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Fetal stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156418/characterization-of-domestic-pig-spermatogenesis-using-spermatogonial-stem-cell-markers-in-the-early-months-of-life
#1
Julio Almunia, Kotono Nakamura, Mami Murakami, Shigeo Takashima, Masaki Takasu
In pigs, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which include gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia, are classically defined as being present till up to 2 months of life. However, knowledge about this transition from gonocytes to undifferentiated spermatogonia in pigs is limited. In this study, we characterized pig SSCs in neonatal (n = 6), one-month-old (1-mo-old, n = 6), two-month-old (2-mo-old, n = 6), and adult testes (n = 6) anatomically, histologically, and immunohistologically. Anatomically, testicular circumference (TC) was measured at each development stage...
November 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154076/multiple-intracerebroventricular-injections-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-delay-motor-neurons-loss-but-not-disease-progression-of-sod1g93a-mice
#2
Francesca Sironi, Antonio Vallarola, Martina Bruna Violatto, Laura Talamini, Mattia Freschi, Roberta De Gioia, Chiara Capelli, Azzurra Agostini, Davide Moscatelli, Massimo Tortarolo, Paolo Bigini, Martino Introna, Caterina Bendotti
Stem cell therapy is considered a promising approach in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem to be the most effective in ALS animal models. The umbilical cord (UC) is a source of highly proliferating fetal MSCs, more easily collectable than other MSCs. Recently we demonstrated that human (h) UC-MSCs, double labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles and Hoechst-33258 and transplanted intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into SOD1G93A transgenic mice, partially migrated into the spinal cord after a single injection...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153988/isolation-and-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-human-fetal-and-ipsc-derived-cone-photoreceptor-cells
#3
Emily Welby, Jorn Lakowski, Valentina Di Foggia, Dimitri Budinger, Anai Gonzalez-Cordero, Aaron T L Lun, Michael Epstein, Aara Patel, Elisa Cuevas, Kamil Kruczek, Arifa Naeem, Federico Minneci, Mike Hubank, David T Jones, John C Marioni, Robin R Ali, Jane C Sowden
Loss of cone photoreceptors, crucial for daylight vision, has the greatest impact on sight in retinal degeneration. Transplantation of stem cell-derived L/M-opsin cones, which form 90% of the human cone population, could provide a feasible therapy to restore vision. However, transcriptomic similarities between fetal and stem cell-derived cones remain to be defined, in addition to development of cone cell purification strategies. Here, we report an analysis of the human L/M-opsin cone photoreceptor transcriptome using an AAV2/9...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150960/epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-fragments-and-signaling-in-primary-human-liver-cells
#4
Jörg C Gerlach, Hubert G Foka, Robert L Thompson, Bruno Gridelli, Eva Schmelzer
Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, is a trans-membrane glycoprotein expressed by multiple normal epithelia as well as carcinoma. Human hepatic stem cells and bile duct epithelium of the liver are EpCAM positive. In tumor cell lines, its intracellular domain can be released after cleavage of the extracellular domain. Within the cell nucleus it induces cell proliferation, but cleavage depends on cell contact. Fragments of various lengths have been described in tumor cells. Despite of its described important role in proliferation in tumor cells, there is not much known about the expression and role of EpCAM fragments in primary human liver cells...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150616/nmr-metabolomics-for-stem-cell-type-discrimination
#5
Franca Castiglione, Monica Ferro, Evangelos Mavroudakis, Rosalia Pellitteri, Patrizia Bossolasco, Damiano Zaccheo, Massimo Morbidelli, Vincenzo Silani, Andrea Mele, Davide Moscatelli, Lidia Cova
Cell metabolism is a key determinant factor for the pluripotency and fate commitment of Stem Cells (SCs) during development, ageing, pathological onset and progression. We derived and cultured selected subpopulations of rodent fetal, postnatal, adult Neural SCs (NSCs) and postnatal glial progenitors, Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs), respectively from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the olfactory bulb (OB). Cell lysates were analyzed by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy leading to metabolites identification and quantitation...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143560/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-from-human-amnion-in-chemically-defined-conditions
#6
Jaroslav Slamecka, Steven McClellan, Anna Wilk, Javier Laurini, Elizabeth Manci, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen
Fetal stem cells are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been suggested to be broadly multipotent with some features of pluripotency. Their clinical potential has been documented but their upgrade to full pluripotency could open up a wide range of cell-based therapies particularly suited for pediatric tissue engineering, longitudinal studies or disease modeling. Here we describe episomal reprogramming of mesenchymal stem cells from the human amnion to pluripotency (AM-iPSC) in chemically defined conditions...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143315/fetal-haemoglobin-induction-in-sickle-cell-disease
#7
REVIEW
Alireza Paikari, Vivien A Sheehan
Fetal haemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) induction has long been an area of investigation, as it is known to ameliorate the clinical complications of sickle cell disease (SCD). Progress in identifying novel HbF-inducing strategies has been stymied by limited understanding of gamma (γ)-globin regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants in BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB that are associated with HbF levels. Functional studies have established the roles of BCL11A, MYB, and KLF1 in γ-globin regulation, but this information has not yielded new pharmacological agents...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141958/dna-methylation-defines-regional-identity-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-organoids-and-undergoes-dynamic-changes-during-development
#8
Judith Kraiczy, Komal M Nayak, Kate J Howell, Alexander Ross, Jessica Forbester, Camilla Salvestrini, Roxana Mustata, Sally Perkins, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Esther Leenen, Anke Liebert, Ludovic Vallier, Philip C Rosenstiel, Oliver Stegle, Gordon Dougan, Robert Heuschkel, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Matthias Zilbauer
OBJECTIVE: Human intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) are increasingly being recognised as a highly promising translational research tool. However, our understanding of their epigenetic molecular characteristics and behaviour in culture remains limited. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling of human IEOs derived from paediatric/adult and fetal small and large bowel as well as matching purified human gut epithelium. Furthermore, organoids were subjected to in vitro differentiation and genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138638/tissue-source-and-cell-expansion-condition-influence-phenotypic-changes-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#9
Lauren H Mangum, Shanmugasundaram Natesan, Randolph Stone, Nicole L Wrice, David A Larson, Kyle F Florell, Barbara A Christy, Maryanne C Herzig, Andrew P Cap, Robert J Christy
Stem cells derived from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of debrided burned skin represent an appealing source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for regenerative medicine. Traditional tissue culture uses fetal bovine serum (FBS), which complicates utilization of ASCs in human medicine. Human platelet lysate (hPL) is one potential xeno-free, alternative supplement for use in ASC culture. In this study, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in media supplemented with 10% FBS or 10% hPL was compared in human ASCs derived from abdominoplasty (HAP) or from adipose associated with debrided burned skin (BH)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132800/fetal-bone-marrow-homing-of-donor-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-transamniotic-stem-cell-therapy-trascet
#10
Hester F Shieh, Azra Ahmed, Sarah A Tracy, David Zurakowski, Dario O Fauza
PURPOSE: Donor cell engraftment patterns following transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) with amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (afMSCs) are incompatible with solely direct amniotic seeding. We sought to determine whether fetal bone marrow is a component of such engraftment and to examine the chronology of afMSC placental trafficking. METHODS: Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses received volume-matched intraamniotic injections on gestational day 17 (E17; term E22): either afMSCs labeled with a luciferase reporter gene or luciferase protein alone...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128504/biophysical-comparison-of-sodium-currents-in-native-cardiac-myocytes-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#11
Robert J Goodrow, Suveer Desai, Jacqueline A Treat, Brian K Panama, Mayurika Desai, Vladislav V Nesterenko, Jonathan M Cordeiro
INTRODUCTION: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are used for safety pharmacology and to investigate genetic diseases affecting cardiac ion channels. It is unclear whether adult myocytes or hiPSC-CMs are the better platform for cardiac safety pharmacology. We examined the biophysical and molecular properties of INa in adult myocytes and hiPSC-CMs. METHODS: hiPSC-CMs were plated at low density. Atrial and ventricular cells were obtained from dog hearts...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125510/regenerative-medicine-and-spina-bifida-recent-developments-in-induced-fetal-regeneration
#12
Dario O Fauza
Regenerative medicine as it applies to spina bifida is a multi-pronged endeavor involving spinal cord repair, tissue engineering and fetal regeneration, all of which can mutually overlap to variable extents. The efforts involving spinal cord repair, whether they be cell-based or not, are virtually indistinguishable from the enormous body of work related to spinal cord recovery after traumatic injury. Tissue engineering, on the other hand, can involve a variety of structures besides constructs used for covering the spina bifida defect, for example the urinary bladder, bone, muscle and skin...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124822/advanced-cell-culture-models-for-diamond-blackfan-anemia-and-other-erythroid-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Anna Rita Migliaccio, Lilian Varricchio
In vitro surrogate models of human erythropoiesis made many contributions to our understanding of the extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of this process in vivo and how they are altered in erythroid disorders. In the past, variability among the levels of hemoglobin F produced by adult erythroblasts generated in vitro by different laboratories identified stage of maturation, fetal bovine serum and accessory cells as "confounding factors", i.e. parameters intrinsically wired in the experimental approach that bias the results observed...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118967/cold-perfusion-decellularization-of-whole-organ-porcine-pancreas-supports-human-fetal-pancreatic-cell-attachment-and-expression-of-endocrine-and-exocrine-markers
#14
Erik Elebring, Vijay K Kuna, Niclas Kvarnström, Suchitra Sumitran-Holgersson
Despite progress in the field of decellularization and recellularization, the outcome for pancreas has not been adequate. This might be due to the challenging dual nature of pancreas with both endocrine and exocrine tissues. We aimed to develop a novel and efficient cold-perfusion method for decellularization of porcine pancreas and recellularize acellular scaffolds with human fetal pancreatic stem cells. Decellularization of whole porcine pancreas at 4°C with sodium deoxycholate, Triton X-100 and DNase efficiently removed cellular material, while preserving the extracellular matrix structure...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116012/connexin-32-and-connexin-43-are-involved-in-lineage-restriction-of-hepatic-progenitor-cells-to-hepatocytes
#15
Haiyun Pei, Chao Zhai, Huilin Li, Fang Yan, Jinhua Qin, Hongfeng Yuan, Rui Zhang, Shuyong Wang, Wencheng Zhang, Mingyang Chang, Yunfang Wang, Xuetao Pei
BACKGROUND: Bi-potential hepatic progenitor cells can give rise to both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, which is the last phase and critical juncture in terms of sequentially hepatic lineage restriction from any kind of stem cells. If their differentiation can be controlled, it might access to functional hepatocytes to develop pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries as well as cell therapies for end-stage liver diseases. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the influence of Cx32 and Cx43 on hepatocyte differentiation of WB-F344 cells by in vitro gain and loss of function analyses...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113472/cell-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Tatsuya Sasaki, Naoki Tajiri, Isao Date
Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) began in 1979 with the transplantation of fetal rat dopamine-containing neurons that improved motor abnormalities in the PD rat model with good survival of grafts and axonal outgrowth. Thirty years have passed since the 2 clinical trials using cell transplantation for PD patients were first reported. Recently, cell therapy is expected to develop as a realistic treatment option for PD patients owing to the advancement of biotechnology represented by pluripotent stem cells...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110329/transplantation-of-feeder-free-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cortical-neuron-progenitors-in-adult-male-wistar-rats-with-focal-brain-ischemia
#17
Yulius Hermanto, Tadashi Sunohara, Ahmad Faried, Yasushi Takagi, Jun Takahashi, Takakuni Maki, Susumu Miyamoto
The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) eliminates the ethical issues associated with fetal or embryonic materials, thus allowing progress in cell therapy research for ischemic stroke. Strict regulation of cell therapy development requires the xeno-free condition to eliminate clinical complications. Maintenance of hiPSCs with feeder-free condition presents a higher degree of spontaneous differentiation in comparison with conventional cultures. Therefore, feeder-free derivation might be not ideal for developing transplantable hiPSC derivatives...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#18
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105399/upregulation-of-integrin-%C3%AE-6-and-integrin-%C3%AE-1-gene-expressions-in-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells-after-continues-and-pulsed-low-intensity-ultrasound-stimulation
#19
Mahdi Mohaqiq, Mansoureh Movahedin, Manijhe Mokhtari Dizaji, Zohreh Mazaheri
OBJECTIVES: low intensity ultrasound (continues and pulsed) is a form of energy. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are at the base of male fertility. This study investigated the effects of low intensity ultrasound stimulation (LIUS) and low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIUPS) on the expression of germ cell-specific and pluripotency genes in SSCs in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated SSCs from neonatal male mice were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105387/in-vitro-effects-of-wistar-rat-prenatal-and-postnatal-cerebrospinal-fluid-on-neural-differentiation-and-p-roliferation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-bone-marrow
#20
Rozmehr Shokohi, Mohammad Nabiuni, Saeed Irian, Jaleel A Miyan
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in cortical development during the fetal stages. Embryonic CSF (E-CSF) consists of numerous neurotrophic and growth factors that regulate neurogenesis, differentiation, and proliferation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potential stem cells that can differentiate into mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal cells, including neural cells. This study evaluates the prenatal and postnatal effects of CSF on proliferation and neural differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) at gestational ages E19, E20, and the first day after birth (P1)...
January 2018: Cell Journal
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