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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319521/polish-physicians-attitudes-towards-antibiotic-prescription-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
Beata Mazińska, Waleria Hryniewicz
Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of physicians taking part in the survey believed that Polish people overuse antibiotics (98%). Most physicians (91%) considered that antimicrobial resistance is a major problem at present...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310577/epidemiology-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-infants-from-urban-area-of-south-china-2011-2014
#2
Xiaoshan Guan, Xiaoping Mu, Wenjing Ji, Chunlei Yuan, Ping He, Lian Zhang, Yanfen Huang, Juan Li, Jianfeng Chen, Huamin Zhong, Shuyin Pang, Nan Tan, Qiulian Deng, Kankan Gao, Yu-Ping Huang, Chien-Yi Chang, Haiying Liu
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of <3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305544/evaluation-of-simplexa%C3%A2-group-a-strep-direct-kit-compared-to-hologic%C3%A2-group-a-streptococcal-direct-assay-for-detection-of-group-a-streptococcus-gas-in-throat-swabs
#3
Deirdre L Church, Tracie Lloyd, Oscar Larios, Daniel B Gregson
Diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis is confirmed by detection of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) in patient throat samples. Testing of throat samples has historically relied on culture but new molecular methods allow much faster test turnaround time (i.e., same day vs. 48-72h for culture). Our laboratory uses the Hologic® GAS Direct (GASD) assay for screening more than 125,000 throat samples per annum. Simplexa™ GAS Direct is a new real-time PCR (qPCR) assay that does not require initial DNA extraction. Performance of Simplexa qPCR was compared to GASD...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302150/the-forgotten-plague-psychiatric-manifestations-of-ebola-zika-and-emerging-infectious-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Veronica Tucci, Nidal Moukaddam, Jonathan Meadows, Suhal Shah, Sagar C Galwankar, G Bobby Kapur
The media and public health generally focus on the biological and physical ramifications of epidemics. Mental health issues that coincide with emerging diseases and epidemics are rarely examined and sometimes, even eschewed due to cultural considerations. Psychiatric manifestations of various infectious diseases, especially with a focus on Ebola Virus disease (EVD) and Zika Virus, are discussed in this commentary to illustrate the continued need of care after the resolution of the actual illness. Various infectious diseases have associations with mental illness, such as an increased risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette syndrome in children with Group B streptococcal infection...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290238/antimicrobial-treatment-of-ent-infections
#5
R Cohen, H Haas, M Lorrot, S Biscardi, O Romain, F Vie Le Sage, V Hentgen, E Grimprel
ENT infections are the most common childhood infections and the leading causes of antibiotic prescriptions. These infections are mainly due to viruses and most of them (even if bacterial species are implicated) resolve spontaneously. Therefore, the first message is to not prescribe antibiotics in the following situations: common cold, non-streptococcal pharyngitis, laryngitis, non-purulent otitis media, etc. For sore throat/pharyngitis, the antibiotic treatment decision is based mainly on the use of group A streptococcus rapid diagnostic tests...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287833/corticosteroid-treatment-in-sydenham-s-chorea
#6
C Fusco, C Spagnoli
Sydenham's chorea (SC) is an immune-mediated hyperkinetic movement disorder, developing after group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection. Aside from conventional symptomatic treatment (carbamazepine, valproate, neuroleptics), the use of steroids has also been advocated, mainly in severe, drug-resistant cases or if clinically disabling side effects develop with first line therapies. Based on the description of 5 cases followed in the Child Neurology Unit of Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in Reggio Emilia and on the available medical literature on this topic, we propose considering the use of corticosteroids therapy in children with SC, with the administration of IV methyl-prednisolone followed by oral deflazacort in severe cases and of oral deflazacort alone in mild and moderate degrees of involvement...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278230/prevalence-of-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-among-pregnant-women-and-neonates-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-india
#7
Sridhar Santhanam, Ruby Jose, Rani Diana Sahni, Niranjan Thomas, Manisha Madhai Beck
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic, and the colonization rates among newborn born to colonized mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women attending the antenatal clinic between 35-37 weeks were screened using rectal and lower vaginal swab. Swabs were initially plated on sheep blood agar and LIM broth. The LIM broth was subcultured after 24 hours onto blood agar and CHROMagar StrepB plates with all plates checked for growth at 24 and 48 hours...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260224/association-of-broad-vs-narrow-spectrum-antibiotics-with-treatment-failure-adverse-events-and-quality-of-life-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#8
Jeffrey S Gerber, Rachael K Ross, Matthew Bryan, A Russell Localio, Julia E Szymczak, Richard Wasserman, Darlene Barkman, Folasade Odeniyi, Kathryn Conaboy, Louis Bell, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Alexander G Fiks
Importance: Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children...
December 19, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260050/severe-corneal-ulcer-with-progression-to-endophthalmitis-and-high-grade-bacteremia
#9
Tomasz P Stryjewski, James Chodosh, Ivana K Kim, Miriam Baron Barshak, John B Miller
Purpose: Bacterial sepsis is a common consequence of many infectious processes. Here, we describe a case of a woman with a corneal ulcer who went on to develop group B streptococcal (GBS) endophthalmitis, bacteremia, and eventual loss of the eye. Observations: A previously healthy, immunocompetent, middle aged, contact lens wearing female who, after freshwater boating in her contact lenses, developed a red, painful eye. She was initially prescribed an hourly topical steroid by an outside optometrist but worsening of her condition prompted her to present to our Emergency Department...
June 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250657/streptococcal-tonsillitis-related-reactive-arthritis-clinical-ultrasound-imaging-and-immunohistochemical-study
#10
Anca Emanuela Muşetescu, Marius Florea, Mircea Cătălin ForŢofoiu, Ana Maria Bumbea, Andreea Daniela Tudorancea, Cristina Criveanu, Cristina Elena GofiŢă, Paulina Lucia Ciurea, Alexandru Ştefănescu, Ştefan Cristian Dinescu, Carmen Aurelia Mogoantă
In clinical practice and literature studies, the most common condition associated to streptococcal tonsillitis used to be acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Several publications in the late years report a more frequent and distinctive entity from ARF following β-hemolytic group A streptococcus infection in patients with post-infectious arthritis, that do not fulfill the modified Jones criteria, the so-called post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). A distinctive pattern of clinical framing and biological profile in patients with PSRA following streptococcal tonsillitis is described, with a non-migratory, additive, recent onset (7-10 days) arthritis that affects small and large joints as well, with a bimodal peak of incidence at 8-14 and 21-37 years of age, with variate response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and has a tendency for recurrence and persistence...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238000/elevation-of-serum-acid-sphingomyelinase-activity-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis
#11
Shuichiro Yoshida, Atsuko Noguchi, Wataru Kikuchi, Hiroshi Fukaya, Kiyoshi Igarashi, Tsutomu Takahashi
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide, a bioactive lipid to regulate cellular physiological functions. Thus, ASM activation has been reported as a key event in pathophysiological reactions including inflammation, cytokine release, oxidative stress, and endothelial damage in human diseases. Since ASM activation is associated with extracellular ASM secretion through unknown mechanisms, it can be detected by recognizing the elevation of secretory ASM (S-ASM) activity...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236994/group-g-streptococcus-induces-an-autoimmune-il-17a-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-carditis-in-the-lewis-rat-model-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#12
Suchandan Sikder, Natasha L Williams, Alanna E Sorenson, Md A Alim, Miranda E Vidgen, Nicole J Moreland, Catherine M Rush, Robert S Simpson, Brenda L Govan, Robert E Norton, Madeleine W Cunningham, David J McMillan, Kadaba S Sriprakash, Natkunam Ketheesan
Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (ARF/RHD) have long been described as autoimmune sequelae of Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Both antibody and T-cell responses against immunodominant GAS virulence factors including M-protein, cross-react with host tissue proteins triggering an inflammatory response leading to permanent heart damage. However, in some ARF/RHD endemic regions, throat carriage of GAS is low. As Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), also known as β-hemolytic groups C and G streptococci (GCS/GGS) also express M-protein, we postulated that streptococci other than GAS may have the potential to initiate or exacerbate ARF/RHD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228173/group-a-streptococcal-m-like-proteins-from-pathogenesis-to-vaccine-potential
#13
Hannah Frost, Martina Sanderson-Smith, Mark Walker, Anne Botteaux, Pierre Smeesters
M and M-like surface proteins from Group A Streptococcus (GAS) act as virulence factors and have been used in multiple vaccine candidates. While the M protein has been extensively studied, the two genetically and functionally related M-like proteins, Mrp and Enn, although present in most streptococcal strains have been relatively less characterized. We compile the current state of knowledge for these two proteins, from discovery to recent studies on function and immunogenicity, using the M protein for comparison as a prototype of this family of proteins...
December 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209311/codevelopment-of-microbiota-and-innate-immunity-and-the-risk-for-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#14
REVIEW
Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD), which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193647/the-incidence-characteristics-managements-and-outcomes-of-anaphylaxis-in-pregnancy-a-population-based-descriptive-study
#15
Stephen J McCall, Kathryn J Bunch, Peter Brocklehurst, Rhiannon D'Arcy, Kim Hinshaw, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, D Nuala Lucas, Benjamin Stenson, Derek Tuffnell, Marian Knight
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of anaphylaxis in pregnancy and describe the management and outcomes in the UK. DESIGN: A population based descriptive study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System(UKOSS). SETTING: All consultant-led maternity units in the UK. POPULATION: All pregnant women who had anaphylaxis between 1st October 2012 and 30th September 2015. Anaphylaxis was defined as a severe, life-threatening generalised or systemic hypersensitivity reaction...
November 29, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185672/diagnosis-and-management-of-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-and-associated-complications
#16
Michelle N. Vazquez, Jennifer E. Sanders
Although group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents, many viral and bacterial infections mimic the symptoms of GAS pharyngitis. Emergency clinicians must recognize the symptomatology of GAS pharyngitis and use appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment to promote good antibiotic stewardship. This issue reviews the signs and symptoms of GAS pharyngitis, as well as associated complications, and provides recommendations for appropriate treatment that focuses on reducing the severity and duration of symptoms, reducing the incidence of nonsuppurative complications, and reducing transmission...
December 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181355/group-b-streptococcal-prosthetic-knee-joint-infection-linked-to-the-consumption-of-raw-fish
#17
Gin Way Law, Limin Wijaya, Andrew Hwee Chye Tan
Introduction: Group B Streptococcal (GBS) prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are rare, accounting for only 4.6-6% of primary and revision total knee replacements (TKRs). In 2015, there was an outbreak of GBS infections in Singapore with an association confirmed between consumption of Chinese-style raw fish dishes (snakehead fish, Asian bighead carp) and GBS infection, Type III GBS ST283 strain, affecting more than 200 patients in Singapore. This outbreak is the largest of its kind in the world and also the first time that foodborne transmission of GBS has been proven...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170852/t-cell-subsets-an-integral-component-in-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#18
REVIEW
Devinder Toor, Neha Sharma
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a consequence of pharyngeal infection of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Carditis is the most common manifestation of ARF which occurs in 30-45% of the susceptible individuals. Overlooked ARF cases might further progress towards rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in susceptible individuals, which ultimately leads to permanent heart valve damage. Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and human proteins is the most widely accepted theory to describe the pathogenesis of RHD...
November 23, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160197/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-from-laboratory-long-evans-rats-rattus-norvegicus-with-and-without-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#19
Caroline Bodi Winn, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Michael Y Esmail, Yan Feng, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Lauren Richey, Scott E Perkins, Eric K Nordberg, James G Fox
PURPOSE: Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. METHODOLOGY: We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159765/characteristic-comparison-of-meningitis-and-non-meningitis-of-streptococcus-suis-in-an-experimentally-infected-porcine-model
#20
Yingying Sun, Hongtao Liu, Rui Du, Shuguang Li, Guanggang Qu, Rining Zhu, Shuang Zhao, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Wenyu Han, Liancheng Lei
This study tested the differences of meningitis and non-meningitis of Streptococcus suis (SS). In this study, an infected pig model of streptococcal meningitis was established. Compared with the non-meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ001 group), the meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ022) exhibited neurological symptoms, such as ataxia and foaming at the mouth, and the brain showed a large area of congestion at 5 days post-infection (p.i.). Moreover, bacterial counts, white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and blood glucose in the blood reached a peak and were significantly higher than those of the JZLQ001 group at 3 days p...
November 20, 2017: Inflammation
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