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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437641/human-neuronal-cell-based-assay-a-new-in-vitro-model-for-toxicity-evaluation-of-ciguatoxin
#1
Teresa Coccini, Francesca Caloni, Uliana De Simone
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca(2+)i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419378/arsenic-induced-testicular-toxicity-in-gallus-gallus-expressions-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-heat-shock-proteins
#2
Xiao Sun, Siwen Li, Ying He, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Xiangwei Zeng, Mingwei Xing
The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of sub-chronic poisoning with arsenic on the testes of chickens treated. Seventy-two 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups and provided food with different doses arsenic. The histological changes were examined. The mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, including transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGEs), and heat shock proteins (Hsps), including Hsp70, Hsp90, Hsp60, Hsp40, and Hsp27 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in the testes of chickens...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416008/a-guide-to-acquired-vitamin-k-coagulophathy-diagnosis-and-treatment-the-russian-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Valery V Wojciechowski, Daniela Calina, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Alexander V Pivnik, Alexander A Sergievich, Vladimir V Kodintsev, Ekaterina A Filatova, Eren Ozcagli, Anca Oana Docea, Andreea Letitia Arsene, Eliza Gofita, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Kirill S Golokhvast
Physicians often come across with cases of vitamin K antagonists-dependent coagulopathy for reasons such as accidental use of the vitamin K antagonists (VKA), excessive administration of prescribed anticoagulants of indirect action or not reported administration of vitamin K antagonists due to memory impairment and/or other mental disorders, even deliberate use thereof (attempt to murder or suicide). Rodenticide-poisoning (coumarins, warfarins) via food or occupational accidents are difficult to diagnose. This article discusses different types of acquired vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy...
April 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403221/correction-thermal-stability-and-structural-changes-in-bacterial-toxins-responsible-for-food-poisoning
#4
Paulina Regenthal, Jesper S Hansen, Ingemar André, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172445.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402712/investigation-of-a-staphylococcal-food-poisoning-outbreak-from-a-chantilly-cream-dessert-in-umbria-italy
#5
Laura Ercoli, Silvia Gallina, Yacine Nia, Frédéric Auvray, Sara Primavilla, Fabrizia Guidi, Benedetta Pierucci, Catia Graziotti, Lucia Decastelli, Stefania Scuota
On August 28, 2015, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred in Umbria, Italy, affecting 24 of the 42 customers who had dinner at a local restaurant. About 3 h after ingesting a variety of foods, the customers manifested gastrointestinal symptoms. Within 24 h of notification from the hospital emergency department, Sanitary Inspectors of the local Public Health Unit performed an epidemiological investigation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among the customers. Food and environmental samples were collected...
April 12, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400021/east-and-west-african-milk-products-are-reservoirs-for-human-and-livestock-associated-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Christoph Jans, Axel Merz, Sophia Johler, Mario Younan, Sabine A Tanner, Dasel Wambua Mulwa Kaindi, John Wangoh, Bassirou Bonfoh, Leo Meile, Taurai Tasara
Staphylococcus aureus frequently isolated from milk products in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a major pathogen responsible for food intoxication, human and animal diseases. SSA hospital-derived strains are well studied but data on the population structure of foodborne S. aureus required to identify possible staphylococcal food poisoning sources is lacking. Therefore, the aim was to assess the population genetic structure, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes associated with milk-derived S. aureus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya and Somalia through spa-typing, MLST, and DNA microarray analysis...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400004/effect-of-food-related-stress-conditions-and-loss-of-agr-and-sigb-on-seb-promoter-activity-in-s-%C3%A2-aureus
#7
Henna-Maria Sihto, Roger Stephan, Christoph Engl, John Chen, Sophia Johler
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) causes staphylococcal food poisoning and is produced in up to ten times higher quantities than other major enterotoxins. While Staphylococcus aureus growth is often repressed by competing flora, the organism exhibits a decisive growth advantage under some stress conditions. So far, data on the influence of food-related stressors and regulatory mutations on seb expression is limited and largely based on laboratory strains, which were later reported to harbor mutations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of stress and regulatory mutations on seb promoter activity...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399995/cereulide-production-by-bacillus-weihenstephanensis-strains-during-growth-at-different-ph-values-and-temperatures
#8
Alizée Guérin, Helene Thorsen Rønning, Claire Dargaignaratz, Thierry Clavel, Véronique Broussolle, Jacques Mahillon, Per Einar Granum, Christophe Nguyen-The
Besides Bacillus cereus, some strains of the psychrotolerant, potentially foodborne pathogen Bacillus weihenstephanensis can produce the emetic toxine (cereulide). This toxin is a heat- and acid-stable cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that causes food intoxication with vomiting. However, some severe clinical cases with lethal outcomes have been described. If cereulide can be produced during refrigerated storage, it will not be inactivated by reheating food, representing an important risk of food intoxication for consumers...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395399/kudoa-septempunctata-as-a-cause-of-food-poisoning-and-its-differential-diagnosis
#9
Sung Uk Lee
Purpose: Recently kudoa septempuctata in olive flounders is suggested as a cause of food poisoning, however whether kudoa septempuctata can affect human gastrointestinal systems is controversial and its pathogenecity remains unclear. In view of the field epidemiology, food poisonings caused by kudoa septempuctata should be distinguished from those caused by staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus. Methods: The statistics of food poisoning investigations published by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2013-2015 were reviewed...
March 31, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394636/hazardous-properties-and-toxicological-update-of-mercury-from-fish-food-to-human-health-safety-perspective
#10
Charles Odilichukwu R Okpala, Giacomo Sardo, Sergio Vitale, Gioacchino Bono, Augustine Arukwe
The mercury (Hg) poisoning of Minamata Bay of Japan widely activated a global attention to Hg toxicity and its potential consequences to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. This has resulted to an increased need for a dynamic assembly, contextualization and quantification of both the current state-of-the-art and approaches for understanding the cause-and effect relationships of Hg exposure. Thus, the objective of this present review is to provide both hazardous-, toxic properties and toxicological update of Hg, focusing on how it ultimately affects the aquatic biota to potentially produce human health effects...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392089/trace-element-exposure-of-whooper-swans-cygnus-cygnus-wintering-in-a-marine-lagoon-swan-lake-northern-china
#11
Feng Wang, Shaochun Xu, Yi Zhou, Pengmei Wang, Xiaomei Zhang
Trace element poisoning remains a great threat to various waterfowl and waterbirds throughout the world. In this study, we determined the trace element exposure of herbivorous whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in Swan Lake (Rongcheng), an important swan protection area in northern China. A total of 70 samples including abiotic factors (seawater, sediments), food sources (seagrass, macroalgae), feathers and feces of whooper swans were collected from the marine lagoon during the winters of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016...
April 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389899/degradation-and-inactivation-of-shiga-toxins-by-nitrogen-gas-plasma
#12
Akikazu Sakudo, Yuichiro Imanishi
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) leads to food poisoning by causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some STEC produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), a relatively stable protein toxin, necessitating the development of an efficient inactivation method. Here we applied a nitrogen gas plasma apparatus to the inactivation of Stx. Samples of Stx1 and Stx2 were treated with a nitrogen gas plasma generated by a plasma device using a short high-voltage pulse applied by a static induction thyristor power supply at 1...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389346/essential-oil-composition-and-antifungal-activity-of-melissa-officinalis-originating-from-north-est-morocco-against-postharvest-phytopathogenic-fungi-in-apples
#13
Y El Ouadi, M Manssouri, A Bouyanzer, L Majidi, H Bendaif, H Elmsellem, M A Shariati, A Melhaoui, B Hammouti
To investigate biological control methods against post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples, tests on the antifungal activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis were carried out. The essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis of the essential oil was able to detect 88.7% of the components. The main components are P-mentha-1,2,3-triol (13.1%), P-menth-3-en-8-ol (8.8%), pulegone (8.8%), piperitynone oxide (8.4%) and 2-piperitone oxide (7...
April 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376581/esperance-pica-study
#14
Kuroush A Ardeshirian, Donald A Howarth
BACKGROUND: Pica, the eating of non-foods, occurs particularly in children and pregnant women. It has been observed in communities all over the world. Pica is associated with iron deficiency and, in some environments, lead poisoning. This is the first time a study has assessed the prevalence of pica in Australia. METHODS: The study assessed the prevalence of pica in an Australian rural community, using a questionnaire given to parents of 223 children aged 2-10 years attending the five general practice surgeries in the shire...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375567/biological-characteristics-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-q-and-its-potential-risk-for-food-poisoning
#15
D-L Hu, H K Ono, S Isayama, R Okada, M Okamura, L C Lei, Z S Liu, X-C Zhang, M Y Liu, J C Cui, A Nakane
AIMS: To elucidate the biological characteristics and stability of a newly identified staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) against heating and digestive enzymes, and evaluate the risk of seq-harboring S. aureus in food poisoning. METHODS AND RESULTS: Purified SEQ was treated with heating, pepsin and trypsin that are related to food cooking, stomach and intestine conditions. Superantigenic activity of SEQ was assessed by determining the ability of IL-2 induction in mouse spleen cells...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368034/protection-of-human-colon-cells-from-shiga-toxin-by-plant-based-recombinant-secretory-iga
#16
Katsuhiro Nakanishi, Shota Morikane, Shiori Ichikawa, Kohta Kurohane, Yasuo Niwa, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Sachie Matsubara, Hayato Kawakami, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Imai
Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor of food-poisoning caused by Escherichia coli such as O157:H7. Secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A (SIgA) is supposed to prevent infection of the mucosal surface and is a candidate agent for oral immunotherapy. We previously established a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) consisting of variable regions from a mouse IgG mAb specific for the binding subunit of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and the Fc region of mouse IgA. Here we produced a secretory form of the recombinant IgA (S-hyIgA) with transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366623/species-identification-of-white-false-hellebore-veratrum-album-subsp-oxysepalum-using-real-time-pcr
#17
Hitomi S Kikkawa, Kouichiro Tsuge, Satoshi Kubota, Masako Aragane, Hikoto Ohta, Ritsuko Sugita
Food poisoning is frequently caused by the accidental ingestion of toxic plants that possess strong morphological similarities to edible plants. False helleborine (Veratrum album) is one of the most common plants involved in such accidents. In cases of poisoning by toxic plants, rapid and accurate identification, usually based on the morphological or chemical analysis of plant parts, is required for appropriate medical treatment or forensic investigation. However, morphological examinations require experience in systematic botany because the samples are fragmentary, and chemical analysis of natural compounds can be difficult...
March 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366392/toxicity-screening-of-13-gambierdiscus-strains-using-neuro-2a-and-erythrocyte-lysis-bioassays
#18
Francesco Pisapia, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, R Wayne Litaker, Santiago Fraga, Tomohiro Nishimura, Masao Adachi, Lam Nguyen-Ngoc, Véronique Séchet, Zouher Amzil, Christine Herrenknecht, Philipp Hess
Species in the epi-benthic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs), which are among the most potent marine toxins known. Consumption of fish contaminated with sufficient quantities of CTXs causes Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), the largest cause of non-bacterial food poisoning worldwide. Maitotoxins, which can be found in the digestive system of fish, could also contribute to CFP if such tissues are consumed. Recently, an increasing number of Gambierdiscus species have been identified; yet, little is known about the variation in toxicity among Gambierdiscus strains or species...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364689/label-free-pharmacological-profiling-based-on-dynamic-mass-redistribution-for-characterization-and-authentication-of-hazardous-natural-products
#19
Hui-Peng Song, Hong Wang, Xiaoai Zhao, Ling He, Huailing Zhong, Si-Qi Wu, Ping Li, Hua Yang
Natural products are becoming increasingly popular in multiple fields involving medicines, foods and beverages. However, due to the frequent occurrence of poisoning incidents, their toxicity and safety have caused a serious concern. Here we report a method of biosensor-based two-phase pharmacological profiling (BTPP) for discovery, monitor and control of receptor-targeted natural products. BTPP uses a resonant waveguide grating biosensor for label-free and non-invasive detection of intracellular dynamic mass redistribution (DMR), a phenomenon caused by protein relocalization after receptors receiving stimulation from toxicants...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362113/staphylococcal-enterotoxins-and-enterotoxin-like-toxins-with-special-reference-to-dairy-products-an-overview
#20
Noreddine Benkerroum
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been raising health concerns for food safety due to their association with Staphylococcal Food Poisoning (SFP). As superantigens, they also cause the life threatening Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), the transmission of which via food cannot be ruled out despite the lack of epidemiological evidence. To date, at least 23 of these exotoxins are known and separated into SEs and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) depending on whether or not they invoke emesis. This work presents an up-to-date overview on the presently known SEs/SEls from the perspective of their classification, pathogenesis, and genetic organisation...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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