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Group a streptococcal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773945/predictive-factors-in-the-treatment-of-streptococcal-endophthalmitis
#1
Yosanan Yospaiboon, Kidakarn Meethongkam, Suthasinee Sinawat, Wipada Laovirojjanakul, Tanapat Ratanapakorn, Thuss Sanguansak, Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo
Objective: To evaluate visual outcomes and possible predictive factors in the treatment of infectious endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species during 2012-2016 at a large referral eye center in northeastern Thailand. Methods: A retrospective medical record chart review of patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species was conducted. Demographic data including age, gender, occupation, duration of symptoms, time to surgery, surgical procedures, initial visual acuity at presentation, and final visual acuity after treatment were collected and analyzed...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752197/panophthalmitis-caused-by-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Hideharu Hagiya, Takuya Semba, Takeshi Morimoto, Norihisa Yamamoto, Hisao Yoshida, Kazunori Tomono
Lancefield group G β-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) has become a leading causative pathogen of invasive streptococcal infection. In this report, we describe a case of disseminated SDSE infection complicated by endogenous endophthalmitis, resulting in panophthalmitis and blindness. A 65-year-old man who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery two months previously was hospitalized due to high fever and right visual loss. A systemic investigation revealed endophthalmitis complicated by mediastinal abscess, prosthetic infective endocarditis, cerebral emboli and hemorrhage, and multiple arthritis...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731388/clinical-impact-of-a-rapid-streptococcal-antigen-test-on-antibiotic-use-in-adult-patients
#3
Monique Dodd, Allen Adolphe, Alisha Parada, Meghan Brett, Karissa Culbreath, Renée-Claude Mercier
INTRODUCTION: Adult pharyngitis is rarely attributable to group A streptococci. Utilization of a rapid streptococcal antigen test (RADT) may improve appropriate prescribing for bacterial pharyngitis. METHODS: Clinic 1 performed RADTs with subsequent Group A DNA probe test (GADNA) from November 2014-March 2015 and November 2015-March 2016 while Clinic 2 was the control clinic, then implemented the RADT with a GADNA from November 2015-March 2016. All GADNA results were obtained for each clinic from October 2013-March 2016...
April 7, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722472/fulminant-group-a-streptococcal-infection-without-gangrene-in-the-extremities-analysis-of-five-autopsy-cases
#4
Shu Kato, Motoi Yanazaki, Kino Hayashi, Fumiko Satoh, Ichiro Isobe, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Five autopsy cases of fulminant group A streptococcal infection without gangrene in the extremities are presented. Clinical course of the fulminant illness was short (2-4 days). One pathological autopsy case was aged (86-years-old), and hemorrhagic cystitis was observed. The other four forensic autopsy cases were young (24-38 years-old) with the mean age of 32, and the primary infective lesions were located in the postpartum endometrium, tonsil and bronchus (2 cases). Systemic coccal dissemination with poor neutrophilic reaction was seen in two of five cases...
May 3, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720109/altered-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-normalized-in-a-patient-with-a-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorder-after-streptococcal-infection-pandas-like-condition-following-treatment-with-plasmapheresis-a-case-report
#5
A H Nave, P Harmel, R Buchert, L Harms
BACKGROUND: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder after streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a specific autoimmune response to group-A streptococcal infections in children and adolescents with a sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorders or tic-like symptoms. Cerebral metabolic changes of patients have not yet been observed. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of an 18-year old male with a PANDAS-like condition after developing tic-like symptoms and involuntary movements three weeks after cardiac surgery...
May 2, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718302/caution-needed-molecular-diagnosis-of-pediatric-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#6
Robert R Tanz, Xiaotian T Zheng, Donna M Carter, Molly C Steele, Stanford T Shulman
Among throat swabs processed in the microbiology laboratory as back-up for negative rapid antigen detection test results, we found a significant increase in the proportion that tested positive for group A streptococci after changing from throat culture to a molecular test.For group A streptococcus testing, our hospital laboratory replaced throat cultures with a stand-alone molecular diagnostic test that takes no more than 1 hour to perform. The prevalence of positive laboratory test results increased significantly (P < ...
April 27, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718291/molecular-testing-for-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-to-test-or-not-to-test-that-is-the-question
#7
Preeti Jaggi, Amy Leber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716699/assessment-of-periodontitis-and-its-role-in-viridans-streptococcal-bacteremia-and-infective-endocarditis
#8
Shree Dhotre, Vilas Jahagirdar, Namdev Suryawanshi, Milind Davane, Ramesh Patil, Basavraj Nagoba
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of periodontitis in viridans group streptococci (VGS) bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: A total of 200 subjects including two groups. Group A- 34 subjects undergoing tooth extraction with periodontitis, 46 subjects undergoing tooth extraction without periodontitis and 40 healthy controls. Group B: 40 confirmed cases of IE (17 with and 23 without periodontitis) and 40 healthy controls. Subgingival plaque and blood samples were obtained and processed by standard procedures...
March 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716696/evaluation-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-in-calcific-rheumatic-mitral-stenosis-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Jamal Yusuf, Jothinath P, Saibal Mukhopadhyay, Vickram Vignesh, Sanjay Tyagi
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Rheumatic mitral stenosis (RMS) is an autoimmune, progressive destructive valve disease occurring as a sequele of streptococcal infection. Epidemiological studies support an association of vitamin D deficiency with initial susceptibility and severity of autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D in subjects of RMS and assess if any correlation exists with serum levels of vitamin D and severity of disease along with calcification assessed semi-quantitatively by echocardiography by applying Wilkins score...
March 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704396/protective-immunity-induced-by-an-intranasal-multivalent-vaccine-comprising-10-lactococcus-lactis-strains-expressing-highly-prevalent-m-protein-antigens-derived-from-group-a-streptococcus
#10
Aniela Wozniak, Natalia Scioscia, Patricia C García, James B Dale, Braulio A Paillavil, Paulette Legarraga, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes diseases ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe invasive infections. The N-terminal fragment of Streptococcal M protein elicits protective antibodies and is an attractive vaccine target. However, this N- terminal fragment is hypervariable and there are more than 200 different M types. We are developing an intranasal live bacterial vaccine comprised of 10 strains of Lactococcus lactis, each expressing one N-terminal fagment of M protein. Live bacterial-vectored vaccines have lower associated costs because of its less complex manufacturing processes compared to protein subunit vaccines...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700220/intensive-care-management-of-severe-hypernatraemia-in-the-context-of-group-a-streptococcal-septicaemia
#11
Bethan Davies, Robert Jesty, Shahana Uddin, Victoria Metaxa
This case describes a 54-year-old woman with exudative eczema, who was admitted to the intensive care unit with a serum sodium concentration of 191 mmol/L, secondary to profound dehydration in the context of group A streptococcal septicaemia. Successful rehydration and electrolyte normalisation was achieved with continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), the replacement fluid of which was infused with hypertonic saline to limit the rate of sodium reduction. This case report comments on three areas of interest...
April 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698777/metabolic-engineering-to-enhance-heterologous-production-of-hyaluronic-acid-in-bacillus-subtilis
#12
Adam W Westbrook, Xiang Ren, Jaewon Oh, Murray Moo-Young, C Perry Chou
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high-value biopolymer that is produced in large scales using attenuated strains of group C streptococci. However, due to the pathogenicity and fastidious nature of these bacteria, the development of bioprocesses for HA production centered on robust 'Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)' organisms, such as Bacillus subtilis, is of increased interest. Here, we report metabolic engineering of novel B. subtilis strains in which the carbon flux has been partially diverted from central metabolism, i...
April 23, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694999/novel-approaches-to-the-study-of-neonatal-infections
#13
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Riccardo Castagnoli, Irene Ioimo, Cristian Achille, Paolo Manzoni, Chryssoula Tzialla
The pathogenesis of neonatal infection is incompletely understood. Neonatal immune immaturity and the microbial factors of virulence only partially explain the interindividual differences in the protective responses to the most common neonatal pathogens. Stratification of infants into high- and low-risk groups through epidemiological studies has been invaluable in designing preventive strategies and reducing the burden of neonatal infection. The discovery of the role of maternal antibodies (Abs) as, for instance, anti-capsular polysaccharide group B streptococcal (GBS) Abs, in protecting newborn infants against neonatal GBS sepsis, has been a milestone in the unraveling of the molecular underpinnings of susceptibility to infection in the neonatal age...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686667/-streptococcus-agalactiae-non-pilus-cell-wall-anchored-proteins-involvement-in-colonization-and-pathogenesis-and-potential-as-vaccine-candidates
#14
REVIEW
Giampiero Pietrocola, Carla Renata Arciola, Simonetta Rindi, Lucio Montanaro, Pietro Speziale
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains an important etiological agent of several infectious diseases including neonatal septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, and orthopedic device infections. This pathogenicity is due to a variety of virulence factors expressed by Streptococcus agalactiae . Single virulence factors are not sufficient to provoke a streptococcal infection, which is instead promoted by the coordinated activity of several pathogenicity factors. Such determinants, mostly cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that mediate binding of the pathogen to host extracellular matrix/plasma ligands and cell surfaces, proteins that cooperate in the invasion of and survival within host cells and factors that neutralize phagocytosis and/or modulate the immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686658/gut-microbiota-profiling-and-gut-brain-crosstalk-in-children-affected-by-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-and-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections
#15
Andrea Quagliariello, Federica Del Chierico, Alessandra Russo, Sofia Reddel, Giulia Conte, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Bruno Dallapiccola, Francesco Cardona, Antonio Gasbarrini, Lorenza Putignani
Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686441/rheumatic-fever-new-diagnostic-criteria
#16
REVIEW
Izabela Szczygielska, Elżbieta Hernik, Beata Kołodziejczyk, Agnieszka Gazda, Maria Maślińska, Piotr Gietka
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease associated with group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection, in the course of which the patient develops carditis, arthritis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules and erythema marginatum. Rheumatic fever diagnosis is based on the Jones criteria, developed in 1944, then revised twice by the American Heart Association (AHA), in 1992 and recently in 2015. The last revision of the Jones criteria consists mainly in the supplementation of the major criteria with echocardiographic examination, the introduction of a concept of subclinical carditis and the isolation of low, medium and high risk populations among the patients...
2018: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#17
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682128/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-chemically-synthesized-divalent-group-a-streptococcal-vaccine
#18
Yongxiang Wu, Suhua Li, Yanting Luo, Yunyue Zhao, Jiarui Wang, Ruimin Dong, Xujing Xie, Jieming Zhu, Jinlai Liu
Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) infections and poststreptococcal sequelae remain a health problem worldwide, which necessitates searching for an effective vaccine, while no licensed GAS vaccine is available. We have developed a divalent peptide vaccine composed of 84 amino acids to cover the main GAS serotypes (M1 and M12 streptococci) in China, and herein, we aimed to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine. Methods: Mice were immunized with the vaccine...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675045/paediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorder-associated-with-group-a-beta-haemolytic-streptococcal-infection-an-indication-for-tonsillectomy-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Amarkumar Dhirajlal Rajgor, Navid Akhtar Hakim, Sanah Ali, Adnan Darr
Background. Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS) is the acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms following group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. The aetiology remains elusive. However, with group A streptococcus being the most common bacterial cause of tonsillitis, surgical intervention in the form of tonsillectomy has often been considered as a potential therapy. Methods. A MEDLINE® search was undertaken using keywords "PANDAS" or "paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus" combined with "tonsillectomy"...
2018: International Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671499/poststreptococcal-illness-recognition-and-management
#20
David L Maness, Michael Martin, Gregg Mitchell
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus can cause several postinfectious, nonsuppurative immune- mediated diseases including acute rheumatic fever, poststreptococcal reactive arthritis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Except for sporadic outbreaks, poststreptococcal autoimmune syndromes occur most commonly in sub-Saharan Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand. Children younger than three years are rarely affected by group A streptococcus pharyngitis or rheumatic fever, and usually do not require testing...
April 15, 2018: American Family Physician
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