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B S Sukovatykh, A V Sereditskiĭ, V F Muradian, L N Belikov, A M Azarov, O F Gerasimova
The objective of the study was to compare safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and dabigatran with warfarin in treatment of patients with acute venous thromboembolic complications (VTEC). The authors analysed the results of examining and treating a total of 95 patients presenting with VTEC and randomly divided into three groups. In all groups the initial anticoagulant therapy consisted in unfractionated heparin administered for 5 days, after which the patients followed by switching were switched to a 6-month course of treatment with oral anticoagulants...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Gary McAuliffe, Liselle Bissessor, Deborah Williamson, Sharon Moore, Janet Wilson, Muriel Dufour, Susan Taylor, Arlo Upton
We sought to verify the performance of the EntericBio real-time Gastro Panel 2 (GP2; Serosep, Ireland) assay targeting Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, verotoxin producing E. coli (VTEC), Giardia, and Cryptosporidium in a high-throughput diagnostic laboratory. Following a technical verification period where 237 faecal samples were tested in parallel, guided culture and discrepancy analysis were performed. A total of 13,223 faecal samples were screened by the GP2 assay. During technical verification, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value of the GP2 assay compared with conventional methods were 100% (83-100%), 98% (96...
June 2017: Pathology
Frank Pollari, Tanya Christidis, Katarina D M Pintar, Andrea Nesbitt, Jeff Farber, Marie-Claude Lavoie, Alex Gill, Penelope Kirsch, Roger P Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Human infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM has historically been associated with consumption of undercooked ground beef. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of the decline in E. coli O157:H7/NM infections in Canada with the introduction of control efforts in ground beef by industry. METHODS: The human incidence of E. coli O157:H7/NM, prevalence in ground beef and interventions from 1996 to 2014 were analyzed. Pathogen prevalence data were obtained from federal government and industry surveillance and inspection/compliance programs...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Cheng Wang, Chuang Shi, Hongping Zhang
Global ionospheric products of vertical total electron content (VTEC) derived from GNSS measurements may have low accuracy over oceans and southern latitudes where there are not rich observations. Project Loon provides a great opportunity to enhance the measurements over those areas. In this contribution, a simulation of Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling is performed by using the international reference ionosphere (IRI) which could simulate VTEC measurements for the balloons. The performance of the enhanced method based on simulation of Project Loon is investigated by comparing with VTEC maps from Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs) as well as IGS final GIMs...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gui-Ying Mei, Joshua Tang, Susan Bach, Magdalena Kostrzynska
Disease outbreaks of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes associated with leafy green vegetables are becoming a growing concern. A better understanding of the behavior of VTEC, particularly non-O157 serotypes, on lettuce under stress conditions is necessary for designing more effective control strategies. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a sanitizer to reduce the microbial load in leafy green vegetables, particularly in fresh produce destined for the organic market...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rui Tu, Rui Zhang, Cuixian Lu, Pengfei Zhang, Jinhai Liu, Xiaochun Lu
In this study, a unified model for BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) wide area and local area augmentation positioning based on raw observations has been proposed. Applying this model, both the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service can be realized by performing different corrections at the user end. This algorithm was assessed and validated with the BDS data collected at four regional stations from Day of Year (DOY) 080 to 083 of 2016. When the users are located within the local reference network, the fast and high precision RTK service can be achieved using the regional observation corrections, revealing a convergence time of about several seconds and a precision of about 2-3 cm...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
A Collins, U B Fallon, M Cosgrove, G Meagher, C Ni Shuileabhan
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a significant problem in the under-six population in the Midlands, Ireland. VTEC spreads by person-to-person transmission and children attending childcare facilities are excluded until they achieve two consecutive negative stool samples. This report analyses 10 years data on the number of days children under the age of six take to microbiologically clear VTEC. We identified from our data that the median clearance time for VTEC was 39 days, interquartile range (IQR) 27-56 days, maximum clearance time 283 days...
June 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Yvonne Whitfield, Karen Johnson, Leigh Hobbs, Dean Middleton, Badal Dhar, Linda Vrbova
BACKGROUND: Contact with animals and their environment has long been recognized as an important source of enteric zoonoses. However, there are limited data available on the burden of illness associated with specific types of animals in Canada. This study describes the overall burden of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2012. METHODS: Confirmed cases of seven enteric zoonotic diseases (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, verotoxin-producing E...
February 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
Susanne Schjørring, Taina Niskanen, Mia Torpdahl, Jonas T Björkman, Eva Møller Nielsen
In 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated external quality assessment (EQA) schemes for molecular typing including the National Public Health Reference Laboratories in Europe. The overall aim for these EQA schemes was to enhance the European surveillance of food-borne pathogens by evaluating and improving the quality and comparability of molecular typing. The EQAs were organised by Statens Serum Institut (SSI) and included Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Listeria monocytogenes...
December 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
A Ch Stratakos, M Linton, S Millington, I R Grant
AIM: To develop a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay capable of quantifying Escherichia coli and differentiating verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Primer sets were selected to amplify the phoA gene (all E. coli strains) and stx1 and/or stx2 genes (VTEC strains only). LAMP calibration curves demonstrated good quantification capability compared with conventional culture. The limits of detection 50% (LOD50 ) of the multiplex LAMP assay were 2·8 (95% CI 2·4-3·3), 3·2 (95% CI 2·5-3·9) and 2·8-3·2 (95% CI 2·1-3·5) log CFU per g for the phoA, stx1 and stx2 genes, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Juliana González, Andrea Mariel Sanso, Jimena Soledad Cadona, Ana Victoria Bustamante
Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) O157:H7 is the dominant serotype isolated from patients with HUS and, Argentina has the highest rate of HUS in the world. Molecular typing had allowed to identify subpopulations related to the origin and virulence of O157:H7 strains. Our aim was to perform a genetic characterization of 43 O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentine mostly from cattle and humans in order to establish the potential public health risk. For it, we used a combination of molecular subtyping methods in order to identify clade 8_rhsA (C3468G), LSPA-6 and virulence profiles and, a cytotoxicity assay on Vero cell...
January 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Alexandra Tabaran, Marian Mihaiu, Flaviu Tăbăran, Liora Colobatiu, Oana Reget, Mihai Marian Borzan, Sorin Daniel Dan
The study focused on the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) in raw milk and traditional dairy cheeses marketed in Romania, characterizing the virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of these isolates. One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk and 80 samples of unpasteurized telemy cheese were collected and cultured according to the international standard protocol. All the characteristic E. coli cultures were analyzed for the presence of STa, STb, LT, stx1, and stx2 toxicity genes...
March 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Raghavendra Prasad Mishra, Udit Jain, Rakesh Kumar Singh
AIM: This study was planned to study the genotypes of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of deer due to its public health significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 160 fecal samples of deer were taken from Mathura district and Kanpur Zoo and screened for VTEC genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: All fecal samples were positive for E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1 , stx2 , eaeA, and hlyA...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Singh Parul, Basanti Bist, Barkha Sharma, Udit Jain, Janardan K Yadav
AIM: The present study was conducted to find the association among virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli (VTEC) isolated from cattle calf feces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 216 cattle calf fecal samples were collected aseptically and processed under required conditions for the isolation of E. coli. The isolates were further subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the detection of virulent genes. All the VTEC isolates were serotyped at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh...
August 2016: Veterinary World
C Óhaiseadha, P D Hynds, U B Fallon, J O'Dwyer
Ireland reports the highest incidence of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in Europe. This study investigated potential risk factors for confirmed sporadic and outbreak primary VTEC infections during 2008-2013. Overall, 989 VTEC infections including 521 serogroup O157 and 233 serogroup O26 were geo-referenced to 931 of 18 488 census enumeration areas. The geographical distribution of human population, livestock, unregulated groundwater sources, domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTS) and a deprivation index were examined relative to notification of VTEC events in 524 of 6242 rural areas...
January 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Stefan Widgren, Stefan Engblom, Pavol Bauer, Jenny Frössling, Ulf Emanuelson, Ann Lindberg
European Union legislation requires member states to keep national databases of all bovine animals. This allows for disease spread models that includes the time-varying contact network and population demographic. However, performing data-driven simulations with a high degree of detail are computationally challenging. We have developed an efficient and flexible discrete-event simulator SimInf for stochastic disease spread modelling that divides work among multiple processors to accelerate the computations. The model integrates disease dynamics as continuous-time Markov chains and livestock data as events...
2016: Veterinary Research
Louise Crozier, Pete E Hedley, Jenny Morris, Carol Wagstaff, Simon C Andrews, Ian Toth, Robert W Jackson, Nicola J Holden
Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonization. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 'Sakai,' to colonize the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), vining green pea (Pisum sativum), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), a wild relative of domesticated lettuce...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gui-Yan Yang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Wei Zhang, Dong Zhou, Cong-Cong Zhai, Jiu-Feng Wang
Efficient strategies for treating enteritis caused by F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)/verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in mucin 4 resistant (MUC4 RR; supposed to be F4ab/ac receptor-negative [F4ab/acR(-)]) pigs remain elusive. A low (3.9 × 10(8) CFU/day) or high (7.8 × 10(8) CFU/day) dose of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spore mixture (BLS-mix) was orally administered to MUC4 RR piglets for 1 week before F4(+) ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge...
July 16, 2016: Veterinary Research
Mirella Luciani, Tiziana Di Febo, Katiuscia Zilli, Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Gisella Armillotta, Laura Manna, Fabio Minelli, Manuela Tittarelli, Alfredo Caprioli
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli O104:H4 were produced by fusion of Sp2/O-Ag-14 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice, immunized with heat-inactivated and sonicated E. coli O104:H4 bacterial cells. Four MAbs specific for the E. coli O104:H4 LPS (1E6G6, 1F4C9, 3G6G7, and 4G10D2) were characterized and evaluated for the use in a method for the detection of E. coli O104:H4 in milk samples that involves antibody conjugation to magnetic microbeads to reduce time and increase the efficiency of isolation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Nyambe, C Burgess, P Whyte, D Bolton
AIMS: Cattle are the main reservoir of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), food-borne pathogens that express verocytotoxins (vtx) encoded by temperate bacteriophage. Bovine faeces and unturned manure heaps can support the survival of VTEC and may propagate and transmit VTEC. This study investigated the survival of a vtx2 bacteriophage, φ24B ::Kan, in bovine faeces and slurry. The survival of an anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 lytic bacteriophage, e11/2, was examined in the same matrices, as a possible bio-control option for VTEC...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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