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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235987/staphylococcus-enterotoxin-profile-of-china-isolates-and-the-superantigenicity-of-some-novel-enterotoxins
#1
Menglu Shen, Yi Li, Linlin Zhang, Songbao Dai, Jiashun Wang, Yongqing Li, Lei Zhang, Jinhai Huang
The genus of staphylococcus widely distributes in environments and contributes to a variety of animal and human diseases. The enterotoxins (SEs) secreted by this type of pathogen have been the leading cause of bacterial toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning, and thus present a substantial concern to public health. In this study, we analyzed the superantigen profile of 122 staphylococcus strains isolated from diverse sources. When screened for the presence and prevalence of 17 known se or se-like (sel) genes, except selj, all other genes were detected in these isolates...
February 24, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235786/systematic-account-of-animal-poisonings-in-germany-2012-2015
#2
S E McFarland, R H Mischke, C Hopster-Iversen, X von Krueger, H Ammer, H Potschka, A Stürer, K Begemann, H Desel, M Greiner
A systematic retrospective study on animal poisonings in Germany (wildlife excluded) between January 2012 and December 2015 was conducted. Data were collected on animal exposure calls to German poison centres, poisoning cases presenting to the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover Small Animal and Equine Clinics, cases involving off-label use of veterinary medicinal products reported to the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety and toxicological submissions to the Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich...
February 24, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221888/histamine-formation-in-a-dry-salted-twaite-shad-alosa-fallax-lacustris-product
#3
Mauro Vasconi, Federica Bellagamba, Cristian Bernardi, Piera Anna Martino, Vittorio Maria Moretti
Landlocked shad is a freshwater clupeid fish ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) whose consumption is associated with the risk of scombrotoxin poisoning. Traditionally, fresh shad are subjected to an artisanal processing procedure, consisting of dry salting and maturation under pressure, to give a fish product named missoltino , which is stored in large metallic barrels and is sold to local consumers and restaurants. In recent years, the introduction of modern food packaging technologies has enabled this product to also be distributed in shops and supermarkets...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220909/effects-of-meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-potassium-iodide-and-chlorophyll-on-lead-accumulation-in-male-mice
#4
Ying Xie, Guifeng Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Lead (Pb) pollution is a serious public health problem all over the world, it especially plays severe damage role in children's health. Apart from reducing lead-induced damages, the decrease of lead accumulation is also critical. This study has been the first attempt to investigate effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), potassium iodide (KI) and chlorophyll (Chl) on lead accumulation in male mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty healthy Kunming male mice were selected and divided randomly into 8 groups...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213020/chitosan-inhibits-enterotoxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-in-growth-medium-and-chicken-meat
#5
Maryam Alnoman, Pathima Udompijitkul, Mahfuzur R Sarker
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming bacterium and a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of chitosan against spore germination, spore outgrowth and vegetative growth of C. perfringens food poisoning (FP) isolates. Chitosan of differing molecular weights inhibited germination of spores of all tested FP isolates in a KCl germinant solution containing 0.1 mg/ml chitosan at pH 4.5. However, higher level (0.25 mg/ml) of chitosan was required to effectively arrest outgrowth of the germinated C...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209208/food-safety-in-vietnam-where-we-are-at-and-what-we-can-learn-from-international-experiences
#6
Hung Nguyen-Viet, Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Fred Unger, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Delia Grace
Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers...
February 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207867/thermal-stability-and-structural-changes-in-bacterial-toxins-responsible-for-food-poisoning
#7
Paulina Regenthal, Jesper S Hansen, Ingemar André, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are secreted by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and are the most common causative agent in staphylococcal food poisoning. The staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been associated with large staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks, but newer identified SEs, like staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has recently been shown to be present at similar levels as SEA in food poisoning outbreaks. Thus, we set out to investigate the thermo-stability of the three-dimensional structures of SEA, SEH and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE), since heat inactivation is a common method to inactivate toxins during food processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207308/prevalence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-retail-lightly-pickled-vegetables-and-its-successful-control-at-processing-plants
#8
Masumi Taguchi, Masashi Kanki, Yuko Yamaguchi, Hideichi Inamura, Yosuke Koganei, Tetsuya Sano, Hiromi Nakamura, Hiroshi Asakura
Incidences of food poisoning traced to nonanimal food products have been increasingly reported. One of these was a recent large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection from the consumption of lightly pickled vegetables, indicating the necessity of imposing hygienic controls during manufacturing. However, little is known about the bacterial contamination levels in these minimally processed vegetables. Here we examined the prevalence of STEC, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in 100 lightly pickled vegetable products manufactured at 55 processing factories...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199340/crystal-structure-and-structure-based-mutagenesis-of-actin-specific-adp-ribosylating-toxin-cpile-a-as-novel-enterotoxin
#9
Waraphan Toniti, Toru Yoshida, Toshiharu Tsurumura, Daisuke Irikura, Chie Monma, Yoichi Kamata, Hideaki Tsuge
Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199065/rapid-characterization-of-trace-aflatoxin-b1-on-groundnuts-wheat-and-maize-by-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-followed-by-direct-electrospray-probe-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Thiphol Satarpai, Atitaya Siripinyanond, Hung Su, Jentaie Shiea
RATIONALE: Aflatoxins are poisonous and cancer-related chemical compounds commonly existed in crops and plants. Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic compound among aflatoxins and has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to human, especially on liver cancer. Herein, an ambient mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid characterization of trace aflatoxin B1 on peanuts. METHODS: Direct electrospray probe tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect aflatoxin B1 on peanuts...
February 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190406/an-assessment-of-the-microbiological-quality-of-liver-based-p%C3%A3-t%C3%A3-in-england-2012-13-comparison-of-samples-collected-at-retail-and-from-catering-businesses
#11
J McLAUCHLIN, F Jørgensen, H Aird, A Charlett, N Elviss, D Fenelon, A Fox, C Willis, C F L Amar
The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of liver pâté. During 2012-13, a total of 870 samples, unrelated to the investigation of food-poisoning outbreaks, were collected either at retail (46%), catering (53%) or the point of manufacture (1%) and were tested using standard methods to detect Salmonella spp. or Campylobacter spp., and to enumerate for Listeria spp., including Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp...
February 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171713/is-there-evidence-that-kudoa-septempunctata-can-cause-an-outbreak-of-acute-food-poisoning
#13
Young-Bae Chung, Jong-Myon Bae
After publishing results of a study that revealed diarrheagenic and emetic activity in 4-5-day old mice infected with Kudoa septempunctata (K. septempunctata) spores, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 11 events of "Kudoa food poisoning" in 2015. The epidemiological design of the previous study was descriptive rather than analytical; therefore, this study aimed to further investigate the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata. Academic articles showing evidence of the pathogenicity of K...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166175/using-twitter-to-identify-and-respond-to-food-poisoning-the-food-safety-stl-project
#14
Jenine K Harris, Jared B Hawkins, Leila Nguyen, Elaine O Nsoesie, Gaurav Tuli, Raed Mansour, John S Brownstein
CONTEXT: Foodborne illness affects 1 in 4 US residents each year. Few of those sickened seek medical care or report the illness to public health authorities, complicating prevention efforts. Citizens who report illness identify food establishments with more serious and critical violations than found by regular inspections. New media sources, including online restaurant reviews and social media postings, have the potential to improve reporting. OBJECTIVE: We implemented a Web-based Dashboard (HealthMap Foodborne Dashboard) to identify and respond to tweets about food poisoning from St Louis City residents...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160775/craniopharyngioma-presenting-with-severe-hyponatremia-hyponatremia-induced-myopathy-and-panhypopituitarism-a-case-report
#15
M D S A Dilrukshi, G V N Sandakumari, P K Abeysundara, T Chang
BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngiomas are rare intracranial tumors commonly presenting with neurological symptoms. Reports of severe hyponatremia as a presenting manifestation of a craniopharyngioma and hyponatremia-induced myopathy are rare. We report the case of a patient with craniopharyngioma presenting with severe hyponatremia, panhypopituitarism, and hyponatremia-induced myopathy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Sri Lankan man presented with anorexia, nausea, fatigue, generalized muscle weakness, and cramps for 1 week...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152486/highly-stable-aluminum-based-metal-organic-frameworks-as-biosensing-platforms-for-assessment-of-food-safety
#16
Chun-Sen Liu, Chun-Xiao Sun, Jia-Yue Tian, Zhuo-Wei Wang, Hong-Fei Ji, Ying-Pan Song, Shuai Zhang, Zhi-Hong Zhang, Ling-Hao He, Miao Du
Two unique immunosensors made of aluminum-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, 515- and 516-MOFs, with 4,4',4''-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H3NTB) were successfully obtained to efficiently assess food safety. The as-prepared 515- and 516-MOFs exhibited superior thermal and physicochemical stability, high electrochemical activity, and good biocompatibility. Among these immunosensors, 516-MOF showed a preferable biosensing ability toward analytes determined by electrochemical techniques. The developed 516-MOF-based electrochemical biosensor not only demonstrated high sensitivity with low detection limits of 0...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144705/ecological-fitness-and-virulence-features-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-estuarine-environments
#17
REVIEW
Charles R Lovell
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a commonly encountered and highly successful organism in marine ecosystems. It is a fast-growing, extremely versatile copiotroph that is active over a very broad range of conditions. It frequently occurs suspended in the water column (often attached to particles or zooplankton), and is a proficient colonist of submerged surfaces. This organism is an important pathogen of animals ranging from microcrustaceans to humans and is a causative agent of seafood-associated food poisoning. This review examines specific ecological adaptations of V...
January 31, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135403/rapid-cell-based-assay-for-detection-and-quantification-of-active-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-type-d
#18
Reuven Rasooly, Paula M Do, Bradley J Hernlem
Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by this bacterium and is a major source of foodborne illness. Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) is one of the predominant enterotoxins recovered in Staphylococcal food poisoning incidences, including a recent outbreak in Guam affecting 300 children. Current immunology methods for SED detection cannot distinguish between the biologically active form of the toxin, which poses a threat, from the inactive form, which poses no threat...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131374/salmonella-enteritidis-flagellar-mutants-have-a-colonization-benefit-in-the-chicken-oviduct
#19
Sofie Kilroy, Ruth Raspoet, An Martel, Leslie Bosseler, Corinne Appia-Ayme, Arthur Thompson, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel
Egg borne Salmonella Enteritidis is still a major cause of human food poisoning. Eggs can become internally contaminated following colonization of the hen's oviduct. In this paper we aimed to analyze the role of flagella of Salmonella Enteritidis in colonization of the hen's oviduct. Using a transposon library screen we showed that mutants lacking functional flagella are significantly more efficient in colonizing the hen's oviduct in vivo. A micro-array analysis proved that transcription of a number of flagellar genes is down-regulated inside chicken oviduct cells...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127308/antifungal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-dehnh-against-selected-fusarium-spp
#20
Martin Muthee Gakuubi, Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test pathogens...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
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