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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714753/pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-response-to-oral-corticosteroid-bursts-an-observational-study-of-patients-in-an-academic-community-based-pans-clinic
#1
Kayla Brown, Cristan Farmer, Bahare Farhadian, Joseph Hernandez, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
BACKGROUND: Sudden-onset severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or severely restrictive food intake with at least two coinciding, similarly debilitating neuropsychiatric symptoms define Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS). When associated with Group A Streptococcus, the syndrome is labeled Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). An abnormal immune response to infection and subsequent neuroinflammation is postulated to play an etiologic role...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706510/natural-killer-cell-functions-during-the-innate-immune-response-to-pathogenic-streptococci
#2
Paul Lemire, Tristan Galbas, Jacques Thibodeau, Mariela Segura
Dendritic cells (DCs) and NK cells play a crucial role in the first phase of host defense against infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Streptococcus suis are encapsulated streptococci causing severe systemic inflammation, leading to septicemia and meningitis. Yet, the involvement of NK cells in the innate immune response to encapsulated bacterial infection is poorly characterized. Here, it was observed that these two streptococcal species rapidly induce the release of IFN-γ and that NK cells are the major cell type responsible for this production during the acute phase of the infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706411/toxic-shock-syndrome-within-24-h-of-an-office-hysteroscopy
#3
Nanak Bhagat, Akilandeshwari Karthikeyan, Sanjaya Kalkur
Office hysteroscopy is now a common procedure performed to look at the endometrial cavity and is relatively free of serious complications. A 68-year-old lady, previously fit and well, presented with abdominal pain, rigors, sweats, and vomiting within 24 h of an outpatient hysteroscopy for postmenopausal bleeding. She was diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) due to Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. She was managed in the Intensive Care Unit, with inotropic and antibiotic support. She recovered eventually and was discharged home with oral antibiotics...
April 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705427/invasive-disease-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-patients-hospitalized-for-6-years
#4
Vanessa Arias-Constantí, Victoria Trenchs-Sainz de la Maza, Nuria Elvira Sanz-Marcos, Carmina Guitart-Pardellans, Amadeu Gené-Giralt, Carles Luaces-Cubells
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The last years an increase of severe cases of invasive disease (ID) due to Streptococcus pyogenes or streptococcus b-hemolytic group A (SGA) had been detected. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and the clinical features of ID due to SGA in a tertiary Pediatric Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in a Pediatric hospital, of all in-patients with final diagnosis of ID due to SGA during 6 years (2009-2014)...
July 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705211/streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-due-to-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-in-breast-cancer-related-lymphedema-a-case-report
#5
Makoto Sumazaki, Fumi Saito, Hideaki Ogata, Miho Yoshida, Yorichika Kubota, Syunsuke Magoshi, Hironori Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer-related lymphedema often causes cellulitis and is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Streptococci are the major pathogens underlying such cellulitis. Among the streptococci, the importance of the Lancefield groups C and G is underappreciated; most cases involve Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Despite having a relatively weak toxicity compared with group A streptococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is associated with a mortality rate that is as high as that of group A streptococci in cases of invasive infection because Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis mainly affects elderly individuals who already have various comorbidities...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696786/effect-of-early-and-prophylactic-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-flare-duration-in-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-an-observational-study-of-patients-followed-by-an-academic-community-based-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome
#6
Kayla D Brown, Cristan Farmer, G Mark Freeman, Ellen J Spartz, Bahare Farhadian, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterized by the sudden onset of severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or eating restriction along with at least two coinciding neuropsychiatric symptoms. When associated with group A Streptococcus, the syndrome is labeled Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). An abnormal immune response to infection and subsequent neuroinflammation is postulated to play an etiologic role...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696783/course-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-after-introduction-and-removal-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-a-pediatric-observational-study
#7
Ellen J Spartz, G Mark Freeman, Kayla Brown, Bahare Farhadian, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory interventions can modulate neuropsychiatric symptoms. Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterized by an abrupt and dramatic onset of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and/or severely restrictive food intake and at least two coinciding, equally debilitating neuropsychiatric symptoms. When associated with group A Streptococcus, the syndrome is labeled Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690902/group-a-streptococcal-pericarditis-in-a-four-month-old-infant-case-report
#8
Badria R Al-Waili, Sunny K Zacharias, Emad Aslem
Purulent pericarditis is uncommon among paediatric patients and cases caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) are even rarer. We report a four-month-old female infant who was referred to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015 with pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. She had initially presented to a secondary hospital with a two-week history of fever, a runny nose and shortness of breath. Blood and pericardial fluid cultures confirmed GAS isolates. The infant was treated with a two-week course of antibiotics and made a complete recovery with no echocardiographical evidence of pericardial effusion at a two-month follow-up...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681803/molecular-biology-of-group-a-streptococcus-and-its-implications-in-vaccine-strategies
#9
REVIEW
N K Brahmadathan
Infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and their complications are a problem of major concern in many countries, including India. Primary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin is the key to control and prevent sequelae such as acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD) or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). Non-compliance to prophylaxis due to fear of injection and anaphylaxis is major issues in RF/RHD control in India and leads to continued high prevalence of infection and post-streptococcal sequelae...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680500/treatment-challenges-of-group-a-beta-hemolytic-streptococcal-pharyngo-tonsillitis
#10
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
Introduction  Despite its in vitro efficacy, penicillin often fails to eradicate Group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) from patients with acute and relapsing pharyngo-tonsillitis (PT). Objective  This review of the literature details the causes of penicillin failure to eradicate GABHS PT and the therapeutic modalities to reduce and overcome antimicrobial failure. Data Synthesis  The causes of penicillin failure in eradicating GABHS PT include the presence of β lactamase producing bacteria (BLPB) that "protect" GABHS from any penicillin; the absence of bacteria that interfere with the growth of GABHS; co-aggregation between GABHS and Moraxella catarrhalis; and the poor penetration of penicillin into the tonsillar tissues and the tonsillo-pharyngeal cells, which allows intracellular GABHS and Staphylococcus aureus to survive...
July 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680421/an-emm5-group-a-streptococcal-outbreak-among-workers-in-a-factory-manufacturing-telephone-accessories
#11
Mingliang Chen, Wenqing Wang, Lihong Tu, Yaxu Zheng, Hao Pan, Gangyi Wang, Yanxin Chen, Xi Zhang, Linying Zhu, Jian Chen, Min Chen
Ranked among the top10 infectious causes of death worldwide, group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes small- and large-scale outbreaks, depending on the trigger as transmission of a GAS strain or expansion of predominant clones. In China, GAS infections other than scarlet fever are not notifiable. In Shanghai, an epidemiological investigation was initiated after two successive severe pneumonia cases with one death in a digital factory, from where outbreaks are less widely reported. The investigation was performed using emm typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, superantigen profiling, and genome analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673381/biomarkers-of-necrotising-soft-tissue-infections-aspects-of-the-innate-immune-response
#12
Marco Bo Hansen
Necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI) is a life-threatening and rapidly progressing bacterial infection involving one or more layers of the soft tissue compartments causing necrosis. The amputation and mortality rates remain high despite increased focus on the patients. Timely treatment, including surgical intervention, reduces the risk of severe disability and death. However, the lack of pathognomonic signs impedes early diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, the rarity of the disease makes it difficult to conduct large prospective studies, thus prospective research is almost non-existent in this group of patients...
July 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668229/the-impact-of-oral-probiotics-on-vaginal-group-b-streptococcal-colonisation-rates-in-pregnant-women-a-pilot-randomised-control-study
#13
Paula Olsen, Moira Williamson, Victoria Traynor, Chris Georgiou
OBJECTIVE: To perform a pilot project to determine if this research design was appropriate to explore potential causal relationships between oral probiotic use and vaginal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) colonisation rates in pregnant women. METHOD: Thirty-four GBS-positive women at 36 weeks pregnant were recruited. The participants were randomly allocated to the control group, who received standard antenatal care, or to the intervention group, who received standard antenatal care and a daily oral dose of probiotics for three weeks or until they gave birth...
June 28, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666619/development-of-a-multiplex-pcr-for-identification-of-%C3%AE-hemolytic-streptococci-relevant-to-human-infections-and-serotype-distribution-of-invasive-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-thailand
#14
Anusak Kerdsin, Rujirat Hatrongjit, Shigeyuki Hamada, Yukihiro Akeda, Marcelo Gottschalk
A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was developed for simultaneous detection (single reaction) of genes specific to five frequent clinically relevant β-hemolytic streptococcal species: Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy1258), Streptococcus agalactiae (cfb and cpn60), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (16S-23S intergenic spacer) , S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (esaA and sorD), and Streptococcus anginosus group (moaC). No cross-reaction was observed with other bacterial species. This test was validated and successfully used with 725 clinical isolates involved in pathological conditions in Thailand and collected between March 2014 and December 2015...
June 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659007/pancarditis-an-unusual-complication-of-a-group-b-streptococcal-infection
#15
Elisa Larrieu-Ardilouze, Luc Christiaens, Nicolas Varroud-Vial, Coralie Madico, Jamil Hajj-Chahine, Michaela B Rehman
Pancarditis is a rare condition with a poor prognosis combining endocarditis, myocarditis with abscess formation, and purulent pericarditis. Diagnosis is often delayed and the clinical signs are predominantly those of the embolic complications. Literature is scarce. We present a unique and rare case of pancarditis, complicating a Streptococcal B infection in an immunocompetent, healthy, 54 year-old woman. The evolution was favourable under medical therapy alone and thanks to multimodality cardiac imaging diagnosis and follow-up...
June 28, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656020/group-a-streptococcal-bacteremia-following-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-an-older-patient-with-diabetes-a-case-report%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#16
Mehida Alexandre, Ruth Wang'ondu, Leo M Cooney
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for a wide range of both invasive and noninvasive infections. Severe invasive group A streptococcal infection is associated with morbidity and mortality and has been linked to chronic medical conditions with skin and soft tissues involvement, and intravenous drug use (IVDU). Invasive diseases are, however, rare and have been recognized to affect the extremes of age (younger than 10 years of age and older than 74). We report a case of Group A streptococcus bacteremia following pharyngitis in a 76-year-old diabetic male with no history of IVDU...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652957/a-retrospective-study-of-acute-renal-failure-in-children-its-incidence-etiology-complications-and-prognosis
#17
Kadar Ismail Hassan, Jama Hodan M, Chunfu Li
BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) developed due to various causes and may lead to significant morbidity and mortality among pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to determine the incidence, etiology, outcome of treatment and clinical presentation of ARF in pediatric patients in Somalia. METHODS: Comprehensive case history of 39 pediatric patients below 12 years of age, admitted with renal diseases in four tertiary care hospitals in Hargeisa and Borama cities in Somalia during December 2015 to November 2016...
May 25, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652934/phytochemical-rich-medicinal-plant-extracts-suppress-bacterial-antigens-induced-inflammation-in-human-tonsil-epithelial-cells
#18
Niluni M Wijesundara, Satvir Sekhon-Loodu, Hp Vasantha Rupasinghe
BACKGROUND: Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS). There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC) in vitro. METHODS: The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens) for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE) or aqueous extracts (AE) for 20 h...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645088/risk-based-screening-combined-with-a-pcr-based-test-for-group-b-streptococci-diminishes-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-laboring-women
#19
Mohammed R Khalil, Niels Uldbjerg, Poul B Thorsen, Birgitte Henriksen, Jens K Møller
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction - group B streptococci test (PCR-GBS test) - in deciding antibiotic prophylaxis in term laboring women. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, we enrolled 902 unselected Danish term pregnant women. During labor, midwives obtained vaginal swabs that were used for both GBS cultures (reference standard) and for the PCR-GBS test. Furthermore, we recorded the presence of risk factors for EOGBS (Early Onset Group B Streptococcal disease): (1) Bacteriuria during current pregnancy, (2) Prior infant with EOGBS (3) Temperature above 38...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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