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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915048/protective-effects-of-green-tea-and-its-main-constituents-against-natural-and-chemical-toxins-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Maryam Rameshrad, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Toxins are natural or chemical poisonous substances with severe side effects on health. Humans are generally exposed by widespread toxic contaminations via air, soil, water, food, fruits and vegetables. Determining a critical antidote agent with extensive effects on different toxins is an ultimate goal for all toxicologists. Traditional medicine is currently perceived as a safe and natural approach against toxins. In this regard, we focused on the protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its main components such as catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate as a principal source of antioxidants against both natural and chemical toxins...
November 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905631/-notes-for-a-history-of-hygiene-taken-from-the-bible
#2
Walter Ledermann
Reading once more the Gospels, we found a discussion between Jesus and the Pharisee about the hand washing, this golden rule of medicine, and then, with the help of Thomas Mann, we began a search for other notes on hygiene in the Bible. For the return from Egypt to the Promised Land, Moses established several rules for his people, some of them disguised as religious principles, concerning elimination of excreta, healthy and poisonous foods, isolation in case of contagious diseases (leprosy, gonorrhea), decontamination of clothes and houses, and many others that now seem to us ahead his time...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900531/accidental-cannabis-poisoning-in-the-elderly
#3
Anja Zupan Mežnar, Miran Brvar, Gregor Kralj, Dragan Kovačič
There are two main varieties of Cannabis sativa plant, namely, hemp which is cultivated for fiber and seeds and contains low amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids and the other which is cultivated for the drug cannabis or marijuana. Increasing popularity of hemp food products and alleged beneficial effects of cannabinoids in the drug variety of cannabis might lead to confusion in the lay population and unintentional ingestion of marijuana, as described in this case report. During a workshop on the use of hemp for medicinal purposes, there was a degustation of various hemp food products including also cookies that were brought by one of the attendees...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893949/phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-of-salmonella-isolates-from-healthy-and-diseased-pigs-in-china-during-2008-2015
#4
Yueguang Jiu, Shun Zhu, Sher Bahadar Khan, Mengzhen Sun, Geng Zou, Xianrong Meng, Bin Wu, Rui Zhou, Shaowen Li
The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella strains is rapidly increasing worldwide, which poses significant threats to animal and public health. In this study, a total of 249 porcine Salmonella isolates collected in China during 2008-2015 were examined, including 155 clinical isolates from diseased pigs and 94 nonclinical isolates from healthy pigs. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration of seven antimicrobial agents, 96.4% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antibiotics and 81...
November 28, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889371/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-blashv-genes-in-a-chinese-teaching-hospital
#5
Mei Zhu, Guangjian Yang, Ailing Li, Li Zong, Zhaoguang Dong, Junwan Lu, Kaibo Zhang, Cong Cheng, Qingli Chang, Xiuying Wu, Jianchao Ying, Xianneng Li, Li Ding, Haixiao Zheng, Junping Yu, Jun Ying, Teng Xu, Huiguang Yi, Peizhen Li, Kewei Li, Songquan Wu, Qiyu Bao, Junrong Wang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) commonly reside in human intestine and most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes cause serious food poisoning. This study identified and molecularly characterized E. coli blaSHV genes from 490 E. coli strains with multi-drug resistance in a hospital population. PCR and molecular cloning and southern blot were performed to assess functions and localizations of this resistant E. coli gene and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was utilized to demonstrate the clonal relatedness of the positive E...
November 23, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889162/tolerance-of-clostridium-perfringens-biofilms-to-disinfectants-commonly-used-in-the-food-industry
#6
Audrey Charlebois, Mario Jacques, Martine Boulianne, Marie Archambault
Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxemia in animal species. Recently, it was shown to form mono-species biofilms, a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Biofilms have been associated with tolerance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and physical and environmental stresses. Very little is known about the tolerance of C. perfringens biofilm toward disinfectants. In the present study, susceptibilities of C...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885668/characterization-of-gambierdiscus-lapillus-sp-nov-gonyaulacales-dinophyceae-a-new-toxic-dinoflagellate-from-the-great-barrier-reef-australia
#7
Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Arjun Verma, D Tim Harwood, Mona Hoppenrath, Shauna Murray
Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) which bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in ciguatera fish poisoning endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step in order to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to ciguatera fish poisoning cases occurring in this region...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885561/outbreak-of-severe-pseudorabies-virus-infection-in-pig-offal-fed-farmed-mink-in-liaoning-province-china
#8
Hao Liu, Xin-Tong Li, Bo Hu, Xiao-Yu Deng, Lei Zhang, Shi-Zhen Lian, Hai-Ling Zhang, Shuang Lv, Xiang-Hong Xue, Rong-Guang Lu, Ning Shi, Ming-Hao Yan, Peng-Peng Xiao, Xi-Jun Yan
An outbreak of severe pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in farmed mink occurred in northern China in late 2014, causing significant economic losses in the local fur industry. Here, we report the first case of a PRV outbreak in mink in northeastern China, caused by feeding farmed mink with raw pork or organs contaminated by PRV. Mink infected with virulent PRV exhibited diarrhea, neurologic signs, and higher mortality, which can be misdiagnosed as highly pathogenic mink enteritis virus (MEV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and food poisoning...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884943/recombinant-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-type-a-stimulate-antitumoral-cytokines
#9
Reza Agheli, Bijan Emkanian, Raheleh Halabian, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
BACKGROUND: About 20 different types of staphylococcal enterotoxins are produced by Staphylococcus aureus, in which type A is more common in food poisoning syndrome. Also staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a potent inducer of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and cytokine production and could stimulate T cells containing T-cell receptor beta chain domains when binding to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Hence, it is an important reagent in cancer immunotherapy...
November 23, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884585/the-successful-treatment-of-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-overdose-in-a-patient-with-malignancy-and-hiv-aids-with-uridine-triacetate
#10
Cynthia Santos, Brent W Morgan, Robert J Geller
According to the NIH, about 275000 patients receive treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and more than 1300 die from 5-FU toxicity every year from life-threatening myelosuppression, gastrointestinal complications, and neurotoxicity. Immunocompromised persons are at higher risk of developing toxicity. Recently uridine triacetate (Vistagard®) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the only specific antidote available for 5-FU poisoning. In a clinical trial (n=135), 96% of patients with 5-FU toxicity recovered after treatment, where as in a historical control group only 10% survived...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#11
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870538/foodborne-infections-and-intoxications-in-poland-in-2014
#12
Piotr Polański, Sylwia Kamińska, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
AIM: The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on the analysis of information sent to Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH through ROE (Pol. Rejestr Ognisk Epidemicznych)- an electronic system created for uploading, transfer and analysis of data acquired during the outbreak investigations). Additional sources for the analysis were NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869757/clostridium-perfringens-sialidases-potential-contributors-to-intestinal-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-targets
#13
REVIEW
Jihong Li, Francisco A Uzal, Bruce A McClane
Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of histotoxic and intestinal infections of humans and other animals. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium can produce up to three sialidases named NanH, NanI, and NanJ. The role of sialidases in histotoxic infections, such as gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), remains equivocal. However, recent in vitro studies suggest that NanI may contribute to intestinal virulence by upregulating production of some toxins associated with intestinal infection, increasing the binding and activity of some of those toxins, and enhancing adherence of C...
November 19, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864173/salad-leaf-juices-enhance-salmonella-growth-fresh-produce-colonisation-and-virulence
#14
Giannis Koukkidis, Richard Haigh, Natalie Allcock, Suzanne Jordan, Primrose Freestone
: We show in this report that traces of juices released from salad leaves as they became damaged can significantly enhance Salmonella enterica salad leaf colonisation. Salad juices in water increased Salmonella growth by 110% over the un-supplemented control, and in host-like serum based media by more than 2400-fold over controls. In serum based media salad juices induced growth of Salmonella via provision of Fe from transferrin, and siderophore production was found to be integral to the growth induction process...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835772/characterization-of-three-autolysins-with-activity-against-cereulide-producing-bacillus-isolates-in-food-matrices
#15
Peiling Geng, Yimin Hu, Guoping Zhou, Zhiming Yuan, Xiaomin Hu
Bacillus cereus is a pathogen related with diarrhoeal or emetic food poisoning cases, of which the latter caused by the cereulide-producing isolates are more severe with several reported lethal cases. It is therefore necessary to develop an effective strategy to prevent the propagation of B. cereus in the food supply. In this study, three autolysins from the cereulide-producing B. cereus group isolates, LysIS075, LysF8819.1 and LysCER057, were identified and characterized. The results showed that the three autolysins were highly lytic and bactericidal to the tested cereulide-producing B...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827957/screening-of-cytotoxic-b-cereus-on-differentiated-caco-2-cells-and-in-co-culture-with-mucus-secreting-ht29-mtx-cells
#16
Virginie Castiaux, Laurie Laloux, Yves-Jacques Schneider, Jacques Mahillon
B. cereus is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen able to cause diarrhoea. However, the diarrhoeal potential of a B. cereus strain remains difficult to predict, because no simple correlation has yet been identified between the symptoms and a unique or a specific combination of virulence factors. In this study, 70 B. cereus strains with different origins (food poisonings, foods and environment) have been selected to assess their enterotoxicity. The B. cereus cell-free supernatants have been tested for their toxicity in vitro, on differentiated (21 day-old) Caco-2 cells, using their ATP content, LDH release and NR accumulation...
November 5, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823872/epidemiologic-trends-in-loperamide-abuse%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-misuse
#17
J Priyanka Vakkalanka, Nathan P Charlton, Christopher P Holstege
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Loperamide abuse has been increasing in the United States as a potential alternative to manage opioid withdrawal symptoms or to achieve euphoric effects of opioid use. In June 2016, the Food and Drug Administration warned health care providers and the general public about potential serious adverse outcomes, including cardiac dysrhythmias and death. The purpose of this study is to determine recent trends in intentional loperamide abuse and misuse, reported clinical effects and management, and medical outcomes as reported to poison centers across the United States...
November 4, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822244/genomic-diversity-of-clostridium-perfringens-strains-isolated-from-food-and-human-sources
#18
A Afshari, A Jamshidi, J Razmyar, M Rad
Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study, RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49 isolates of C. perfringens type A from three different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818322/an-overview-of-herb-and-dietary-supplement-efficacy-safety-and-government-regulations-in-the-united-states-with-suggested-improvements-part-1-of-5-series
#19
REVIEW
Amy Christine Brown
This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (herbs; 20%), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs and zero deaths due to DS...
November 3, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800449/molecular-typing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolate-responsible-for-staphylococcal-poisoning-incident-in-homemade-food
#20
Guerrino Macori, Alberto Bellio, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Silvia Gallina, Daniela Adriano, Fabio Zuccon, Francesco Chiesa, Pier Luigi Acutis, Francesco Casalinuovo, Lucia Decastelli
In October 2012, two persons fell ill with symptoms consistent with staphylococcal food poisoning after eating home-canned tuna fish and tomatoes. Laboratory investigation detected the enterotoxins in the home-canned tuna and molecular analysis of the isolated Staphylococcus aureus confirmed it carried toxin genes. Qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzime linked fluorescent assay methods and quantitative assay identified the enterotoxins in the food leftovers, specifically staphylococcal enterotoxins type A (SEA) and D (SED), respectively 0...
April 19, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
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