhe Ren, Kaio Kitazato, Depo Yang, Yifei Wang
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encodes various microRNAs (miRNAs), whose targets are largely unknown. miR-H1 is the first discovered HSV-1 miRNA and is expressed predominantly in productive infection. Here we show that ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 1 (Ubr1) is a cellular target of miR-H1. Ubr1 is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, which causes the degradation of proteins bearing "destabilizing" N-terminal residues, such as neurodegeneration-associated protein fragment β-amyloid...
March 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Robert R Gruhl, Andrew Wu, Micah Niermann, Andrew Olson
BACKGROUND: Eczema coxsackium (EC) can manifest in patients with underlying atopic dermatitis (AD) as a diffuse vesicular rash in a febrile child. The presentation overlaps clinically with the feared diagnosis of eczema herpeticum (EH), which makes differentiating between the conditions very important. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-month-old girl with known AD presented with fever and rapidly spreading vesicular rash. The patient had multiple exposures including a new antibiotic prescription, introduction of new foods, 6-month vaccinations and a sick contact...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Sarah E Kleinstein, Patrick R Shea, Andrew S Allen, David M Koelle, Anna Wald, David B Goldstein
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an incurable viral infection with severity ranging from asymptomatic to frequent recurrences. The viral shedding rate has been shown as a reproducible HSV-2 severity end point that correlates with lesion rates. We used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to investigate the role of common human genetic variation in HSV-2 severity. We performed a GWAS on 223 HSV-2-positive participants of European ancestry. Severity was measured by viral shedding rate, as defined by the percent of days PCR+ for HSV-2 DNA over at least 30 days...
February 28, 2018: Genes and Immunity
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Takahiro Kobayashi, Ken Ishioka, Tatsuo Suzutani
Nedd4 is a family of ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate numerous cellular processes. In this report, we showed that alpha- and beta-herpesviruses have membrane proteins that regulate the function of the Nedd4 family members. Although the homology search score was quite low, UL56 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, ORF0 of varicella-zoster virus, UL42 of human cytomegalovirus, and U24 of human herpesvirus 6A, 6B, and 7 all possess at least one PPxY (PY) motif in their cytoplasmic domain, and are able to bind with Itch, a member of the Nedd4 family...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luděk Eyer, Radim Nencka, Erik de Clercq, Katherine Seley-Radtke, Daniel Růžek
Nucleoside analogs represent the largest class of small molecule-based antivirals, which currently form the backbone of chemotherapy of chronic infections caused by HIV, hepatitis B or C viruses, and herpes viruses. High antiviral potency and favorable pharmacokinetics parameters make some nucleoside analogs suitable also for the treatment of acute infections caused by other medically important RNA and DNA viruses. This review summarizes available information on antiviral research of nucleoside analogs against arthropod-borne members of the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae, being primarily focused on description of nucleoside inhibitors of flaviviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, methyltransferase, and helicase/NTPase...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Joy Y Feng
Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs have played significant roles in antiviral therapies and are valued for their impressive potency and high barrier to resistance. They have been approved for treatment of herpes simplex virus-1, HIV, HBV, HCV, and influenza, and new drugs are being developed for the treatment of RSV, Ebola, coronavirus MERS, and other emerging viruses. However, this class of compounds has also experienced a high attrition rate in clinical trials due to toxicity. In this review, we discuss the utility of different biochemical and cell-based assays and provide recommendations for assessing toxicity liability before entering animal toxicity studies...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
A Deethae, Y Peerapornpisal, J Pekkoh, P Sangthong, Y Tragoolpua
AIMS: To determine the antiviral activities of Spirogyra spp. algal extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Spirogyra spp. was extracted using water, ethanol and methanol. Aqueous extract of Spirogyra spp. had the lowest toxicity on Vero cells with the 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50 ) of 4363·30 μg ml-1 . As for potent inhibitory effect, the ethanolic extract presented the highest inhibition of viral infection on HSV-1 in the treatment during viral attachment on Vero cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) and selective index (SI) values of 164·20 and 2·17 μg ml-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bassant Meligy, Dalia Kadry, Iman H Draz, Huda Marzouk, Nevine R El Baroudy, Amira Sayed El Rifay
INTRODUCTION: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a considerable public health problem. AIM: This study was designed to describe the aetiology, demographic features, clinical picture, short-term outcome and risk factors of mortality of children with viral encephalitis in Egyptian children. METHODS: PCR detection of viruses in the CSF of pediatric patients admitted to the pediatric unit or ICU Cairo University Pediatric hospital presenting with encephalitis syndrome...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Sonia de Castro, María-José Camarasa
HIV infection still has a serious health and socio-economical impact and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. HIV infection and the AIDS pandemic are still matters of great concern, especially in less developed countries where the access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is limited. Patient compliance is another serious drawback. Nowadays, HAART is the treatment of choice although it is not the panacea. Despite the fact that it suppresses viral replication at undetectable viral loads and prevents progression of HIV infection into AIDS HAART has several pitfalls, namely, long-term side-effects, drug resistance development, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, low compliance and the intolerance of some patients to these drugs...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kunal Gupta, Hongyue Wang, Sanjiv B Amin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intermittent parenteral copper supplementation (IPC) on serum copper status and biochemical and hematological measures of copper toxicity and deficiency in premature infants with parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated cholestasis (PNAC). We performed a prospective nested observational study in premature infants with PNAC who received IPC after the development of PNAC. Infants with chromosomal disorders, TORCH (toxoplasmosis, parvovirus, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus) infection, metabolic disorder, and/or surgical abnormality of the hepatobiliary system were excluded...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Anthony L Cunningham, Thomas C Heineman, Himal Lal, Olivier Godeaux, Roman Chlibek, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Janet E McElhaney, Timo Vesikari, Charles Andrews, Won Suk Choi, Meral Esen, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Martina Kovac Choma, Karlis Pauksens, Stéphanie Ravault, Bruno Salaun, Tino F Schwarz, Jan Smetana, Carline Vanden Abeele, Peter Van den Steen, Ilse Vastiau, Lily Yin Weckx, Myron J Levin
Background: The herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su), consisting of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) and AS01B Adjuvant System, was highly efficacious in preventing herpes zoster in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 trials ( NCT01165177; NCT01165229). We present immunogenicity results from those trials. Methods: Participants (ZOE-50: ≥50; ZOE-70: ≥70 years of age) received 2 doses of HZ/su or placebo, 2 months (M) apart. Serum anti-gE antibodies and CD4 T cells expressing ≥2 of the 4 activation markers assessed (CD42+) after stimulation with gE-peptides were measured in sub-cohorts for humoral (n=3293) and cell-mediated (n=466) immunogenicity...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Amro Ali, Malka Davina Kirschenbaum, Sansar Sharma, Thaddeus L Wandel
PURPOSE: To the best of our knowledge, we present a rare case report describing an occurrence of acute retinal necrosis in an otherwise healthy individual who received the shingles vaccine. METHODS: Observational case report. PATIENT: A 63-year-old healthy and immunocompetent white man presented with change of vision in the left eye after blunt trauma. A diagnosis of corneal abrasion was made. During follow-up, a detailed history discovered a progressive deterioration in vision over the past few weeks...
March 8, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Lei Wang, Xiaoqing Chen, Xusha Zhou, Bernard Roizman, Grace Guoying Zhou
miRNAs are potent tools that in principle can be used to control the replication of infectious agents. The objectives of the studies reported here were to design miRNAs that can block the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 and which could be delivered to infected cells via exosomes. We report the following: (1) We designed three miRNAs targeting the mRNA encoding ICP4, an essential viral regulatory protein. Of the three miRNAs, one miRNA401 effectively blocked ICP4 accumulation and viral replication on transfection into susceptible cells...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
D Y W Chan, W J Edmunds, H L Chan, V Chan, Y C K Lam, S L Thomas, A J van Hoek, S Flasche
In Hong Kong, universal varicella vaccination started in July 2014. Before this, children could receive varicella vaccine via the private market. We analysed the epidemiology of varicella and zoster before universal vaccination. We estimated varicella vaccination coverage through surveys in preschool children. We estimated the burden of varicella and zoster with varicella notifications from 1999/00 to 2013/14, Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) attendance and inpatient admissions to public hospitals from 2004/05 to 2013/14...
March 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri, Abbas Sedaghat, Noushin Fahimfar, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) and syphilis among homeless in the city of Tehran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 596 homeless were recruited in Tehran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to study demographic data. Using enzyme-linked immunoassay, and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, we evaluated the seroprevalence of HAV anti-body, HEV IgG, herpes, HSV2 IgG, and syphilis among sheltered homeless in Tehran...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Varun Chauhan, Kapil Goyal, Mini P Singh
Infections due to both HSV-1 and HSV-2 constitute an enormous health burden worldwide. Development of vaccine against herpes infections is a WHO supported public health priority. The viral glycoproteins have always been the major hotspots for vaccine designing. The present study was aimed to identify the conserved T and B cell epitopes in the major glycoproteins of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 via rigorous computational approaches. Identification of promiscuous T cell epitopes is of utmost importance in vaccine designing as such epitopes are capable of binding to several allelic forms of HLA and could generate effective immune response in the host...
March 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Peter J Hamilton, Carissa J Lim, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Delivery of molecular tools for targeted epigenome editing in rodent brain can be facilitated by the use of viral vector-mediated gene transfer coupled with stereotaxic surgery techniques. Here, we describe the surgical protocol utilized by our group, which is optimized for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-mediated delivery into mouse brain. The protocol outlined herein could also be applied for delivery of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) or lentiviruses in both mice and rats. This method allows for efficient viral transgene expression and subsequent epigenome editing in rodent brain with excellent spatiotemporal control...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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