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Group a streptococcal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645088/risk-based-screening-combined-with-a-pcr-based-test-for-group-b-streptococci-diminishes-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-laboring-women
#1
Mohammed R Khalil, Niels Uldbjerg, Poul B Thorsen, Birgitte Henriksen, Jens K Møller
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction - group B streptococci test (PCR-GBS test) - in deciding antibiotic prophylaxis in term laboring women. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, we enrolled 902 unselected Danish term pregnant women. During labor, midwives obtained vaginal swabs that were used for both GBS cultures (reference standard) and for the PCR-GBS test. Furthermore, we recorded the presence of risk factors for EOGBS (Early Onset Group B Streptococcal disease): (1) Bacteriuria during current pregnancy, (2) Prior infant with EOGBS (3) Temperature above 38...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626816/evaluation-of-topical-bevacizumab-as-an-adjunct-to-mitomycin-c-augmented-trabeculectomy
#3
Reza Zarei, Masoumeh Masoumpour, Sasan Moghimi, Ghasem Fakhraei, Yadollah Eslami, Masoud Mohammadi
PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and synergistic effect of topical bevacizumab after trabeculectomy surgery with mitomycin C (MMC). METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized, comparative interventional study, 40 eyes from 40 patients with uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma were studied after they underwent primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (0.02% for 2 min). Following the procedure topical bevacizumab (4 mg/mL) was used for 2 weeks 4 times daily in group A...
June 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617790/clinical-management-and-patient-persistence-with-antibiotic-course-in-suspected-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-for-primary-prevention-of-rheumatic-fever-the-perspective-from-a-new-zealand-emergency-department
#4
Jeremy J Mathan, Jozsef Ekart, Anthony Houlding, Gary Payinda, Clair Mills
AIM: Rates of acute rheumatic fever in the Northland region are historically among the highest in New Zealand, impacting disproportionately on Māori children and youth. The primary aim of this study was to determine patient persistence to antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in patients presenting with sore throat to the Whangarei Hospital Emergency Department. Secondarily, this study sought to determine prescriber adherence to the national antibiotic guideline for sore throat management...
June 16, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611324/comparative-evaluation-of-mangifera-indica-leaf-mouthwash-with-chlorhexidine-on-plaque-accumulation-gingival-inflammation-and-salivary-streptococcal-growth
#5
Sham S Bhat, K Sundeep Hegde, Chinchu Mathew, S Vidya Bhat, M Shyamjith
AIMS: This study aims to compare the efficacy of a mango (Mangifera indica) leaf mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival status, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of twenty children, aged 8-14 years, Mangalore Residential School, Karnataka, India, was allocated into two groups. Group A (10) and Group B (10) were given test mouthwash "mango leaf mouthwash" and chlorhexidine, respectively. The clinical trial was carried out for ½ h after rinsing and after 5 days, during which children were asked to rinse once daily, with 10 ml of the given mouthwash ½ h after tooth brushing...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606620/efficacy-and-safety-of-lumacaftor-and-ivacaftor-in-patients-aged-6-11-years-with-cystic-fibrosis-homozygous-for-f508del-cftr-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#6
Felix Ratjen, Christopher Hug, Gautham Marigowda, Simon Tian, Xiaohong Huang, Sanja Stanojevic, Carlos E Milla, Paul D Robinson, David Waltz, Jane C Davies
BACKGROUND: Lumacaftor and ivacaftor combination treatment showed efficacy in patients aged 12 years or older with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in placebo-controlled studies and patients aged 6-11 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-CFTR in an open-label study. We report efficacy and safety of lumacaftor and ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6-11 years homozygous for F508del-CFTR. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, patients were enrolled at 54 hospitals and medical centres in nine countries (the USA, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, and the UK)...
June 8, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600919/group-a-streptococci-infection-a-systematic-clinical-review-exemplified-by-cases-from-an-obstetric-department
#7
REVIEW
Line Winther Gustafson, Jan Blaakær, Rikke Bek Helmig
Group A streptococci infection has re-emerged since the 1980s and onward, despite the awareness of the etiology and the use of penicillin. It now accounts for more than 75,000 deaths worldwide every year. Postpartum women have a 20-fold increased incidence of group A streptococci disease compared to non-pregnant women. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, prevention and treatment of group A streptococcal infection in pregnancy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the following electronic databases from 1980-March 2016: PubMed-Medline, Embase, SveMed+, Bibliotek...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596134/a-critical-role-of-zinc-importer-adcabc-in-group-a-streptococcus-host-interactions-during-infection-and-its-implications-for-vaccine-development
#8
Nishanth Makthal, Kimberly Nguyen, Hackwon Do, Maire Gavagan, Pete Chandrangsu, John D Helmann, Randall J Olsen, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Bacterial pathogens must overcome host immune mechanisms to acquire micronutrients for successful replication and infection. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), is a human pathogen that causes a variety of clinical manifestations, and disease prevention is hampered by lack of a human GAS vaccine. Herein, we report that the mammalian host recruits calprotectin (CP) to GAS infection sites and retards bacterial growth by zinc limitation. However, a GAS-encoded zinc importer and a nuanced zinc sensor aid bacterial defense against CP-mediated growth inhibition and contribute to GAS virulence...
June 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576308/mbl2-and-fcn2-gene-polymorphisms-in-a-cohort-of-italian-children-with-rheumatic-fever-a-case-control-study
#9
Valentina Marzetti, Caterina Di Battista, Rossella Ferrante, Leonardo Carlucci, Michela Balsamo, Liborio Stuppia, Giuseppe Lapergola, Ivana Antonucci, Francesco Chiarelli, Luciana Breda
BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectins and human ficolins are pattern-recognition proteins involved in innate immunity. A role for MBL2 and FCN2 gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of recurrent severe streptococcal infections and rheumatic carditis has been suggested. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of MBL2 and FCN2 gene polymorphisms (SNPs) in children with a history of rheumatic fever (RF) and to investigate their possible role in RF clinical presentation and disease course...
April 27, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572134/group-b-streptococcal-infections
#10
Tara M Randis, Jacqueline A Baker, Adam J Ratner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562462/the-challenge-of-patient-notification-and-the-work-of-follow-up-generated-by-a-2-step-testing-protocol-for-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#11
Michael E Russo, Jennifer Kline, Preeti Jaggi, Amy L Leber, Daniel M Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines recommend confirmatory testing for negative rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) for group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. We sought to describe the work of follow-up generated by this process and frequency of our inability to notify patients of positive results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed laboratory and outreach nurse records of patients who had group A streptococcal pharyngitis testing performed in an academic pediatric emergency department during 2014...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557742/viral-features-and-testing-for-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#12
Daniel J Shapiro, Christina E Lindgren, Mark I Neuman, Andrew M Fine
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that clinicians forego testing for group A Streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in patients with clinical features of viral illness. The prevalence of viral features in patients tested for GAS pharyngitis is not known. The objectives of this study were as follows: to describe the prevalence of viral features in pediatric patients for whom rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) for GAS pharyngitis are performed; and to compare the prevalence of GAS and the sensitivity of the RADT in patients with and without viral features...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554544/immuno-nephelometric-determination-of-group-streptococcal-anti-streptolysin-o-titres-asot-from-dried-blood-spots-method-for-validating-a-new-assay
#13
John Joseph, Neil Kent, Asha Bowen, Julie Hart, Meru Sheel, Robert Wardrop, Sam Abbs, Scott Bazely, Monika Rybak
This study was designed to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility of recovering anti-streptolysin O titres (ASOT) from dried blood spot (DBS) samples, a methodologic subcomponent of the penicillin pharmacokinetic studies in children receiving secondary prophylaxis with intramuscular benzathine penicillin for acute rheumatic fever.
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553774/observation-of-a-pharmacist-conducted-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-point-of-care-test-a-time-and-motion-study
#14
Carolyn E Corn, Donald G Klepser, Allison M Dering-Anderson, Terrence G Brown, Michael E Klepser, Jaclyn K Smith
BACKGROUND: Acute pharyngitis is among the most common infectious diseases encountered in the United States, resulting in 13 million patient visits annually, with group A streptococcus (GAS) being a common causative pathogen. It is estimated that annual expenditures for the treatment of adult pharyngitis will exceed US$1.2 billion annually. This substantial projection reinforces the need to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of adult pharyngitis in nontraditional settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of pharmacist time required to complete a point-of-care (POC) test for a patient presenting with pharyngitis symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537550/household-transmission-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus-infections-in-england-a-population-based-study-2009-2011-to-2013
#15
Rachel Mearkle, Maria Saavedra-Campos, Theresa Lamagni, Martine Usdin, Juliana Coelho, Vicki Chalker, Shiranee Sriskandan, Rebecca Cordery, Chas Rawlings, Sooria Balasegaram
Invasive group A streptococcal infection has a 15% case fatality rate and a risk of secondary transmission. This retrospective study used two national data sources from England; enhanced surveillance (2009) and a case management system (2011-2013) to identify clusters of severe group A streptococcal disease. Twenty-four household pairs were identified. The median onset interval between cases was 2 days (range 0-28) with simultaneous onset in eight pairs. The attack rate during the 30 days after first exposure to a primary case was 4,520 per 100,000 person-years at risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 2,900-6,730) a 1,940 (95% CI: 1,240-2,880) fold elevation over the background incidence...
May 11, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530088/-common-treatment-for-acute-tonsillitis-in-the-community
#16
Oded Mazor, Martine Granek-Catarivas, Shmuel Giveon
BACKGROUND: Streptococcal tonsillitis among adults is a common diagnosis. There is wide agreement regarding the recommended treatment, which is Phenoxymethyl Penicillin (Penicillin V) 1000 mg daily (usually 500 mg BID for 10 days). OBJECTIVES: Description of the variability of routine antibiotic treatment prescribed by family physicians in the community for the treatment of acute tonsillitis (which represents a common diagnosis in primary care), and observation of the prescribed antibiotics adherence to the guidelines...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528779/atypical-articular-presentations-in-indian-children-with-rheumatic-fever
#17
Euden Bhutia, Dinesh Kumar, Mohan Kundal, Sunil Kishore, Atul Juneja
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics of atypical articular presentations during the initial outbreak and recurrence in patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in the paediatric age group. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study conducted between January 2012 and December 2014 on all suspected cases of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) fulfilling either WHO 2004 or Australian guidelines with atypical articular manifestations ie, presence of at least one of the following features: duration of symptoms more than three weeks; monoarthritis/arthralgia; involvement of small joints of hand and feet and/or cervical spine and/or hip joint; and, not responding to salicylates in one week...
April 24, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508419/case-control-study-shows-that-neonatal-pneumococcal-meningitis-cannot-be-distinguished-from-group-b-streptococcus-cases
#18
Alexandra Arfi, Robert Cohen, Emmanuelle Varon, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Corinne Levy
AIM: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is sometimes implicated in neonatal bacterial meningitis. This study described the demographic, clinical and biological features of neonatal S. pneumoniae meningitis and compared pneumococcal and group B streptococcal (GBS) neonatal meningitis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study that compared neonates, aged one to 28 days with S. pneumoniae meningitis or GBS meningitis. Each case with S. pneumoniae was randomly matched to four control patients with GBS by age group and study year...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493331/pilus-biogenesis-of-gram-positive-bacteria-roles-of-sortases-and-implications-for-assembly
#19
REVIEW
Baldeep Khare, Sthanam Vl Narayana
Successful adherence, colonization, and survival of Gram-positive bacteria require surface proteins, and multi-protein assemblies called pili. These surface appendages are attractive pharmacotherapeutic targets and understanding their assembly mechanisms is essential for identifying a new class of 'anti-infectives' that do not elicit microbial resistance. Molecular details of the Gram-negative pilus assembly are available in-depth, but the Gram-positive pilus biogenesis is still an emerging field and investigations continue to reveal novel insights into this process...
May 10, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486675/short-course-versus-long-course-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-infections-treated-in-outpatient-settings-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#20
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose.: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods.: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
May 9, 2017: Family Practice
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