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Ganoderma lucidum review

Xingzhong Jin, Julieta Ruiz Beguerie, Daniel Man-Yeun Sze, Godfrey C F Chan
BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum is a natural medicine that is widely used and recommended by Asian physicians and naturopaths for its supporting effects on immune system. Laboratory research and a handful of preclinical trials have suggested that G. lucidum carries promising anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. The popularity of taking G. lucidum as an alternative medicine has been increasing in cancer patients. However, there is no systematic review that has been conducted to evaluate the actual benefits of G...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gulcan Saylam Kurtipek, Arzu Ataseven, Ercan Kurtipek, İlknur Kucukosmanoglu, Mustafa Rasid Toksoz
Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom) has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as a herbal remedy for over 2000 years. Studies have shown that G. lucidum has anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory properties. A review of the literature revealed that there were no studies examining the use of G. lucidum for the treatment of skin diseases. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old male patient who used soap enriched with G. lucidum and goat's milk for 3 days in treating annular cutaneous sarcoidosis...
March 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
Balraj Singh Gill, Prateek Sharma, Raj Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar
A Basidiomycetes fungus belonging to polypore family of mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum (GL), has been known since a long time for their myriad therapeutic indications. Renowned as an invaluable resource of cardinal mycoconstituents they encompass numerous terpenoids polysaccharides and proteins. Possessing the therapeutically potent lanosteroidal skeleton, terpenoids are upheld for their invariable participation in therapeutically diverse bioactivities. Polysaccharides and proteins exhibiting distinguishable bioactivities provide this oriental mushroom with additional edges over immune function and anti-cancer potential...
March 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Kaiser Hamid, Ali Alqahtani, Moon-Sun Kim, Jun-Lae Cho, Pei H Cui, Chun Guang Li, Paul W Groundwater, George Q Li
Tetracyclic triterpenoids, including the dammarane, cucurbitane, cycloartane, lanostane and protostane groups, is a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in various medicinal plants, particularly those commonly used for the treatment of diabetes and its complications, such as Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Astragalus membranaceus, Momordica charantia, and Ganoderma lucidum. This review highlights recent findings on the chemistry and bioactivities of tetracyclic triterpenoids from these plants and other popular herbal medicines...
2015: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Sabulal Baby, Anil John Johnson, Balaji Govindan
Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives...
June 2015: Phytochemistry
W G Jiang, A J Sanders, M Katoh, H Ungefroren, F Gieseler, M Prince, S K Thompson, M Zollo, D Spano, P Dhawan, D Sliva, P R Subbarayan, M Sarkar, K Honoki, H Fujii, A G Georgakilas, A Amedei, E Niccolai, A Amin, S S Ashraf, L Ye, W G Helferich, X Yang, C S Boosani, G Guha, M R Ciriolo, K Aquilano, S Chen, A S Azmi, W N Keith, A Bilsland, D Bhakta, D Halicka, S Nowsheen, F Pantano, D Santini
Cancer is a key health issue across the world, causing substantial patient morbidity and mortality. Patient prognosis is tightly linked with metastatic dissemination of the disease to distant sites, with metastatic diseases accounting for a vast percentage of cancer patient mortality. While advances in this area have been made, the process of cancer metastasis and the factors governing cancer spread and establishment at secondary locations is still poorly understood. The current article summarizes recent progress in this area of research, both in the understanding of the underlying biological processes and in the therapeutic strategies for the management of metastasis...
December 2015: Seminars in Cancer Biology
S Leggett, B Koczwara, M Miller
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer amongst women. Women with breast cancer frequently consult dietitians for advice, and increasingly advice on complementary alternative medicines (CAM). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of CAM administered orally on cancer-related outcomes. Databases were searched for studies recruiting women with a history of breast cancer reporting on the use of CAM administered orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids for any 1 or more of the following: alleviation of cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects, improvement to quality of life, physical and emotional wellbeing, survival, and mortality...
2015: Nutrition and Cancer
Haou-Tzong Ma, Jung-Feng Hsieh, Shui-Tein Chen
Ganoderma lucidum is a white rot fungus widely used as a tonic for the promotion of longevity and health. Extracts of G. lucidum have been recognized as an alternative adjuvant treatment for diabetes. Among the many biologically active constituents of G. lucidum, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. G. lucidum polysaccharides have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity by increasing plasma insulin levels and decreasing plasma sugar levels in mice...
June 2015: Phytochemistry
Nerida L Klupp, Dennis Chang, Fiona Hawke, Hosen Kiat, Huijuan Cao, Suzanne J Grant, Alan Bensoussan
BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum (also known as lingzhi or reishi) is a mushroom that has been consumed for its broad medicinal properties in Asia for over 2000 years. G lucidum is becoming increasingly popular in western countries as a complementary medicine for cardiovascular health. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of G lucidum for the treatment of pharmacologically modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 6 of 12, 2014) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OVID, 1946 to June week 3 2014), EMBASE (OVID, 1980 to 2014 week 26), Science Direct (1823 to 2013), Current Controlled Trials (1990 to 2013), Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (2005 to 2013), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (2007 to 2013), Chinese Medical Current Contents (2007 to 2013) and other databases...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ursula Kües, David R Nelson, Chang Liu, Guo-Jun Yu, Jianhui Zhang, Jianqin Li, Xin-Cun Wang, Hui Sun
Ganoderma is a fungal genus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family and Polyporales order. Plant-pathogenic species in this genus can cause severe diseases (stem, butt, and root rot) in economically important trees and perennial crops, especially in tropical countries. Ganoderma species are white rot fungi and have ecological importance in the breakdown of woody plants for nutrient mobilization. They possess effective machineries of lignocellulose-decomposing enzymes useful for bioenergy production and bioremediation...
June 2015: Phytochemistry
Qing Xia, Huazheng Zhang, Xuefei Sun, Haijuan Zhao, Lingfang Wu, Dan Zhu, Guanghui Yang, Yanyan Shao, Xiaoxue Zhang, Xin Mao, Lanzhen Zhang, Gaimei She
Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicine, popularly used for complementary cancer therapy. GTs are lanostane-tetracyclic triterpenes. They have been reported to possess anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antimicrobial and blood fat reducing effects. To date, 316 GTs have been found and their similar chemical structures have proved difficult to elucidate. This paper compiles 316 naturally occurring triterpenes from Ganoderma based on the literature published through January 2013 along with their structures, physiological activities and 13C-NMR spectral data...
2014: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Neha Bhardwaj, Priya Katyal, Anil K Sharma
Acute inflammation is the result of a complex signal transduction pathway that protects and heals our body and is necessary for our good health and normal wellbeing. Whereas, chronic inflammation can be correlated well with the onset of a plethora of autoimmune disorders; rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and polymyalgia, rheumatic and other diseases like asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disorders, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Also, it has been reported to be associated with the onset of various cancers...
2014: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Benjamin M Johnson, Bently P Doonan, Faisal F Radwan, Azizul Haque
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in the western world. While traditional therapies are effective at clearing early stage cancer, they often fail to treat late stage metastatic disease. Thus, an effective therapy that targets prostate tumor growth and metastasis is desired for alleviating the disease and improving patient outcomes. Natural extracts have been the focus of recent investigation, particularly those with reduced cellular toxicity to healthy tissue...
January 1, 2010: Open Prostate Cancer Journal
Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Xiaoming Yang, Rong Huang, Ting Zhou, Shou-Fang Wu, Qian Shi, Hideji Itokawa
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood)...
April 2012: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Chia-Wei Phan, Pamela David, Murali Naidu, Kah-Hui Wong, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Andréia Assunço Soares, Anacharis Babeto de Sá-Nakanishi, Adelar Bracht, Sandra Maria Gomes da Costa, Eloá Angélica Koehnlein, Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza, Rosane Marina Peralta
The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species...
2013: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guo-Sheng Wu, Jia-Jie Guo, Jiao-Lin Bao, Xi-Wen Li, Xiu-Ping Chen, Jin-Jian Lu, Yi-Tao Wang
INTRODUCTION: Triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum are a class of naturally occurring compounds and structurally highly oxidized lanostanes. Accumulated data show that triterpenoids exhibit a broad spectrum of anti-cancer properties, including anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic activities. A systematic summary and knowledge of future prospects are necessary to facilitate further studies on this species. AREAS COVERED: This review aims to summarize and analyze the current knowledge on the anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of G...
August 2013: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Priya Batra, Anil Kumar Sharma, Robinka Khajuria
Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer...
2013: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Faisal F Y Radwan, J Manuel Perez, Azizul Haque
Considering the fact that a key factor in tumor development is the evasion of immune detection, the search for natural products, which have reduced toxicity towards normal tissues as well as immunostimulatory capabilities has received growing interest. One attractive source of antitumor products is the Ganoderma lucidum mushroom, which has been used for centuries as an herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer, and has been shown to improve immune function. Interestingly, its methanol soluble triterpenoid extracts, namely Ganoderic Acids (GAs), have been the subject of several recent investigations on their chemotherapeutic effects...
December 11, 2011: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Bojana Boh
Based on the analysis of more than 270 patents and scientific articles, this state-of-the-art review presents Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal basidiomycete mushroom with immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects. Cultivation methods for the commercial production of G. lucidum fruit bodies and mycelia are summarized, with main active compounds of triterpenoids, polysaccharides, and proteins, often found in forms of proteoglycans or glycopeptides. Pharmacological effects with emphasis on anti-cancer and immunomodulatory functions are presented, separately for spores and dry mycelia, and for the groups of triterpenoids, polysaccharides, proteins and glycoproteins...
September 2013: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
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