Read by QxMD icon Read

Fetal stem cells

Olga Ulyanova, Abay Baigenzhin, Zhaksylyk Doskaliyev, Temirlan Karibekov, Larissa Kozina, Samat Saparbayev, Rakhat Trimova
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine transforming growth factor β1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after fetal pancreatic stem cell transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 10 patients (age range, 41-65 y) with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which we subsequently divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised 5 patients who received fetal pancreatic stem cell transplant (cells were 16-18 wk gestation) performed by intravenous infusion. Group 2 comprised 5 patients (control group) who were on hypoglycemic tablet therapy or insulin therapy...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Mariano S Pedano, Xin Li, Shuchen Li, Zeyi Sun, Stevan M Cokic, Eveline Putzeys, Kumiko Yoshihara, Yashuhiro Yoshida, Zhi Chen, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the eluates from 3 freshly-mixed and setting hydraulic calcium-silicate cements (hCSCs) on human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and to examine the effect of a newly developed hCSC containing phosphopullulan (PPL) on HDPCs. METHODS: Human dental pulp cells, previously characterized as mesenchymal stem cells, were used. To collect the eluates, disks occupying the whole surface of a 12-well plate were prepared using an experimental hCSC containing phosphopullulan (GC), Nex-Cem MTA (GC), Biodentine (Septodont) or a zinc-oxide (ZnO) eugenol cement (material-related negative control)...
March 7, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Noriomi Eguchi, Ichiro Sora, Keiko Muguruma
Human brain development has generally been studied through the analysis of postmortem tissues because of limited access to fetal brain tissues. This approach, however, only provides information from the perspective of long-term development. To investigate the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, it is necessary to understand the detailed mechanisms of human brain development. Recent advances in pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies enable us to establish in vitro brain models from human induced PSCs (hiPSCs), which can be used to examine the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wei Lei, Tingting Feng, Xing Fang, You Yu, Junjie Yang, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Junwei Liu, Zhenya Shen, Wenbo Deng, Shijun Hu
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are regarded as a novel class of noncoding RNA regulators. Although a number of circRNAs have been identified by bioinformatics analysis of RNA-seq data, tissue and disease-specific circRNAs are still to be uncovered to promote their application in basic research and clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to explore the circRNA profiles in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), and to identify cardiac or disease-specific circRNAs...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Dorien Reijnders, Chin-Chi Liu, Xinjing Xu, Anna Zhao, Kelsey Olson, Scott D Butler, Nataki C Douglas, Jenny L Sones
Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disease of pregnancy, is a leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality. Early angiogenic and inflammatory disturbances within the placenta are thought to underlie the development of the maternal PE syndrome and poor pregnancy outcomes. However, the exact etiology remains largely unknown. Here, we use the BPH/5 mouse model of PE to elucidate the way in which inflammation early in pregnancy contributes to abnormal expression of angiogenic factors at the maternal-fetal interface...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Chiara Antoniani, Vasco Meneghini, Annalisa Lattanzi, Tristan Felix, Oriana Romano, Elisa Magrin, Leslie Weber, Giulia Pavani, Sara El Hoss, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Thomas J Cradick, Ante S Lundberg, Matthew Porteus, Mario Amendola, Wassim El Nemer, Marina Cavazzana, Fulvio Mavilio, Annarita Miccio
Naturally occurring, large deletions in the β-globin locus result in hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, a condition that mitigates the clinical severity of sickle-cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia. We designed a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to disrupt a 13.6-kb genomic region encompassing the δ- and β-globin genes and a putative γ-δ intergenic fetal hemoglobin (HbF) silencer. Disruption of just the putative HbF silencer results in a mild increase in γ-globin expression, whereas deletion or inversion of a 13...
March 8, 2018: Blood
Marie-Amélie Farreny, Eric Agius, Sophie Bel-Vialar, Nathalie Escalas, Nagham Khouri-Farah, Chadi Soukkarieh, Cathy Danesin, Fabienne Pituello, Philippe Cochard, Cathy Soula
BACKGROUND: Most oligodendrocytes of the spinal cord originate from ventral progenitor cells of the pMN domain, characterized by expression of the transcription factor Olig2. A minority of oligodendrocytes is also recognized to emerge from dorsal progenitors during fetal development. The prevailing view is that generation of ventral oligodendrocytes depends on Sonic hedgehog (Shh) while dorsal oligodendrocytes develop under the influence of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). RESULTS: Using the well-established model of the chicken embryo, we show that ventral spinal progenitor cells activate FGF signaling at the onset of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation...
March 8, 2018: Neural Development
Tetsuya Ikemoto, Rui Feng, Mitsuo Shimada, Yu Saito, Shuichi Iwahashi, Yuji Morine, Satoru Imura
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a simple protocol for deriving insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). We established a 2-step creation method and an acceleration strategy with a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promoted a pro-endocrine pancreatic lineage. METHODS: We seeded ADSCs in 96-well dishes and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 medium containing 1% fetal bovine serum, 1% B27 supplement, 1% N2 supplement, 50-ng/mL human activin A, and 10-nM exendin-4 for step 1 of differentiation (7 days)...
April 2018: Pancreas
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
March 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Uros Midic, Benjamin Goheen, Kailey A Vincent, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are crucial for embryo implantation and placentation. Environmental toxicants that compromise TSC function could impact fetal viability, pregnancy, and progeny health. Understanding the effects of low, chronic EDC exposures on TSCs and pregnancy is a priority in developmental toxicology. Differences in early implantation between primates and other mammals make a nonhuman primate model ideal. We examined effects of chronic low-level exposure to atrazine, tributyltin, bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorooctanoic acid on rhesus monkey TSCs in vitro by RNA sequencing...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Kamaleldin E Elagib, Ashton T Brock, Adam N Goldfarb
Fetal megakaryocytes (Mk) differ from adult Mk in key parameters that affect their capacity for platelet production. However, despite being smaller, more proliferative, and less polyploid, fetal Mk generally mature in the same manner as adult. The phenotypic features unique to fetal Mk predispose patients to several disease conditions: infantile thrombocytopenia, infantile megakaryoblastic leukemias, and poor platelet recovery after umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants. Ontogenic Mk differences also affect new strategies being developed to address global shortages of platelet transfusion units...
February 28, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Silvia Gregori, Maria Grazia Roncarolo
T regulatory cells, a specialized subset of T cells, are key players in modulating antigen (Ag)-specific immune responses in vivo . Inducible T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells are characterized by the co-expression of CD49b and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) and the ability to secrete IL-10, TGF-β, and granzyme (Gz) B, in the absence of IL-4 and IL-17. The chief mechanisms by which Tr1 cells control immune responses are secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β and killing of myeloid cells via GzB. Tr1 cells, first described in peripheral blood of patients who developed tolerance after HLA-mismatched fetal liver hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, have been proven to modulate inflammatory and effector T cell responses in several immune-mediated diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Paul W Dyce, Neil Tenn, Gerald M Kidder
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling has been identified as a key driver in male and female gamete development. The presence of RA is a critical step in the initiation of meiosis and is required for the production of competent oocytes from primordial germ cells. Meiosis has been identified as a difficult biological process to recapitulate in vitro, when differentiating stem cells to germ cells. We have previously shown that primordial germ cell-like cells, and more advanced oocyte-like cells (OLCs), can be formed by differentiating mouse skin-derived stem cells...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Yair J Blumenfeld, Michael A Belfort
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine updates in fetal spina bifida surgical repair, as well as promising results emerging from translational medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the Management of Myelomeningocele Study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health helped establish the neonatal benefits of prenatal spina bifida repair via uterine hysterotomy, also known as 'open' fetal surgery, fetoscopic approaches may yield better maternal and obstetric outcomes. SUMMARY: Spina bifida is a severe congenital malformation associated with significant neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Kate E Hawkins, Michelangelo Corcelli, Kate Dowding, Anna M Ranzoni, Filipa Vlahova, Kwan-Leong Hau, Avina Hunjan, Donald Peebles, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Paolo de Coppi, Mariya Hristova, Pascale V Guillot
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have huge potential for regenerative medicine. In particular, the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PSC-MSCs) overcomes the hurdle of replicative senescence associated with the in vitro expansion of primary cells and has increased therapeutic benefits in comparison to the use of various adult sources of MSCs in a wide range of animal disease models. On the other hand, fetal MSCs exhibit faster growth kinetics and possess longer telomeres and a wider differentiation potential than adult MSCs...
February 28, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Michael D West, Ivan Labat, Hal Sternberg, Dana Larocca, Igor Nasonkin, Karen B Chapman, Ratnesh Singh, Eugene Makarev, Alex Aliper, Andrey Kazennov, Andrey Alekseenko, Nikolai Shuvalov, Evgenia Cheskidova, Aleksandr Alekseev, Artem Artemov, Evgeny Putin, Polina Mamoshina, Nikita Pryanichnikov, Jacob Larocca, Karen Copeland, Evgeny Izumchenko, Mikhail Korzinkin, Alex Zhavoronkov
Here we present the application of deep neural network (DNN) ensembles trained on transcriptomic data to identify the novel markers associated with the mammalian embryonic-fetal transition (EFT). Molecular markers of this process could provide important insights into regulatory mechanisms of normal development, epimorphic tissue regeneration and cancer. Subsequent analysis of the most significant genes behind the DNNs classifier on an independent dataset of adult-derived and human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived progenitor cell lines led to the identification of COX7A1 gene as a potential EFT marker...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Leonidas Benetatos, George Vartholomatos
DNA methylation (CpG methylation) exerts an important role in normal differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiated progeny, while it has also the ability to regulate myeloid versus lymphoid fate. Mutations of the epigenetic machinery are observed in hematological malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) resulting in hyper- or hypo-methylation affecting several different pathways. Enhancers are cis-regulatory elements which promote transcription activation and are characterized by histone marks including H3K27ac and H3K4me1/2...
February 26, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Siwen Zhang, Pingping Li, Zhengwei Yuan, Jichun Tan
BACKGROUND: Human menstrual blood-derived stromal cells (MenSCs) are highly proliferative and show multiple differentiation capacity. The convenience and non-invasiveness make MenSC a novel cell source for regenerative medicine applications. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains abundant growth factors which are beneficial to wound healing. However, the influence of PRP on MenSCs remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the role of PRP in MenSCs proliferation and assessed the effects of PRP on endometrial receptivity regulation in vitro...
February 26, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lulu Liu, Xiaoling Wan, Peipei Zhou, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Wei Zhang, Xinhui Hui, Xiujie Yuan, Xiaodan Ding, Ruihong Zhu, Guangxun Meng, Hui Xiao, Feng Ma, He Huang, Xianmin Song, Bin Zhou, Sidong Xiong, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF-like BAF and PBAF complexes have been implicated in the regulation of stem cell function and cancers. Several subunits of BAF or PBAF, including BRG1, BAF53a, BAF45a, BAF180, and BAF250a, are known to be involved in hematopoiesis. Baf200, a subunit of PBAF complex, plays a pivotal role in heart morphogenesis and coronary artery angiogenesis. However, little is known on the importance of Baf200 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
O Kos, C Alexander, K Brandenburg, Z Chen, A Heini, D Heumann, I Khatri, J P Mach, E T Rietschel, A Tersikh, A J Ulmer, T Waelli, K Yu, U Zähringer, R M Gorczynski
We have shown that an altered tissue redox environment in mice lacking either murine beta Hemoglobin major (Hgbβma KO) or minor (Hgbβmi KO) regulates inflammation. The REDOX environment in marrow stem cell niches also control differentiation pathways. We investigated osteoclastogenesis (OC)/osteoblastogenesis (OB), in bone cultures derived from untreated or FSLE-treated WT, Hgbβma KO or Hgbβmi KO mice. Marrow mesenchymal cells from 10d pre-cultures were incubated on an osteogenic matrix for 21d prior to analysis of inflammatory cytokine release into culture supernatants, and relative OC:OB using (TRAP:BSP, RANKL:OPG) mRNA expression ratios and TRAP or Von Kossa staining...
February 22, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"