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Juan Valdes-Stauber, Susanne Bachthaler
Background: Psycho-oncologic consultation and liaison services (CLS) are mainly psychosomatic oriented teams in acute care hospitals. Their interventions are electively, setting-related or universal like in accredited centers. Objectives: We investigated whether clinical and care-related differences between cancer patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity exist as well as between patients treated in oncologic centers and aside thereof. We also investigated possible differences according to psychiatric as well as to oncologic diagnoses...
October 6, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Uwe Wollina, Pietro Nenoff, Gunter Haroske, Holger A Haenssle
BACKGROUND: Nail disorders can arise at any age. About half of all nail disorders are of infectious origin, 15% are due to inflammatory or metabolic conditions, and 5% are due to malignancies and pigment disturbances. The differential diagnosis of nail disorders is often an area of uncertainty. METHODS: This review is based on publications and guidelines retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, including Cochrane reviews, meta-analyses, and AWMF guidelines. RESULTS: Nail disorders are a common reason for derma - tologic consultation...
July 25, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a tertiary amine with a characteristic fishy odour. It is synthesised from dietary constituents, including choline, L-carnitine, betaine and lecithin by the action of microbial enzymes during both healthy and diseased conditions in humans. Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a disease typified by its association with the characteristic fishy odour because of decreased TMA metabolism and excessive TMA excretion. Besides TMAU, a number of other diseases are associated with abnormal levels of TMA, including renal disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Eliseos J Mucaki, Natasha G Caminsky, Ami M Perri, Ruipeng Lu, Alain Laederach, Matthew Halvorsen, Joan H M Knoll, Peter K Rogan
BACKGROUND: Sequencing of both healthy and disease singletons yields many novel and low frequency variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Complete gene and genome sequencing by next generation sequencing (NGS) significantly increases the number of VUS detected. While prior studies have emphasized protein coding variants, non-coding sequence variants have also been proven to significantly contribute to high penetrance disorders, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). We present a strategy for analyzing different functional classes of non-coding variants based on information theory (IT) and prioritizing patients with large intragenic deletions...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Rubika Balendra, James Uphill, Claire Collinson, Ronald Druyeh, Gary Adamson, Holger Hummerich, Inga Zerr, Pierluigi Gambetti, John Collinge, Simon Mead
BACKGROUND: Human prion diseases are relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorders which include sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and variant CJD (vCJD). Aside from variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) replicated association at genome-wide levels of significance has proven elusive. A recent association study identified variants in or near to the PLCXD3 gene locus as strong disease risk factors in multiple human prion diseases. This study claimed the first non-PRNP locus to be highly significantly associated with prion disease in genomic studies...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Yu P Orlov, V N Lukach, N V Govorova, A V Gluschenko, O D Dmitriva
UNLABELLED: PERPOSE OF RESEARCH: to evaluate the effectiveness of Remaxol in patients with pervasive peritonitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: assessed the effectiveness of a balanced infusion of the drug (Remaxol) in the treatment of 44 patients agedfrom 18 to 50 years. Patients were devided into 2 groups by the method of envelopes. All patients received a comprehensive differential therapy: 21 patient 1 group consisting of infusion therapy in the postoperative period received Remaxol at a dose of 800 mg/day for 7 days...
November 2015: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Giandomenico D'Alessandro, Francesco Cerritelli, Pietro Cortelli
Historically, approaches used in manual medicine to explain patient reported symptoms have been focused on the so-called exteroceptive paradigm. Arguably, this mindset lacks an appropriate "reading system" able to interpret musculoskeletal disorders from a different perspective, where the properties of the nervous system are embraced into a more holistic and functional-related context. Interestingly, if the underpinning mechanisms of a given treatment scenario/effect are taking into account, the majority of research outcomes focuses on a proprioceptive/exteroceptive explanation, leaving ting aside the additional or even central role of interoception...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Johannes Levin, Alexander Kurz, Thomas Arzberger, Armin Giese, Günter U Höglinger
BACKGROUND: Aside from idiopathic Parkinson syndrome (Parkinson's disease), there are a number of other, so-called atypical parkinsonian syndromes: dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). DLB is a common disease, with a prevalence of 0.4% (400 cases per 100 000 persons) in the elderly; MSA and PSP both have a prevalence of 5 to 10 per 100 000 persons, while the prevalence of CBD is about 1 per 100 000...
February 5, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Tomáš Milota, Zdeněk Šumník, Barbora Obermannová, Pavlína Králíčková, Karel Vondrák, Adam Klocperk, Jana Kayserová, Anna Šedivá
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by disturbed antibody production and a dysregulated immune system. Aside from recurrent infections, the most common complications of CVID are autoimmune complications, particularly autoimmune cytopenias. To date, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in combination with CVID has only been described as an unusual complication in several reports, but the true incidence of T1D with CVID remains unknown. We describe 2 patients with a combination of T1D and CVID with serious impairment of antibody production...
2015: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
David J Rosenman, Chunyu Wang, Angel E García
Amyloid β (Aβ) monomers represent a base state in the pathways of aggregation that result in the fibrils and oligomers implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The structural properties of these intrinsically disordered peptides remain unclear despite extensive experimental and computational investigations. Further, there are mutations within Aβ that change the way the peptide aggregates and are known to cause familial AD (FAD). Here, we analyze the ensembles of different isoforms (Aβ42 and Aβ40) and mutants (E22Δ, D23N, E22K, E22G, and A2T in Aβ40) of Aβ generated with all-atom replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on the μs/replica time scale...
January 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Céline De Hepcée, Christine Reynaert, Denis Jacques, Nicolas Zdanowicz
BACKGROUND: Teen suicide is an alarming public health issue. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the reasons behind attempting/committing suicide. Our research focuses on adolescent psychopathology and on pathologies that are considered as adolescent suicide risk factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted literature-based research. The first part of this research was based on adolescent psychopathological traits, whilst the second concentrated on the most frequently made diagnoses in the case of adolescents who had attempted suicide...
September 2015: Psychiatria Danubina
Jerome Sarris, Georgina Oliver, David A Camfield, Olivia M Dean, Nathan Dowling, Deidre J Smith, Jenifer Murphy, Ranjit Menon, Michael Berk, Scott Blair-West, Chee H Ng
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. The amino acid-based nutraceutical N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that has been found to modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter...
September 2015: CNS Drugs
Jennifer A Reinhold, Karl Rickels
INTRODUCTION: Modest response and remission rates for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, coupled with mounting evidence that the tolerability of the antidepressants (ADs) may have been overstated in the literature, has contributed to changes in prescribing patterns for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). New interest in the absence of evidence that supports these standard therapies as superior to benzodiazepines stimulated a review of the literature...
2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Elan D Louis
A fundamental question about essential tremor (ET) is whether its associated pathological changes and disease mechanisms are linkable to a specific brain region. To that end, recent tissue-based studies have made significant strides in elucidating changes in the ET brain. Emerging from these studies is increasing neuropathological evidence linking ET to the cerebellum. These studies have systematically identified a broad range of structural, degenerative changes in the ET cerebellum, spanning across all Purkinje cell compartments...
June 2016: Cerebellum
C E Owen, R R C Buchanan, A Hoi
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause characterised by the subacute onset of shoulder and pelvic girdle pain, and early morning stiffness in men and women over the age of 50 years. Due to the lack of a gold standard investigation, diagnosis is based on a clinical construct and laboratory evidence of inflammation. Heterogeneity in the clinical presentation and disease course of PMR has long been recognised. Aside from the evolution of alternative diagnoses, such as late-onset rheumatoid arthritis, concomitant giant cell arteritis is also recognised in 16-21% of cases...
November 2015: Internal Medicine Journal
Alexis Thibault, Suzanne Brissette, Didier Jutras-Aswad
Treating alcohol use disorders (AUD) is critical in individuals suffering from hepatitis C infection (HCV). Aside from psychosocial interventions, pharmacological treatment is effective for decreasing alcohol consumption and promoting abstinence. However, unique factors belonging to HCV-infected individuals, such as baseline hepatic vulnerability and possible ongoing hepatitis C treatment, complicate AUD drug therapy. The goal of this review is to systematically identify, summarize, and evaluate the existing evidence on the pharmacological management of AUD in HCV-infected individuals...
2015: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Anja Kunze, Peter Tseng, Chanya Godzich, Coleman Murray, Anna Caputo, Felix E Schweizer, Dino Di Carlo
Intra- and extracellular signaling play critical roles in cell polarity, ultimately leading to the development of functional cell-cell connections, tissues, and organs. In the brain, pathologically oriented neurons are often the cause for disordered circuits, severely impacting motor function, perception, and memory. Aside from control through gene expression and signaling pathways, it is known that nervous system development can be manipulated by mechanical stimuli (e.g., outgrowth of axons through externally applied forces)...
2015: ACS Nano
Ana Lukic, James Uphill, Craig A Brown, John Beck, Mark Poulter, Tracy Campbell, Gary Adamson, Holger Hummerich, Jerome Whitfield, Claudia Ponto, Inga Zerr, Sarah E Lloyd, John Collinge, Simon Mead
Prion diseases are a diverse group of neurodegenerative conditions, caused by the templated misfolding of prion protein. Aside from the strong genetic risk conferred by multiple variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP), several other variants have been suggested to confer risk in the most common type, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) or in the acquired prion diseases. Large and rare copy number variants (CNVs) are known to confer risk in several related disorders including Alzheimer's disease (at APP), schizophrenia, epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism...
May 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Marisol Perez, Ashley Kroon Van Diest, Shannon Cutts
BACKGROUND: There is a current and pressing need for recovery resources for individuals suffering from eating disorders. Mentoring programs have been useful with other psychiatric disorders such as addictions, and may be useful for individuals recovering from an eating disorder. The present study sought to examine a mentoring program for individuals working towards recovery from an eating disorder. METHODS: The study included mentors (i.e., individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder for an extended period of time), and mentees (i...
2014: Journal of Eating Disorders
Juliana O G Nascimento, Letícia Sumiko Kikuchi, Valquíria Camin de Bortoli, Hélio Zangrossi, Milena B Viana
The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) has long been associated with the regulation of escape, a panic-related defensive response. Previous evidence has shown that the activation of serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors impairs escape behavior induced by the electrical stimulation of the same region. In this study we further explore the relationship of the DMH with defense by investigating the effects of 5-HT1A activation on escape behavior generated in male Wistar rats by an ethologically based aversive stimuli, exposure to one of the open arms of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
October 2014: Brain Research Bulletin
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