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Raghavendra Prasad Mishra, Udit Jain, Rakesh Kumar Singh
AIM: This study was planned to study the genotypes of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of deer due to its public health significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 160 fecal samples of deer were taken from Mathura district and Kanpur Zoo and screened for VTEC genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: All fecal samples were positive for E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1 , stx2 , eaeA, and hlyA...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Singh Parul, Basanti Bist, Barkha Sharma, Udit Jain, Janardan K Yadav
AIM: The present study was conducted to find the association among virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli (VTEC) isolated from cattle calf feces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 216 cattle calf fecal samples were collected aseptically and processed under required conditions for the isolation of E. coli. The isolates were further subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the detection of virulent genes. All the VTEC isolates were serotyped at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh...
August 2016: Veterinary World
C Óhaiseadha, P D Hynds, U B Fallon, J O'Dwyer
Ireland reports the highest incidence of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in Europe. This study investigated potential risk factors for confirmed sporadic and outbreak primary VTEC infections during 2008-2013. Overall, 989 VTEC infections including 521 serogroup O157 and 233 serogroup O26 were geo-referenced to 931 of 18 488 census enumeration areas. The geographical distribution of human population, livestock, unregulated groundwater sources, domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTS) and a deprivation index were examined relative to notification of VTEC events in 524 of 6242 rural areas...
September 9, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Stefan Widgren, Stefan Engblom, Pavol Bauer, Jenny Frössling, Ulf Emanuelson, Ann Lindberg
European Union legislation requires member states to keep national databases of all bovine animals. This allows for disease spread models that includes the time-varying contact network and population demographic. However, performing data-driven simulations with a high degree of detail are computationally challenging. We have developed an efficient and flexible discrete-event simulator SimInf for stochastic disease spread modelling that divides work among multiple processors to accelerate the computations. The model integrates disease dynamics as continuous-time Markov chains and livestock data as events...
2016: Veterinary Research
Louise Crozier, Pete E Hedley, Jenny Morris, Carol Wagstaff, Simon C Andrews, Ian Toth, Robert W Jackson, Nicola J Holden
Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonization. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 'Sakai,' to colonize the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), vining green pea (Pisum sativum), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), a wild relative of domesticated lettuce...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gui-Yan Yang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Wei Zhang, Dong Zhou, Cong-Cong Zhai, Jiu-Feng Wang
Efficient strategies for treating enteritis caused by F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)/verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in mucin 4 resistant (MUC4 RR; supposed to be F4ab/ac receptor-negative [F4ab/acR(-)]) pigs remain elusive. A low (3.9 × 10(8) CFU/day) or high (7.8 × 10(8) CFU/day) dose of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spore mixture (BLS-mix) was orally administered to MUC4 RR piglets for 1 week before F4(+) ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge...
July 16, 2016: Veterinary Research
Mirella Luciani, Tiziana Di Febo, Katiuscia Zilli, Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Gisella Armillotta, Laura Manna, Fabio Minelli, Manuela Tittarelli, Alfredo Caprioli
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli O104:H4 were produced by fusion of Sp2/O-Ag-14 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice, immunized with heat-inactivated and sonicated E. coli O104:H4 bacterial cells. Four MAbs specific for the E. coli O104:H4 LPS (1E6G6, 1F4C9, 3G6G7, and 4G10D2) were characterized and evaluated for the use in a method for the detection of E. coli O104:H4 in milk samples that involves antibody conjugation to magnetic microbeads to reduce time and increase the efficiency of isolation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Nyambe, C Burgess, P Whyte, D Bolton
AIMS: Cattle are the main reservoir of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), food-borne pathogens that express verocytotoxins (vtx) encoded by temperate bacteriophage. Bovine faeces and unturned manure heaps can support the survival of VTEC and may propagate and transmit VTEC. This study investigated the survival of a vtx2 bacteriophage, φ24B ::Kan, in bovine faeces and slurry. The survival of an anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 lytic bacteriophage, e11/2, was examined in the same matrices, as a possible bio-control option for VTEC...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
S V Sapelkin, A V Levin
The publication contains a review of present-day positions on prolonged prevention of venous thromboembolic complications. This is followed by considering the role of risk factors, probabilistic value of prognostic scales, as well as reflecting the provisions of the recent Russian and international consensus documents concerned. Careful consideration is given to the major possible parameters a physician could be guided by in real clinical practice while choosing and deciding upon appropriate terms of prevention...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
S Nyambe, C Burgess, P Whyte, D Bolton
Verocytotoxigenic (vtx) Escherichia coli (VTEC) are zoonotic foodborne pathogens with the vtx operon encoded by lambdoid bacteriophage (phage). Despite much research on the host bacteria, similar data on the persistence of verocytotoxin converting phage and the ecological niches where transduction occurs are lacking and novel VTEC of important public health significance, have and continue to emerge. This study investigated the survival of a temperate vtx bacteriophage (24B ::kanamycin(R) ) in water (raw farm, pasteurized farm, laboratory tap and autoclaved purified water) and soil (sandy loam and loam soil)...
June 23, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Laura Ercoli, Silvana Farneti, Alessia Zicavo, Guerriero Mencaroni, Giuliana Blasi, Gianluca Striano, Stefania Scuota
In total 1095 samples from 675 pork products, 210 swine colon contents, and 210 swine carcass sponge swabs were collected in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy and examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes. stx-Positive samples were further tested for the "top five" serogroup markers (O157, O26, O103, O111, O145) and cultured onto selective media...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Dearbháile Morris, Siobhán Kavanagh, Karen Carney, Brian MacDomhnaill, Martin Cormican
Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is associated with a wide spectrum of disease from mild self-limiting diarrhoea to haemolytic uremic syndrome. Contaminated drinking water is accepted as an important route of transmission in Ireland as elsewhere however established methods for detection of VTEC in drinking water have limitations. We describe a sensitive and rapid method for detection of VTEC from large volumes (20 to 30L) of drinking water based on filtration, enrichment culture of filters and real-time PCR detection of VTEC virulence and O antigen determinants from enrichments...
September 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Raghavendra Prasad Mishra, Udit Jain, Basanti Bist, Amit Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar
AIM: The present study was planned to reveal the prevalence of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of domestic and wild ruminants in Mathura district and Kanpur zoo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 240 fecal samples comprising 60 each of cattle, buffalo, sheep and deer from Mathura districts and Kanpur zoo were screened for the presence of E. coli and VTEC genes positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULT: Out of 240 fecal samples, 212 E...
January 2016: Veterinary World
José A Orden, Gustavo Domínguez-Bernal, Ricardo de la Fuente, Javier Carrión
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a cytotoxin which might contribute to the virulence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains in humans. Three variants of SubAB encoding genes have been described (subAB1, subAB2-1, and subAB2-2) and it has been suggested that the strains positive for two variants of subAB may be more pathogenic for humans. In this study, 188 subAB2-positive VTEC strains isolated from goats and sheep were investigated for the presence of the subAB2-1 and subAB2-2 variants by PCR...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Robert Söderlund, Julie Hurel, Tomas Jinnerot, Camilla Sekse, Anna Aspán, Erik Eriksson, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff
INTRODUCTION: Escherichia coli O103:H2 occurs as verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) carrying only vtx 1 or vtx 2 or both variants, but also as vtx-negative atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). The majority of E. coli O103:H2 identified from cases of human disease are caused by the VTEC form. If aEPEC strains frequently acquire verotoxin genes and become VTEC, they must be considered a significant public health concern. In this study, we have characterized and compared aEPEC and VTEC isolates of E...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Jean O'Dwyer, Margaret Morris Downes, Catherine C Adley
This study analyses the relationship between meteorological phenomena and outbreaks of waterborne-transmitted vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in the Republic of Ireland over an 8-year period (2005-2012). Data pertaining to the notification of waterborne VTEC outbreaks were extracted from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting system, which is administered through the national Health Protection Surveillance Centre as part of the Health Service Executive. Rainfall and temperature data were obtained from the national meteorological office and categorised as cumulative rainfall, heavy rainfall events in the previous 7 days, and mean temperature...
February 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Anne M Carroll, Emma Cobban, Eleanor B McNamara
We evaluated 5 methods for the detection of verotoxogenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) from faecal specimens to determine the most sensitive and specific method(s) and to advise an optimum testing strategy. A total of 681 stool specimens were examined using up to 5 diagnostic molecular and phenotypic methods that are used routinely in the VTEC Reference laboratory, Dublin. A testing strategy incorporating a 2-step approach that included a single Real Time-PCR and 1 culture-based method yielded the highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 98...
May 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
R P Smith, W J Pollitt, G A Paiba
A longitudinal study in England and Wales of two dairy, five beef-fattener and three beef-suckler herds was carried out to identify risk factors for young cattle excreting verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157). A total of 1383 cattle, selected into cohorts at 0-24 months were sampled between March 2000 and February 2001. Mixed-effects logistic regression was employed to identify significant associations between VTEC O157 isolation from rectal faecal samples and explanatory factors (P < 0·001 unless shown)...
July 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Ut V Nguyen, Annelies Coddens, Vesna Melkebeek, Bert Devriendt, Tiphanie Goetstouwers, Mario Van Poucke, Luc Peelman, Eric Cox
F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4(+)/F18(+) ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18(+) verotoxigenic E. coli (F18(+) VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management...
January 21, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Man Ling Chau, Sri Harminda Pahm Hartantyo, Min Yap, Joanne Su Lin Kang, Kyaw Thu Aung, Ramona Alikiiteaga Gutiérrez, Lee Ching Ng, Clarence C Tam, Timothy Barkham
BACKGROUND: Singapore's diarrhoeal notification system is based on specific pathogens. Official data may thus be skewed towards notifiable diseases. Limited information is available on the profiles of aetiological agents responsible for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among the adult population. To understand the frequency and distribution of potential causative agents of diarrheal disease in Singapore, we screened adults' stool samples collected from a large public hospital...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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