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Group a streptococcal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089757/disorazoles-block-group-a-streptococcal-invasion-into-epithelial-cells-via-interference-with-the-host-factor-ezrin
#1
Katharina Rox, Manfred Rohde, Gursharan Singh Chhatwal, Rolf Müller
Bacterial pathogens use invasion into human cells as a strategy to escape not only the host's immune response, but also anti-bacterial treatment. This often leads to persistence and enables reinitiation of the infection process at a later time point. Here, we show that a family of myxobacterial metabolites, disorazoles, block invasion of group A Streptococcus (GAS) into human epithelial cells. Mechanistically, disorazoles target ezrin, a host protein involved in linking microfilaments to the membrane, and affect invasion most likely by interfering with dynamic phosphorylation of ezrin...
January 5, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078206/infectious-atopic-and-inflammatory-diseases-childhood-adversities-and-familial-aggregation-are-independently-associated-with-the-risk-for-mental-disorders-results-from-a-large-swiss-epidemiological-study
#2
Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Aleksandra Aleksandrowicz, Stephanie Rodgers, Margot Mutsch, Anja Tesic, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Wulf Rössler, Erich Seifritz, Enrique Castelao, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Caroline Vandeleur, Roland von Känel, Rosa Paolicelli, Markus A Landolt, Cornelia Witthauer, Roselind Lieb, Martin Preisig
AIM: To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors. METHODS: We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. They were regressed on infectious, atopic and other inflammatory diseases adjusting for sex, educational level, familial aggregation, childhood adversities and traumatic experiences in childhood...
December 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075053/synthesis-characterization-and-immunological-evaluation-of-self-adjuvanting-group-a-streptococcal-vaccine-candidates-bearing-various-lipidic-adjuvanting-moieties
#3
Vincent Fagan, Waleed M Hussein, Mei Su, Ashwini K Gidda, Michael R Batzloff, Michael F Good, Istvan Toth, Pavla Simerska
Four group A streptococcal glyco-lipopeptide vaccine candidates were prepared and characterized, each possessing different lipidic adjuvanting moieties. The immunogenicity of the compounds was evaluated by macrophage and dendritic cell uptake studies and by in vivo quantification of systemic IgG antibody using ELISA. Three of the four vaccine candidates showed a significant induction of IgG response compared to a negative control.
January 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072421/on-the-ecosystemic-network-of-saliva-in-healthy-young-adults
#4
Egija Zaura, Bernd W Brandt, Andrei Prodan, Maarten Joost Teixeira de Mattos, Sultan Imangaliyev, Jolanda Kool, Mark J Buijs, Ferry Lpw Jagers, Nienke L Hennequin-Hoenderdos, Dagmar E Slot, Elena A Nicu, Maxim D Lagerweij, Marleen M Janus, Marcela M Fernandez-Gutierrez, Evgeni Levin, Bastiaan P Krom, Henk S Brand, Enno Ci Veerman, Michiel Kleerebezem, Bruno G Loos, G A van der Weijden, Wim Crielaard, Bart Jf Keijser
A dysbiotic state is believed to be a key factor in the onset of oral disease. Although oral diseases have been studied for decades, our understanding of oral health, the boundaries of a healthy oral ecosystem and ecological shift toward dysbiosis is still limited. Here, we present the ecobiological heterogeneity of the salivary ecosystem and relations between the salivary microbiome, salivary metabolome and host-related biochemical salivary parameters in 268 healthy adults after overnight fasting. Gender-specific differences in the microbiome and metabolome were observed and were associated with salivary pH and dietary protein intake...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063544/the-prevention-of-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#5
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053215/improved-differentiation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-other-s-mitis-group-streptococci-by-maldi-biotyper-using-an-improved-maldi-biotyper-database-content-and-a-novel-result-interpretation-algorithm
#6
Inka Harju, Christoph Lange, Markus Kostrzewa, Thomas Maier, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Marjo Haanperä
Reliable distinction of Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci is important because of the different pathogenic properties of these organisms. Differentiation between S. pneumoniae and closely related S. mitis species group streptococci has always been challenging, even when using such modern methods as 16S rRNA gene sequencing or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In this study, a novel algorithm combined with an enhanced database was evaluated for the differentiation between S...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052179/sensitivity-for-diagnosing-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-from-manufacturers-is-10-higher-than-reported-in-peer-reviewed-publications
#7
Raj Vachhani, Toral Patel, Robert M Centor, Carlos A Estrada
OBJECTIVES: Meta-analyses based on peer-reviewed publications report a sensitivity of approximately 85% for rapid antigen streptococcus tests to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Because these meta-analyses excluded package inserts, we examined the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcal tests and molecular methods that manufacturers report in their package inserts. METHODS: We included tests available in the US market (Food and Drug Administration, period searched 1993-2015) and used package insert data to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity...
January 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039135/novel-variants-of-streptococcus-thermophilus-bacteriophages-indicate-genetic-recombination-across-phages-from-different-bacterial-species
#8
Paula Szymczak, Thomas Janzen, Ana Rute Neves, Witold Kot, Lars H Hansen, René Lametsch, Horst Neve, Charles M A P Franz, Finn K Vogensen
: Bacteriophages are the main cause of fermentation failures in dairy plants. The majority of Streptococcus thermophilus phages can be divided into either cos- or pac-type-phages and additionally characterized by examining the V2 region of their antireceptor. We screened a large number of S. thermophilus phages from the Chr. Hansen A/S collection, using PCR specific for the cos/pac-type, as well as for the V2 antireceptor region. Three phages did not produce positive results with the assays...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030528/case-series-description-and-genomic-characterization-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Jennifer Dien Bard, Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, Priyanka Kachroo, Stephen Beres, Randall J Olsen
We report an unusual cluster of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in six pediatric patients and demonstrate that the strains were derived from diverse genetic backgrounds, confirming the occurrence of a community cluster rather than a clonal outbreak. Whole genome sequencing provided a rapid and comprehensive view of GAS genotypes, and helped guide our institutional response and public health maneuvers.
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027314/streptococcal-immunity-is-constrained-by-lack-of-immunological-memory-following-a-single-episode-of-pyoderma
#10
Manisha Pandey, Victoria Ozberk, Ainslie Calcutt, Emma Langshaw, Jessica Powell, Tania Rivera-Hernandez, Mei-Fong Ho, Zachary Philips, Michael R Batzloff, Michael F Good
The immunobiology underlying the slow acquisition of skin immunity to group A streptococci (GAS), is not understood, but attributed to specific virulence factors impeding innate immunity and significant antigenic diversity of the type-specific M-protein, hindering acquired immunity. We used a number of epidemiologically distinct GAS strains to model the development of acquired immunity. We show that infection leads to antibody responses to the serotype-specific determinants on the M-protein and profound protective immunity; however, memory B cells do not develop and immunity is rapidly lost...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027278/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-among-pregnant-women-in-delhi-india
#11
Manu Chaudhary, Marcia A Rench, Carol J Baker, Pushpa Singh, Charoo Hans, Morven S Edwards
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. METHODS: Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth™ and subcultured onto GBS Detect™ plates...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006879/microbiological-characteristics-of-perianal-streptococcal-dermatitis-a-retrospective-study-of-105-patients-in-a-10-year-period
#12
Anja Šterbenc, Katja Seme, Liza Lea Lah, Olga Točkova, Tina Kamhi Trop, Nataša Švent-Kučina, Mateja Pirš
Beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) are the most common causative agents of perianal streptococcal dermatitis (PSD). This study evaluates the distribution of BHS isolates in perianal bacterial cultures. We retrospectively reviewed microbiological results for perianal BHS that were isolated in our laboratory between 2006 and 2015. We identified a total of 105 BHS isolates from rectal swabs and swabs of clinically intact perianal skin. The majority of BHS were of group A (GABHS) (73/105; 69.5%), followed by group B BHS (GBBHS) (27/105; 25...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997716/collagen-like-proteins-of-pathogenic-streptococci
#13
REVIEW
Slawomir Lukomski, Beth Bachert, Flavia Squeglia, Rita Berisio
The collagen domain, which is defined by the presence of the Gly-X-Y triplet repeats, is amongst the most versatile and widespread known structures found in proteins from organisms representing all three domains of life. The streptococcal collagen-like (Scl) proteins are widely present in pathogenic streptococci, including Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and S. equi. Experiments and bioinformatic analyses support the hypothesis that all Scl proteins are homotrimeric and cell wall-anchored...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997479/potential-for-pharmacy-public-health-collaborations-using-pharmacy-based-point-of-care-testing-services-for-infectious-diseases
#14
Paul O Gubbins, Michael E Klepser, Alex J Adams, David M Jacobs, Kelly M Percival, Gregory B Tallman
CONTEXT: Health care professionals must continually identify collaborative ways to combat antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA)-waived point-of-care (POC) testing (POCT) services for infectious disease conducted in community pharmacies provide a means for pharmacists to collaborate with prescribers and/or public health officials combating antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997266/obesity-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-group-b-streptococcal-colonization
#15
Mitchell D Alvareza, Akila Subramaniam, Ying Tang, Rodney K Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 25% of women are colonized with group B streptococcus (GBS). We assessed whether body mass index (BMI) is an independent risk factor for GBS colonization. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a previously collected database of women who delivered singleton gestations at term. Individual patient medical record review was undertaken to add GBS-related information to the database. Univariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between GBS colonization and BMI...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996105/a-cluster-of-group-a-streptococcal-infections-in-a-skilled-nursing-facility-the-potential-role-of-healthcare-worker-presenteeism
#16
Miwako Kobayashi, Meghan M Lyman, Louise K Francois Watkins, Karrie-Ann Toews, Leon Bullard, Rachel A Radcliffe, Bernard Beall, Gayle Langley, Chris Van Beneden, Nimalie D Stone
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent of a group A streptococcus (GAS) cluster (2 residents with invasive GAS (invasive case-patients), 2 carriers) caused by a single strain (T antigen type 2 and M protein gene subtype 2.0 (T2, emm 2.0)), evaluate factors contributing to transmission, and provide recommendations for disease control. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis and retrospective review. SETTING: Skilled nursing facility (SNF). PARTICIPANTS: SNF residents and staff...
December 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993974/the-transcriptional-regulator-cpsy-is-important-for-innate-immune-evasion-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#17
Luis A Vega, Kayla M Valdes, Ganesh S Sundar, Ashton T Belew, Emrul Islam, Jacob Berge, Patrick Curry, Steven Chen, Najib M El-Sayed, Yoann Le Breton, Kevin S McIver
As an exclusively human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS) has specifically adapted to evade host innate immunity and survive in multiple tissue niches, including blood. GAS can overcome the metabolic constraints of the blood environment and expresses various immunomodulatory factors necessary for survival and immune cell resistance. Here we present our investigation of one such factor, the predicted LysR family transcriptional regulator CpsY. The encoding cpsY gene was initially identified as being required for GAS survival in a transposon-site hybridization (TraSH) screen in whole human blood...
December 19, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993825/invasive-group-g-streptococcal-infection-in-a-paediatric-patient
#18
Sejal Makvana Bhavsar, Gail F Shust
We present a paediatric case of group G streptococcal bacteraemia and vertebral osteomyelitis. The patient is a 14-year-old girl with Gaucher disease type 1 who presented with severe thoracolumbar pain. She was treated with a 4-week course of antibiotics for presumed osteomyelitis with clinical improvement.
December 19, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993144/disease-status-reasons-for-discontinuation-and-adverse-events-in-1038-italian-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-treated-with-etanercept
#19
Sara Verazza, Sergio Davì, Alessandro Consolaro, Francesca Bovis, Antonella Insalaco, Silvia Magni-Manzoni, Rebecca Nicolai, Denise Pires Marafon, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Valeria Gerloni, Irene Pontikaki, Francesca Rovelli, Rolando Cimaz, Achille Marino, Francesco Zulian, Giorgia Martini, Serena Pastore, Chiara Sandrin, Fabrizia Corona, Marta Torcoletti, Giovanni Conti, Claudia Fede, Patrizia Barone, Marco Cattalini, Elisabetta Cortis, Luciana Breda, Alma Nunzia Olivieri, Adele Civino, Rosanna Podda, Donato Rigante, Francesco La Torre, Gianfranco D'Angelo, Mauro Jorini, Romina Gallizzi, Maria Cristina Maggio, Rita Consolini, Alessandro De Fanti, Valentina Muratore, Maria Giannina Alpigiani, Nicolino Ruperto, Alberto Martini, Angelo Ravelli
BACKGROUND: Data from routine clinical practice are needed to further define the efficacy and safety of biologic medications in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the disease status, reasons for discontinuation and adverse events in Italian JIA patients treated with etanercept (ETN). METHODS: In 2013, all centers of the Italian Pediatric Rheumatology Study Group were asked to make a census of patients given ETN after January 2000...
December 20, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989251/priapism-as-the-presenting-complaint-in-fatal-group-a-streptococcal-induced-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation
#20
Richard J Baverstock, Colleen Carey
A 60-year-old male presented to an emergency department (ED) with priapism following a sore throat illness. He did not have typical findings of sepsis. The patient then developed severe headache, mental status changes, and hypertension, then suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest. Autopsy showed group A streptococcal (GAS) sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and a septic thrombosis to the penile vein. This is the first known case of priapism being the presenting symptom of DIC.
December 19, 2016: CJEM
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