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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132030/capture-and-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-with-dual-labeled-aptamers-to-cell-surface-components
#1
Shylaja Ramlal, Bhairab Mondal, Padma Sudharani Lavu, Bhavanashri N, Joseph Kingston
In the present study, a high throughput whole cell SELEX method has been applied successfully in selecting specific aptamers against whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus, a potent food poisoning bacterium. A total ten rounds of SELEX and three rounds of intermittent counter SELEX, was performed to obtain specific aptamers. Obtained oligonucleotide pool were cloned, sequenced and then grouped into different families based on their primary sequence homology and secondary structure similarity. FITC labeled sequences from different families were selected for further characterization via flow cytometry analysis...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123505/staphylococcus-aureus-in-some-brazilian-dairy-industries-changes-of-contamination-and-diversity
#2
Karen K Dittmann, Luíza T Chaul, Sarah H I Lee, Carlos H Corassin, Carlos A Fernandes de Oliveira, Elaine C Pereira De Martinis, Virgínia F Alves, Lone Gram, Virginie Oxaran
Staphylococcus aureus, a major food-poisoning pathogen, is a common contaminant in dairy industries worldwide, including in Brazil. We determined the occurrence of S. aureus in five dairies in Brazil over 8 months. Of 421 samples, 31 (7.4%) were positive for S. aureus and prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3% between dairies. Sixty-six isolates from the 31 samples were typed by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing to determine if these isolates were persistent or continuously reintroduced. Seven known sequence types (STs), ST1, ST5, ST30, ST97, ST126, ST188 and ST398, and four new ST were identified, ST3531, ST3540, ST3562 and ST3534...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121701/the-impact-of-isolation-source-in-the-biofilm-formation-characteristics-of-bacillus-cereus
#3
Mohammad Shakhawat Hussain, Deog-Hwan Oh
Human pathogen and food spoiler Bacillus cereus can form biofilm that act as a persistent source of contamination, which is of public health concern. This study aimed to understand how the source of isolation might affect the behavior of biofilm formation. Biofilm formation abilities of 56 strains of B. cereus isolated from different environment including human food poisoning, farm, and food were determined. Crystal violet (CV) assay results revealed significant (p < 0.05) difference in biofilm formation abilities among the strains isolated from different sources only at an early stage of incubation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113930/bitter-taste-responses-of-gustducin-positive-taste-cells-in-mouse-fungiform-and-circumvallate-papillae
#4
Ryusuke Yoshida, Shingo Takai, Keisuke Sanematsu, Robert F Margolskee, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Bitter taste serves as an important signal for potentially poisonous compounds in foods to avoid their ingestion. Thousands of compounds are estimated to taste bitter and presumed to activate taste receptor cells expressing bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) and coupled transduction components including gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2) and transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). Indeed, some gustducin-positive taste cells have been shown to respond to bitter compounds. However, there has been no systematic characterization of their response properties to multiple bitter compounds and the role of transduction molecules in these cells...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113834/aflatoxin-b1-impairs-sperm-quality-and-fertilization-competence
#5
A Komsky-Elbaz, M Saktsier, Z Roth
Aflatoxins are poisonous byproducts of the soilborne fungus Aspergillus, involved in the decomposition of plant materials. Aflatoxins can be found in various food products, such as maize, sorghum, millet, rice and wheat. AFB1 is the most toxic of these, classified as a carcinogen and mutagen for both humans and animals. AFB1 has been detected in human cord blood and placenta; however, its toxic effect on sperm is less known. The current study examines sperm responses associated with AFB1 exposure. These included acrosome integrity and function, mitochondrial polarity, DNA fragmentation, fertilization competence and early embryonic development...
November 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112896/staphylococcal-food-poisoning-caused-by-staphylococcus-argenteus-harboring-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-genes
#6
Yuki Wakabayashi, Kaoru Umeda, Shinya Yonogi, Hiromi Nakamura, Kaori Yamamoto, Yuko Kumeda, Kentaro Kawatsu
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in food materials. SE genes are encoded on mobile genetic elements and are widely found across Staphylococcus species including S. argenteus, although most SFP cases are caused by S. aureus. S. argenteus, recently discriminated from S. aureus as a novel species, are non-pigmented staphylococci phenotypically related to S. aureus. In 2014 and 2015, two independent food poisoning cases occurred in Osaka, Japan, in which non-pigmented staphylococci were predominantly isolated...
October 22, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112111/pediatric-minoxidil-exposures-reported-to-texas-poison-centers
#7
Mathias B Forrester
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that ingestion of even small amounts of minoxidil by young children may result in serious adverse effects. The intent of this study was to describe pediatric minoxidil exposures reported to a statewide poison center system. METHODS: Cases were minoxidil exposures among patients 5 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during 2000 to 2014. The distribution by various demographic and clinical factors was determined. RESULTS: Of 125 total cases, 58% were male and 78% aged 1 to 2 years...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100933/ethnopharmacological-implications-of-quantitative-and-network-analysis-for-traditional-knowledge-regarding-the-medicinal-use-of-animals-by-indigenous-people-in-wolchulsan-national-park-korea
#8
Geun Kim, Hyun Kim, Mi-Jang Song
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The purpose of this study was to record, analyze, and identify ethnopharmacological implications for oral traditional knowledge regarding the medicinal use of animals by indigenous people living in Wolchulsan National Park, Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected through interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and observations guided by semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed via quantitative analysis of informant consensus factor and fidelity level, and network analysis, including centrality and clustering analysis...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099921/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-minas-frescal-cheese-evaluation-of-classic-enterotoxin-genes-antimicrobial-resistance-and-clonal-diversity
#9
Alice Gonçalves Martins Gonzalez, Leila Márcia Peres Marques, Marcel da Silva Amorim Gomes, JhonathanCampos do Couto Beltrão, Marcos Gabriel Pinheiro, Luciana Maria Ramires Esper, Geraldo Renato de Paula, Lenise Arneiro Teixeira, Fábio Aguiar-Alves
This study aimed to investigate classical enterotoxin (sea to see) and mecA genes, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and anitimicrobial susceptibility, by disc diffusion test of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from minas frescal cheese (MFC). All methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were investigated for the presence of PVL genes and clonal diversity. Thirty-one S. aureus were isolated from four MFC samples. Seven (22.6%) S. aureus carried mecA gene and two of them carried enterotoxin genes seb/sec and sea/seb...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097736/molecular-phylogenetic-analysis-of-new-entoloma-rhodopolium-related-species-in-japan-and-its-identification-method-using-pcr-rflp
#10
Kazunari Kondo, Kosuke Nakamura, Takumi Ishigaki, Kozue Sakata, Saemi Obitsu, Akio Noguchi, Nozomi Fukuda, Eiji Nagasawa, Reiko Teshima, Tomoko Nishimaki-Mogami
Poisonous Entoloma rhodopolium and other similar species including edible E. sarcopum are morphologically diverse. People mistake poisonous species for edible species. Classification and the detection method of these species need to be defined. The morphological and phylogenetic studies have been reported in northern Europe. In Japan, the genetic study remains unsolved. Thus, phylogenetic analysis of E. rhodopolium was conducted using ITS and RPB2 sequences, and the result was compared with that of European species...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082017/framework-legislation-for-non-communicable-diseases-and-for-the-sustainable-development-goals
#11
REVIEW
Roger S Magnusson
'Framework legislation' refers to legislation that sets out structures for governance and accountability or other processes for guiding the decisions and actions taken by government or the executive. Framework legislation for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) provides the opportunity for countries to focus their political commitment, to set national targets, and a time-frame for achieving them, and to create cross-sectoral governance structures for the development and implementation of innovative policies. Although they extend well beyond NCDs, the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) create similar demands for effective national governance...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081461/rapid-lc-ms-determination-of-acromelic-acids-a-and-b-toxic-constituents-of-the-mushroom-paralepistopsis-acromelalga
#12
Naoki Yoshioka, Hitoshi Ouchi, Toshiyuki Kan, Masashi Yoshida, Motoyuki Nomura
A rapid LC-MS method was developed for determination of acromelic acids A and B, which are toxic constituents of Paralepistopsis acromelalga (=Clitocybe acromelalga), in mushroom samples. Acromelic acids were extracted twice with 50% methanol and the extract was passed through a syringe filter, and then analyzed by LC-MS. The LC separation was performed on a multi-mode ODS column. The recoveries of acromelic acids A and B spiked into blank mushroom samples at 2.5 μg/g were 93 and 74%, respectively. This method was applied to the remaining mushroom sample from a food poisoning case...
2017: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080523/fatal-poisonings-involving-propoxyphene-before-and-after-voluntary-withdrawal-from-the-united-states-market-an-analysis-from-the-state-of-florida
#13
Chris Delcher, Guanming Chen, Yanning Wang, Svetla Slavova, Bruce A Goldberger
The synthetic opioid propoxyphene was a schedule IV controlled substance with multiple reported health risks before the US Food and Drug Administration issued a request for voluntary market withdrawal in November 2010. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics and occurrences of propoxyphene-related deaths in Florida before and after voluntary market removal. Decedent-level toxicology data from Florida's Medical Examiners Commission was used to compare the temporal, polysubstance use, sociodemographic, and geographic profiles associated with propoxyphene-involved deaths for a pre-withdrawal (November 2008-November 2010) and post-withdrawal (December 2010-December 2012) period...
October 14, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078264/overview-of-ganoderma-sinense-polysaccharide-an-adjunctive-drug-used-during-concurrent-chemo-radiation-therapy-for-cancer-treatment-in-china
#14
REVIEW
Yifei Jiang, Yajing Chang, Yong Liu, Meng Zhang, Heng Luo, Cui Hao, Pengjiao Zeng, Yue Sun, Hua Wang, Lijuan Zhang
Ganoderma sinense or "Chinese Lingzhi" is a well-known medicinal fungus in China for more than 2000 years. Polysaccharide is the main immunomodulatory and antitumor component in G. sinense. In 2010, G. sinense polysaccharide (GSP) tablet is approved as an adjunctive therapeutic drug in China for treating leukopenia and hematopoietic injury caused by concurrent chemo/radiation therapy during cancer treatment by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). β-glucan, an established immunostimulant, is one of the components in GSP...
October 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076389/historical-documentation-of-lead-toxicity-prior-to-the-20th-century-in-english-literature
#15
M E Jonasson, R Afshari
Lead is a heavy metal that remains a persistent environmental toxin. Although there have been a substantial number of reviews published on the health effects of lead, these reviews have predominantly focused on recent publications and rarely look at older, more historical articles. Old documents on lead can provide useful insight in establishing the historical context of lead usage and its modes of toxicity. The objective of this review is to explore historical understandings and uses of lead prior to the 20th century...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069184/spatial-distribution-of-pesticide-use-in-brazil-a-strategy-for-health-surveillance
#16
Wanderlei Antonio Pignati, Francco Antonio Neri de Souza E Lima, Stephanie Sommerfeld de Lara, Marcia Leopoldina Montanari Correa, Jackson Rogério Barbosa, Luís Henrique da Costa Leão, Marta Gislene Pignatti
The intensive use of pesticides in Brazilian agriculture is a public health issue due to contamination of the environment, food and human health poisoning. The study aimed to show the spatial distribution of the planted area of agricultural crops, the use of pesticides and related health problems, as a Health Surveillance strategy. We obtained data from the planted area of 21 predominant crops, indicators of the consumption of pesticides per hectare for each crop and health problems. The amount of pesticides used in the Brazilian municipalities was spatially distributed and correlated with the incidence of pesticides poisoning: acute, sub-acute and chronic...
October 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064057/antiaflatoxigenic-potential-of-cell-free-supernatant-from-lactobacillus-plantarum-mys44-against-aspergillus-parasiticus
#17
K Poornachandra Rao, B V Deepthi, S Rakesh, T Ganesh, Premila Achar, M Y Sreenivasa
The study aims to evaluate the cell-free supernatant (CFS) from Lactobacillus plantarum strain MYS44 against the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus MTCC 411. Standard in vitro techniques revealed the potential antifungal activity of CFS of LpMYS44. In poison food technique, it was observed that 6% CFS of LpMYS44 retarded maximum growth. The inhibition of A. parasiticus on peanuts confirmed the ability of CFS of LpMYS44 for biopreservation. Further, CFS of LpMYS44 was purified by chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS...
October 24, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060555/learning-about-individuals-health-from-aggregate-data
#18
Rich Colbaugh, Kristin Glass
There is growing awareness that user-generated social media content contains valuable health-related information and is more convenient to collect than typical health data. For example, Twitter has been employed to predict aggregate-level outcomes, such as regional rates of diabetes and child poverty, and to identify individual cases of depression and food poisoning. Models which make aggregate-level inferences can be induced from aggregate data, and consequently are straightforward to build. In contrast, learning models that produce individual-level (IL) predictions, which are more informative, usually requires a large number of difficult-to-acquire labeled IL examples...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060010/a-roic-for-mn-tpp-cl-dop-thf-polyhema-pvc-membrane-modified-n-channel-si3n4-isfet-sensitive-to-histamine
#19
N L M A Samah, Khuan Y Lee, S A Sulaiman, R Jarmin
Intolerance of histamine could lead to scombroid poisoning with fatal consequences. Current detection methods for histamine are wet laboratory techniques which employ expensive equipment that depends on skills of seasoned technicians and produces delayed test analysis result. Previous works from our group has established that ISFETs can be adapted for detecting histamine with the use of a novel membrane. However, work to integrate ISFETs with a readout interfacing circuit (ROIC) circuit to display the histamine concentration has not been reported so far...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056690/detection-and-characterization-of-histamine-producing-strains-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-damselae-isolated-from-mullets
#20
Marcello Trevisani, Rocco Mancusi, Matilde Cecchini, Claudia Costanza, Marino Prearo
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd) is considered to be an emerging pathogen of marine fish and has also been implicated in cases of histamine food poisoning. In this study, eight strains isolated from mullets of the genera Mugil and Liza captured in the Ligurian Sea were characterized, and a method to detect histamine-producing Pdd from fish samples was developed. The histamine-producing potential of the strains was evaluated in culture media (TSB+) using a histamine biosensor. Subsequently, two strains were used to contaminate mackerel fillets (4 or 40 CFU/g), simulating a cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls...
June 20, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
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