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Takehiro Yamashita, Hiroto Terasaki, Naoya Yoshihara, Yuya Kii, Eisuke Uchino, Taiji Sakamoto
PURPOSE: The trajectories of the supratemporal and infratemporal retinal arteries are associated with the position of the nerve fiber layer defects of glaucomatous eyes. However, no reports have thus far been published on changes in the retinal artery trajectory (RA trajectory) along with growth. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the RA trajectories of elementary and junior high school students and the associations with axial length (AL). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional observational study...
February 13, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Huyan Meng, Zhen Liu, Xingyan Li, Huibing Wang, Taijie Jin, Guowei Wu, Bing Shan, Dana E Christofferson, Chunting Qi, Qiang Yu, Ying Li, Junying Yuan
RIPK1 is a critical mediator of cell death and inflammation downstream of TNFR1 upon stimulation by TNFα, a potent proinflammatory cytokine involved in a multitude of human inflammatory and degenerative diseases. RIPK1 contains an N-terminal kinase domain, an intermediate domain, and a C-terminal death domain (DD). The kinase activity of RIPK1 promotes cell death and inflammation. Here, we investigated the involvement of RIPK1-DD in the regulation of RIPK1 kinase activity. We show that a charge-conserved mutation of a lysine located on the surface of DD (K599R in human RIPK1 or K584R in murine RIPK1) blocks RIPK1 activation in necroptosis and RIPK1-dependent apoptosis and the formation of complex II...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Taiji Iwasawa, Pu Zhang, Yuki Ohkawa, Hiroyuki Momota, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Keiko Furukawa, Koichi Furukawa
Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, gangliosides, are considered as cancer associated antigens in neuro-ectoderm-derived tumors such as melanomas and neuroblastomas. In particular, gangliosides GD3 and GD2 are expressed in human gliomas. It has been reported that their expression levels increase along with increased malignant properties. However, the implication of GD3/GD2 in human glioma cells has never been clarified, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we introduced the cDNA of GD3 synthase (GD3S)(ST8SIA1) into a glioma cell line, U-251MG, that expresses neither GD3 nor GD2, thereby establishing transfectant cells U-251MG-GD3S(+) expressing high levels of GD3 and GD2 on the cell surface...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Kazue Yoneda, Yasuhiro Chikaishi, Taiji Kuwata, Takashi Ohnaga, Fumihiro Tanaka
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor, predominantly associated with job-related exposure to asbestos. Development of effective and non-invasive modalities for diagnosis is an important issue in occupational medicine. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are tumor cells that are shed from primary tumors and circulate in the peripheral blood, may be detected at an earlier stage than malignant tumors, and detection of CTCs may provide a novel insight into the diagnosis of MM. In a previous study evaluating clinical utility of CTCs, detected with a widely used system 'CellSearch', the authors indicated a significant however insufficient capability in the diagnosis of MM, suggesting need for a more sensitive system...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Satoru Okuda, Takashi Miura, Yasuhiro Inoue, Taiji Adachi, Mototsugu Eiraku
This study demonstrates computational simulations of multicellular deformation coupled with chemical patterning in the three-dimensional (3D) space. To address these aspects, we proposes a novel mathematical model, where a reaction-diffusion system is discretely expressed at a single cell level and combined with a 3D vertex model. To investigate complex phenomena emerging from the coupling of patterning and deformation, as an example, we employed an activator-inhibitor system and converted the activator concentration of individual cells into their growth rate...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lijun Yang, Jiayu Xu, Longjun Guo, Taijie Guo, Lu Zhang, Li Feng, Hongyan Chen, Yue Wang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute and devastating enteric disease in suckling piglets and results in huge economic losses in pig industry worldwide. To establish productive infection, viruses must first circumvent the host innate immune response. In this study, we found that PEDV infection stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, which has been linked to not only anticancer therapeutics but also antiviral signaling. Therefore, we determined whether EGFR activation affected PEDV infection by using activator or overexpression assay...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Eiichi Kimura, Takumi Abe, Kazumasa Murata, Toshiyuki Kimura, Yurika Otoki, Taiji Yoshida, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Tocopherol (Toc) and tocotrienol (T3) are abundant in rice bran. Geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR) is an essential enzyme for Toc production that catalyzes the reduction of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll. However, we found that a rice mutant line with inactivated Os02g0744900 (OsGGR1/LYL1/OsChl P) gene produces Toc, suggesting that rice plants may carry another enzyme with GGR activity. Using an RNA-mediated interference technique, we demonstrated that the Os01g0265000 ("OsGGR2") gene product has GGR activity...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Taiji Okano, Koya Inoue, Kaoru Koseki, Hiroaki Suzuki
The shapes of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) enclosing polymer molecules at relatively high concentration, used as a model cytoplasm, significantly differ from those containing only small molecules. Here, we investigated the effects of the molecular weights and concentrations of polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and DNA on the morphology of GUVs deflated by osmotic pressure. Although small PEG (MW < 1k) does not alter the mode of shape transformation even at > 10% (w/w), PEG with MW > 6k induces budding and pearling transformation at above 1% (w/w)...
January 30, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Koichiro Maki, Sung-Woong Han, Yoshinori Hirano, Shigenobu Yonemura, Toshio Hakoshima, Taiji Adachi
Adherens junctions (AJs) adaptively change their intensities in response to intercellular tension; therefore, they integrate tension generated by individual cells to drive multicellular dynamics, such as morphogenetic change in embryos. Under intercellular tension, α-catenin, which is a component protein of AJs, acts as a mechano-chemical transducer to recruit vinculin to promote actin remodeling. Although in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that α-catenin-mediated mechanotransduction is a dynamic molecular process, which involves a conformational change of α-catenin under tension to expose a cryptic vinculin binding site, there are no suitable experimental methods to directly explore the process...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ryosuke Sumi, Ariko Miyake, Taiji Endo, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Minh Ha Ngo, Kazuo Nishigaki
Feline lymphomas are associated with the transduction and activation of cellular proto-oncogenes, such as c-myc, by feline leukemia virus (FeLV). We describe a polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of myc transduction usable in clinical diagnosis. The assay targets c-myc exons 2 and 3, which together result in a FeLV-specific fusion gene following c-myc transduction. When this assay was conducted on FeLV-infected feline tissues submitted for clinical diagnosis of tumors, myc transduction was detected in 14% of T-cell lymphoma/leukemias...
January 20, 2018: Archives of Virology
Yoshihiro Takamura, Masahiko Shimura, Takashi Katome, Hideaki Someya, Masahiko Sugimoto, Takao Hirano, Taiji Sakamoto, Makoto Gozawa, Takehiro Matsumura, Masaru Inatani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate whether intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) combined with vitrectomy prevents postoperative inflammation in patients with vitreous haemorrhage (VH) due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, randomised study conducted at seven sites in Japan enrolled patients diagnosed as having VH following PDR. Patients underwent vitrectomy with (IVTA+VIT group) or without (VIT group) IVTA at the end of the surgery...
January 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Tobias Betke, Jun Higuchi, Philipp Rommelmann, Keiko Oike, Taiji Nomura, Yasuo Kato, Yasuhisa Asano, Harald Gröger
Nitriles belong to the product classes, which are mostly needed and produced by the chemical industry, playing a major role in various industry segments ranging from high-volume low-price sectors such as polymers to low-volume high-price sectors such as the chiral pharma drugs. A common industrial technology for nitrile production is ammonoxidation as a gas phase reaction at high temperature. A further popular approach are substitution or addition reactions with hydrogen cyanide or derivatives thereof. A major drawback, however, is the very high toxicity of cyanide...
January 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Taiji Ogawa, Yujiro Hirose, Mariko Honda-Ogawa, Minami Sugimoto, Satoshi Sasaki, Masahito Kibi, Shigetada Kawabata, Kazunori Ikebe, Yoshinobu Maeda
Frailty is gaining attention worldwide with the aging of society. Despite the potential lethality and multiple signs and symptoms in affected individuals, preclinical detection of early manifestations leading to frailty syndrome have not been established. We speculated that the composition of the oral microbiota is associated with general frailty, as well as a relationship between gut microbiota and general health condition. In the present study, we investigated the salivary microbiota composition in samples from healthy and frail elderly individuals using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis for characterization...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yutaka Tsubata, Takashi Morita, Tetsuo Morioka, Taiji Sasagawa, Kouzo Ikarashi, Noriko Saito, Hisaki Shimada, Shigeru Miyazaki, Shinji Sakai, Hajime Tanaka, Rie Saito, Yasuko Toyoshima, Hiroaki Nozaki, Ichiei Narita
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy (RVCL) is a rare autosomal dominant systemic microvascular disease. Neurological disorders and visual disturbance are highlighted as manifestations of RVCL; however, there are few reports focused on nephropathy. Herein, we describe detailed renal histopathological findings in a daughter and father with RVCL, proven by TREX1 genetic analysis. A kidney biopsy of the daughter, 35-year-old with asymptomatic proteinuria, revealed unique and various glomerular changes...
January 10, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Yasuhiro Chikaishi, Shinji Shinohara, Taiji Kuwata, Masaru Takenaka, Soichi Oka, Ayako Hirai, Kazue Yoneda, Kouji Kuroda, Naoko Imanishi, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Fumihiro Tanaka
Background: The standard treatment for patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is systemic chemotherapy. However, certain patients, such as those with oligometastasis or M1a disease undergo resection of the primary lesion. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of 1,471 consecutive patients with NSCLC who underwent resection of the primary lesion for between June 2005 and May 2016. The present study included 38 patients with stage IV NSCLC who underwent complete resection of the primary lesion as first-line treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Sakiko Minami, Norihiro Nagai, Misa Suzuki, Toshihide Kurihara, Hideki Sonobe, Mamoru Kamoshita, Atsuro Uchida, Hajime Shinoda, Hitoshi Takagi, Shozo Sonoda, Taiji Sakamoto, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
Currently, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is treated while patients exhibit good best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). However, previous clinical trials only include patients with poor BCVA. We prospectively analyzed the benefits of intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) treatment for AMD patients exhibiting good BCVA at baseline. Twenty-nine treatment-naive AMD patients (29 eyes) with BCVA better than 0.6 (74 letters in ETDRS chart) were treated with IVA once a month for 3 months and every 2 months thereafter with no additional treatments...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kazunori Ikebe, Yasuyuki Gondo, Kei Kamide, Yukie Masui, Taturo Ishizaki, Yasumichi Arai, Hiroki Inagaki, Takeshi Nakagawa, Mai Kabayama, Hirochika Ryuno, Hitomi Okubo, Hajime Takeshita, Chisato Inomata, Yuko Kurushima, Yusuke Mihara, Kohdai Hatta, Motoyoshi Fukutake, Kaori Enoki, Taiji Ogawa, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Ken Sugimoto, Ryosuke Oguro, Yoichi Takami, Norihisa Itoh, Yasushi Takeya, Koichi Yamamoto, Hiromi Rakugi, Shinya Murakami, Masahiro Kitamura, Yoshinobu Maeda
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that oral health may be an important factor associated with cognitive function in aged populations. However, many previous studies on this topic used insensitive oral indicators or did not include certain essential covariates. Thus, we examined the association between occlusal force and cognitive function in a large sample of older adults, controlling for dietary intake, vascular risk factors, inflammatory biomarkers, depression, and genetic factors...
2018: PloS One
Shoko Nakayama, Taiji Yokote, Toshikazu Akioka, Nobuya Hiraoka, Uta Nishiwaki, Takuji Miyoshi, Kazuki Iwaki, Ayami Takayama, Yuki Masuda, Jun Hatooka, Mayumi Fujimoto, Yasuichiro Nishimura, Motomu Tsuji
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) specifically express the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and contribute to tumor progression. FOXP3-positive cells have been recently proven to be heterogeneous in phenotype and function, including effector Tregs (eTregs), naïve Tregs, and non-Tregs, which harbor no suppressive function. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the "true Treg (eTreg)" population, rather than the entire FOXP3 population, with regards to their effect on tumor immunity. In particular, in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS), FOXP3-positive cells correlated with a better prognosis...
March 14, 2017: Blood Advances
Yukiko Nagatani, Rintaro Imafuku, Toshinobu Takemoto, Tadayuki Waki, Taiji Obayashi, Tetsuji Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Due to the declining birth rate and aging of Japanese society, the roles and responsibilities of dental hygienists are continuously expanding. Medical professionalism needs to be pursued continuously throughout one's career in order to improve dental care and treatment. Although conceptualising professionalism is essential to the education of health professionals, professionalism in the field of dental hygiene has not been defined or adequately examined in Japan. The purposes of this study are to investigate dental hygienists' perceptions of the constituent elements of professionalism and the factors affecting their perceptions...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medical Education
Ayumu Niida, Yoko Kanematsu-Yamaki, Tomoko Asakawa, Yoshimasa Ishimura, Hisashi Fujita, Kouta Matsumiya, Naoki Nishizawa, Yusuke Adachi, Taisuke Mochida, Kazue Tsuchimori, Mariko Yoneyama-Hirozane, Junichi Sakamoto, Hideki Hirabayashi, Hideo Fukui, Shiro Takekawa, Taiji Asami
Neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R) agonism is an important anorectic signal and a target of antiobesity drug discovery. Recently, we synthesized a short-length Y2R agonist, PYY-1119 (4-imidazolecarbonyl-[d-Hyp24,Iva25,Pya(4)26,Cha27,36,γMeLeu28,Lys30,Aib31]PYY(23-36), 1) as an antiobesity drug candidate. Compound 1 induced marked body weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice; however, 1 also induced severe vomiting in dogs at a lower dose than the minimum effective dose administered to DIO mice. The rapid absorption of 1 after subcutaneous administration caused the severe vomiting...
December 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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