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Antibiotic protocols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150925/one-pot-synthesis-of-a-multi-template-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-the-extraction-of-six-sulfonamide-residues-from-milk-before-hplc-with-diode-array-detection
#1
Maria Kechagia, Victoria Samanidou, Abuzar Kabir, Kenneth G Furton
A highly selective molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent was synthesized and employed for the simultaneous determination of six sulfonamide antibiotic residues (sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine and sulfamethizole) in milk samples. Multi-analyte imprinted particles were used as sorbent in solid phase extraction. Sulfonamides were separated on a high-performance liquid chromatography column (Merck-Lichrospher RP18e, 5 μm 250 × 4 mm) and further identified and quantified by diode array detection...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150378/enhanced-antibacterial-effects-of-green-synthesized-zno-nps-using-aristolochia-indica-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens-from-diabetic-foot-ulcer
#2
Katherin Steffy, G Shanthi, Anson S Maroky, S Selvakumar
BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of Multi-drug resistance in microorganisms has become the greatest challenge in the treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and urges the need of a new antimicrobial agent. In this study, we determined the bactericidal effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) green synthesized from Aristolochia indica against Multi-drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) isolated from pus samples of DFU patients attending in a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-vis-DRS spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and for its zeta potential value...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149875/prevalence-of-antibiotic-prescription-in-pediatric-outpatients-in-italy-the-role-of-local-health-districts-and-primary-care-physicians-in-determining-variation-a-multilevel-design-for-healthcare-decision-support
#3
Mirko Di Martino, Adele Lallo, Ursula Kirchmayer, Marina Davoli, Danilo Fusco
BACKGROUND: According to scientific literature, antibacterials are prescribed for common pediatric conditions that do not benefit from antibiotic therapy. The link between antibiotic use and bacterial resistance is well known. Antibiotic overprescribing generates high social costs and severe consequences for children. Our objectives were to analyze antibiotic prescription patterns in pediatric outpatients residing in the Lazio region (Italy), to identify physicians' characteristics associated with increased propensity for prescription, to identify the priority axes for action to improve the rational use of antibiotics...
November 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149113/-incidence-of-surgical-site-infection-in-colon-surgery-and-antibiotic-prophylaxis-adequacy-prospective-cohort-study
#4
J A Del Moral Luque, M Alonso García, P Gil Yonte, J M Fernández Cebrián, M Durán Poveda, G Rodríguez Caravaca
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) has a considerable clinical and economic impact at the hospital level, so prevention and monitoring are considered a high priority. The objective of this study was to assess compliance with the protocol of antibiotic prophylaxis in colon surgery and the effect of its inadequacy for the incidence of SSI. METHODS: Prospective cohort study from July 2008 to July 2016. Compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis protocol and the causes of non-compliance were evaluated in colon surgery: duration and starting, choice, route of administration and dose of the antibiotic...
November 17, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147115/effects-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-on-human-embryonic-stem-cell-viability-during-differentiation-in-vitro
#5
Divya S Varghese, Shama Parween, Mustafa T Ardah, Bright Starling Emerald, Suraiya A Ansari
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are being used extensively in array of studies to understand different mechanisms such as early human embryogenesis, drug toxicity testing, disease modeling, and cell replacement therapy. The protocols for the directed differentiation of hESCs towards specific cell types often require long-term cell cultures. To avoid bacterial contamination, these protocols include addition of antibiotics such as pen-strep and gentamicin. Although aminoglycosides, streptomycin, and gentamicin have been shown to cause cytotoxicity in various animal models, the effect of these antibiotics on hESCs is not clear...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146647/initial-non-operative-management-of-uncomplicated-appendicitis-in-children-a-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-apac-trial
#6
Max Knaapen, Johanna H van der Lee, Roel Bakx, Sarah-May L The, Ernst W E van Heurn, Hugo A Heij, Ramon R Gorter
INTRODUCTION: Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has been investigated in several small studies. So far, it is deemed safe. However, its effectiveness and effect on quality of life (QoL) have yet to be established in an adequately powered randomised trial...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146633/comparison-of-outcomes-of-antibiotic-drugs-and-appendectomy-coda-trial-a-protocol-for-the-pragmatic-randomised-study-of-appendicitis-treatment
#7
Giana H Davidson, David R Flum, David A Talan, Larry G Kessler, Danielle C Lavallee, Bonnie J Bizzell, Farhood Farjah, Skye D Stewart, Anusha Krishnadasan, Erin E Carney, Erika M Wolff, Bryan A Comstock, Sarah E Monsell, Patrick J Heagerty, Annie P Ehlers, Daniel A DeUgarte, Amy H Kaji, Heather L Evans, Julianna T Yu, Katherine A Mandell, Ian C Doten, Kevin S Clive, Karen M McGrane, Brandon C Tudor, Careen S Foster, Darin J Saltzman, Richard C Thirlby, Erin O Lange, Amber K Sabbatini, Gregory J Moran
INTRODUCTION: Several European studies suggest that some patients with appendicitis can be treated safely with antibiotics. A portion of patients eventually undergo appendectomy within a year, with 10%-15% failing to respond in the initial period and a similar additional proportion with suspected recurrent episodes requiring appendectomy. Nearly all patients with appendicitis in the USA are still treated with surgery. A rigorous comparative effectiveness trial in the USA that is sufficiently large and pragmatic to incorporate usual variations in care and measures the patient experience is needed to determine whether antibiotics are as good as appendectomy...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137682/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#8
Lauren E Payne, David J Gagnon, Richard R Riker, David B Seder, Elizabeth K Glisic, Jane G Morris, Gilles L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cefepime is a widely used antibiotic with neurotoxicity attributed to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and exhibit concentration-dependent ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism. Neurotoxic symptoms include depressed consciousness, encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, seizures, and coma. Data suggest that up to 15% of ICU patients treated with cefepime may experience these adverse effects. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, excessive dosing, preexisting brain injury, and elevated serum cefepime concentrations...
November 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135843/abscessing-infection-by-streptococcus-mitis-mimicking-metastatic-lesions-in-a-5-year-old-girl-with-nephroblastoma-a-case-report
#9
Lara Imhof, Simone Schrading, Till Braunschweig, Gerhard Steinau, Jan Wilhelm Spillner, Alexander Puzik, Lisa Lassay, Udo Kontny
Streptococcus mitis is a common pathogen causing infections in oncological patients. However, cases of abscesses caused by Streptococcus mitis in oncological patients have not been reported so far. We report on 5-year-old child with nephroblastoma and pulmonary and hepatic metastases at diagnosis who went into complete remission undergoing chemotherapy and nephrectomy, and who developed new round lesions in liver and lungs under continuous chemotherapy suggestive of new metastases. Biopsy of the lesions revealed abscesses with detection of Streptococcus mitis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134323/single-stage-treatment-of-infected-tibial-non-unions-and-osteomyelitis-with-bone-marrow-granulocytes-precursors-protecting-bone-graft
#10
Philippe Hernigou, Arnaud Dubory, Yasuhiro Homma, Charles Henri Flouzat Lachaniette, Nathalie Chevallier, Helene Rouard
PURPOSE: Infected non-unions present a clinical challenge, especially with risk of recurrent infection. Bone marrow contains granulocyte precursors identified in vitro as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) have a prophylactic action against infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that bone marrow concentrated granulocytes precursors added to a standard bone graft could decrease the risk of recurrence of infection when single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions is performed with bone graft...
November 13, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133391/adaptive-benefits-from-small-mutation-supplies-in-an-antibiotic-resistance-enzyme
#11
Merijn L M Salverda, Jeroen Koomen, Bertha Koopmanschap, Mark P Zwart, J Arjan G M de Visser
Populations with large mutation supplies adapt via the "greedy" substitution of the fittest genotype available, leading to fast and repeatable short-term responses. At longer time scales, smaller mutation supplies may in theory lead to larger improvements when distant high-fitness genotypes more readily evolve from lower-fitness intermediates. Here we test for long-term adaptive benefits from small mutation supplies using in vitro evolution of an antibiotic-degrading enzyme in the presence of a novel antibiotic...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131127/pleiotropic-effects-of-white-willow-bark-and-1-2-decanediol-on-human-adult-keratinocytes
#12
Eleonora Bassino, Franco Gasparri, Luca Munaron
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a common skin defect, usually occurring during adolescence, but often it can persist in adults leaving permanent face scarring. Acne is usually treated with topical drugs, oral antibiotics, retinoids, and hormonal therapies, but medicinal plants are increasingly employed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective role of white willow bark (WWB) and 1,2-decanediol (DD) on the damage caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on human adult keratinocytes (HaCaT)...
November 8, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119724/evaluation-of-first-line-bismuth-containing-7-day-concomitant-quintuple-therapy-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#13
Jianfang Ye, Junbo Hong, Yin Zhu, Yong Xie, Xu Shu, Lingyu Luo, Chuan Xie, Zhenhua Zhu, Nonghua Lu
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is difficult to cure, mainly due to antibiotic resistance. We performed a trial to determine the efficacy and safety of a bismuth-containing 7-day concomitant quintuple regimen for the eradication of H. pylori. METHODS: Conducted from August 2015 to February 2016 at First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, this prospective trial enrolled 70 untreated H. pylori-positive patients. Patients received 7-day quintuple therapy consisting of bismuth subcitrate 220 mg, esomeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, and metronidazole 400 mg, each twice daily...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119289/local-antibiotic-decontamination-to-prevent-anastomotic-leakage-short-term-outcome-in-rectal-cancer-surgery
#14
Ulrich Wirth, Susanne Rogers, Kristina Haubensak, Stefan Schopf, Thomas von Ahnen, Hans Martin Schardey
PURPOSE: Anastomotic leakage still presents an issue in rectal cancer surgery with rates of about 11%. As bacteria play a critical role, there is the concept of perioperative local decontamination to prevent anastomotic leakage. METHODS: To ascertain the effectiveness of this treatment, we performed a retrospective analysis on 206 rectal resections with primary anastomosis and routine use of a selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) regimen for local decontamination...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119047/infections-in-deep-brain-stimulation-shaving-versus-not-shaving
#15
Felix S Gubler, Linda Ackermans, Pieter L Kubben, Aysun Damci, Mark L Kuijf, Mayke Oosterloo, R Jeroen Vermeulen, Sarah Hescham, Ersoy Kocabicak, Erkan Kurt, Yasin Temel
Background: To report our experience of infections in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries comparing shaving versus no shaving of cranial hair. Nonshaving is strongly preferred by patients due to aesthetic and psychological factors. Methods: This study is a prospective follow-up of the infection rate in 43 nonshaven DBS cases between April 2014 and December 2015 compared to our former infection rate with shaving in our center. Minimum follow-up was 6 months. All patients, except 7 epilepsy patients, received implantation of the electrodes together with the extension cables and internal pulse generator in one session...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117261/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-roche-septifast-pcr-system-for-the-rapid-detection-of-blood-pathogens-in-neonatal-sepsis-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#16
Julia Straub, Helga Paula, Michaela Mayr, David Kasper, Ojan Assadian, Angelika Berger, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis remains a major challenge in neonatology. Most molecular-based methods are not customized for neonatal requirements. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a modified multiplex PCR protocol for the detection of neonatal sepsis using small blood volumes. METHODS: 212 episodes of suspected neonatal late onset sepsis were analyzed prospectively using the Roche SeptiFast® MGRADE PCR with a modified DNA extraction protocol and software-handling tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116200/internal-extractive-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-quantitative-determination-of-fluoroquinolones-captured-by-magnetic-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-from-raw-milk
#17
Hua Zhang, Wei Kou, Aisha Bibi, Qiong Jia, Rui Su, Huanwen Chen, Keke Huang
Antibiotics contamination in food products is of increasing concern due to their potential threat on human health. Herein solid-phase extraction based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MMIPs-SPE-iEESI-MS) was designed for the quantitative analysis of trace fluoroquinolones (FQs) in raw milk samples. FQs in the raw milk sample (2 mL) were selectively captured by the easily-lab-made magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs), and then directly eluted by 100 µL electrospraying solvent biased with +3...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109849/current-concepts-and-future-strategies-in-the-antimicrobial-therapy-of-emerging-gram-positive-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#18
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Guglielmo Borgia, Sebastiano Leone, Pasquale Sansone, Maria Beatrice Passavanti, Caterina Aurilio, Maria Caterina Pace
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common infection in end-stage liver disease patients. SBP is defined as an ascitic fluid infection with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count ≥ 250/mm(3) without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Several mechanisms contribute to SBP occurrence, including translocation of gut bacteria and their products, reduced intestinal motility provoking bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the gut's barrier function and local immune responses. Historically, Gram-negative enteric bacteria have been the main causative agents of SBP, thereby guiding the empirical therapeutic choice...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108916/an-evidence-based-protocol-for-antibiotic-use-prior-to-cystoscopy-decreases-antibiotic-usage-without-impacting-post-procedural-symptomatic-urinary-tract-infection-rates
#19
Justin R Gregg, Rohan G Bhalla, J Paul Cook, Caroline Lai, Roger Dmochowski, Thomas R Talbot, Daniel A Barocas
PURPOSE: Symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) is a complication of office-based cystourethroscopy. Studies are mixed regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for UTI prevention. Our aim was to develop and evaluate an evidence-based protocol that reduces unnecessary antibiotic use while avoiding an increase in UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinic antibiogram was created based on all urology office visits performed during a two-year time period. Bacterial resistance rates, institutional risk-related data, and clinical guidelines were used to create a protocol for pre-cystourethroscopy antibiotic use...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105824/wound-culture-isolated-antibiograms-and-caregiver-reported-skin-care-practices-in-children-with-epidermolysis-bullosa
#20
Hannah M Singer, Laura E Levin, Maria C Garzon, Christine T Lauren, Paul J Planet, Nicole W Kittler, Susan Whittier, Kimberly D Morel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) require intensive daily wound care and individualized treatment plans. Understanding patient's home skin care routines and emerging antibiotic resistance patterns in EB wounds is necessary to optimize treatment recommendations. The objective was to identify patterns of antimicrobial resistance in EB wounds and characterize patient's home practices of skin care and bathing. METHODS: This was an observational study of 23 children with EB at an outpatient pediatric dermatology practice in New York City from 2012 to 2014...
November 6, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
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