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Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905976/comparative-approaches-for-assessing-access-to-alcohol-outlets-exploring-the-utility-of-a-gravity-potential-approach
#1
Tony H Grubesic, Ran Wei, Alan T Murray, William Alex Pridemore
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research recommends controlling alcohol availability to reduce harm. Various common approaches, however, provide dramatically different pictures of the physical availability of alcohol. This limits our understanding of the distribution of alcohol access, the causes and consequences of this distribution, and how best to reduce harm. The aim of this study is to introduce both a gravity potential measure of access to alcohol outlets, comparing its strengths and weaknesses to other popular approaches, and an empirically-derived taxonomy of neighborhoods based on the type of alcohol access they exhibit...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894026/the-effect-of-road-network-patterns-on-pedestrian-safety-a-zone-based-bayesian-spatial-modeling-approach
#2
Qiang Guo, Pengpeng Xu, Xin Pei, S C Wong, Danya Yao
Pedestrian safety is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Extensive safety studies have been conducted to examine the influence of multiple variables on the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. However, the explicit relationship between pedestrian safety and road network characteristics remains unknown. This study particularly focused on the role of different road network patterns on the occurrence of crashes involving pedestrians. A global integration index via space syntax was introduced to quantify the topological structures of road networks...
November 25, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882869/aerotaxis-in-the-closest-relatives-of-animals
#3
Julius B Kirkegaard, Ambre Bouillant, Alan O Marron, Kyriacos C Leptos, Raymond E Goldstein
As the closest unicellular relatives of animals, choanoflagellates serve as useful model organisms for understanding the evolution of animal multicellularity. An important factor in animal evolution was the increasing ocean oxygen levels in the Precambrian, which are thought to have influenced the emergence of complex multicellular life. As a first step in addressing these conditions, we study here the response of the colony-forming choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta to oxygen gradients. Using a microfluidic device that allows spatio-temporal variations in oxygen concentrations, we report the discovery that S...
November 24, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873066/diverse-foraging-opportunities-drive-the-functional-response-of-local-and-landscape-scale-bear-predation-on-pacific-salmon
#4
Thomas P Quinn, Curry J Cunningham, Aaron J Wirsing
The relationship between prey abundance and predation is often examined in single habitat units or populations, but predators may occupy landscapes with diverse habitats and foraging opportunities. The vulnerability of prey within populations may depend on habitat features that hinder predation, and increased density of conspecifics in both the immediate vicinity and the broader landscape. We evaluated the relative effects of physical habitat, local, and neighborhood prey density on predation by brown bears on sockeye salmon in a suite of 27 streams using hierarchical Bayesian functional response models...
November 21, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859257/does-spatial-access-to-primary-care-affect-emergency-department-utilization-for-nonemergent-conditions
#5
Jamie Fishman, Sara McLafferty, William Galanter
OBJECTIVE: To examine the contributions of individual- and neighborhood-level spatial access to care to the utilization of emergency departments (EDs) for preventable conditions through implementation of novel local spatial access measures. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Emergency department admissions data are from four HealthLNK member hospitals in Chicago from 2007 to 2011. Primary care physician office and clinic locations were obtained from the American Medical Association and the City of Chicago...
November 17, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855155/forecasting-influenza-outbreaks-in-boroughs-and-neighborhoods-of-new-york-city
#6
Wan Yang, Donald R Olson, Jeffrey Shaman
The ideal spatial scale, or granularity, at which infectious disease incidence should be monitored and forecast has been little explored. By identifying the optimal granularity for a given disease and host population, and matching surveillance and prediction efforts to this scale, response to emergent and recurrent outbreaks can be improved. Here we explore how granularity and representation of spatial structure affect influenza forecast accuracy within New York City. We develop network models at the borough and neighborhood levels, and use them in conjunction with surveillance data and a data assimilation method to forecast influenza activity...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824500/programs-as-polypeptides
#7
Lance R Williams
Object-oriented combinator chemistry (OOCC) is an artificial chemistry with composition devices borrowed from object-oriented and functional programming languages. Actors in OOCC are embedded in space and subject to diffusion; since they are neither created nor destroyed, their mass is conserved. Actors use programs constructed from combinators to asynchronously update their own states and the states of other actors in their neighborhoods. The fact that programs and combinators are themselves reified as actors makes it possible to build programs that build programs from combinators of a few primitive types using asynchronous spatial processes that resemble chemistry as much as computation...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815763/the-association-between-neighborhood-environment-and-mortality-results-from-a-national-study-of-veterans
#8
Karin Nelson, Greg Schwartz, Susan Hernandez, Joseph Simonetti, Idamay Curtis, Stephan D Fihn
BACKGROUND: As the largest integrated US health system, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides unique national data to expand knowledge about the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and health. Although living in areas of lower NSES has been associated with higher mortality, previous studies have been limited to higher-income, less diverse populations than those who receive VHA care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between NSES and all-cause mortality in a national sample of veterans enrolled in VHA primary care...
November 4, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789526/an-integrated-3-dimensional-genome-modeling-engine-for-data-driven-simulation-of-spatial-genome-organization
#9
Przemysław Szałaj, Zhonghui Tang, Paul Michalski, Michal J Pietal, Oscar J Luo, Michał Sadowski, Xingwang Li, Kamen Radew, Yijun Ruan, Dariusz Plewczynski
ChIA-PET is a high-throughput mapping technology that reveals long-range chromatin interactions and provides insights into the basic principles of spatial genome organization and gene regulation mediated by specific protein factors. Recently, we showed that a single ChIA-PET experiment provides information at all genomic scales of interest, from the high-resolution locations of binding sites and enriched chromatin interactions mediated by specific protein factors, to the low resolution of nonenriched interactions that reflect topological neighborhoods of higher-order chromosome folding...
October 27, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705854/accurate-lungs-segmentation-on-ct-chest-images-by-adaptive-appearance-guided-shape-modeling
#10
Ahmed Soliman, Fahmi Khalifa, Ahmed Elnakib, Mohamed Abou El-Ghar, Neal Dunlap, Brian Wang, Georgy Gimel'farb, Robert Keynton, Ayman El-Baz
To accurately segment pathological and healthy lungs for reliable computer-aided disease diagnostics, a stack of chest CT scans is modeled as a sample of a spatially inhomogeneous joint 3D Markov-Gibbs random field (MGRF) of voxel-wise lung and chest CT image signals (intensities). The proposed learnable MGRF integrates two visual appearance sub models with an adaptive lung shape submodel. The first-order appearance submodel accounts for both the original CT image and its Gaussian scale space (GSS) filtered version to specify local and global signal properties, respectively...
September 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703155/persistence-of-long-distance-insect-mediated-pollen-movement-for-a-tropical-canopy-tree-species-in-remnant-forest-patches-in-an-urban-landscape
#11
A M E Noreen, M A Niissalo, S K Y Lum, E L Webb
As deforestation and urbanization continue at rapid rates in tropical regions, urban forest patches are essential repositories of biodiversity. However, almost nothing is known about gene flow of forest-dependent tree species in urban landscapes. In this study, we investigated gene flow in the insect-pollinated, wind-dispersed tropical tree Koompassia malaccensis in and among three remnant forest patches in the urbanized landscape of Singapore. We genotyped the vast majority of adults (N=179) and a large number of recruits (N=2103) with 8 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers...
October 5, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701020/how-much-are-built-environments-changing-and-where-patterns-of-change-by-neighborhood-sociodemographic-characteristics-across-seven-u-s-metropolitan-areas
#12
Jana A Hirsch, Joe Grengs, Amy Schulz, Sara D Adar, Daniel A Rodriguez, Shannon J Brines, Ana V Diez Roux
Investments in neighborhood built environments could increase physical activity and overall health. Disproportionate distribution of these changes in advantaged neighborhoods could inflate health disparities. Little information exists on where changes are occurring. This paper aims to 1) identify changes in the built environment in neighborhoods and 2) investigate associations between high levels of change and sociodemographic characteristics. Using Geographic Information Systems, neighborhood land-use, local destinations (for walking, social engagement, and physical activity), and sociodemographics were characterized in 2000 and 2010 for seven U...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660649/a-modified-brain-mr-image-segmentation-and-bias-field-estimation-model-based-on-local-and-global-information
#13
Wang Cong, Jianhua Song, Kuan Luan, Hong Liang, Lei Wang, Xingcheng Ma, Jin Li
Because of the poor radio frequency coil uniformity and gradient-driven eddy currents, there is much noise and intensity inhomogeneity (bias) in brain magnetic resonance (MR) image, and it severely affects the segmentation accuracy. Better segmentation results are difficult to achieve by traditional methods; therefore, in this paper, a modified brain MR image segmentation and bias field estimation model based on local and global information is proposed. We first construct local constraints including image neighborhood information in Gaussian kernel mapping space, and then the complete regularization is established by introducing nonlocal spatial information of MR image...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649221/analysis-of-pollution-hazard-intensity-a-spatial-epidemiology-case-study-of-soil-pb-contamination
#14
Hoehun Ha, Peter A Rogerson, James R Olson, Daikwon Han, Ling Bian, Wanyun Shao
Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630710/online-hierarchical-sparse-representation-of-multifeature-for-robust-object-tracking
#15
Honghong Yang, Shiru Qu
Object tracking based on sparse representation has given promising tracking results in recent years. However, the trackers under the framework of sparse representation always overemphasize the sparse representation and ignore the correlation of visual information. In addition, the sparse coding methods only encode the local region independently and ignore the spatial neighborhood information of the image. In this paper, we propose a robust tracking algorithm. Firstly, multiple complementary features are used to describe the object appearance; the appearance model of the tracked target is modeled by instantaneous and stable appearance features simultaneously...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628590/distribution-and-neighborhood-correlates-of-sober-living-house-locations-in-los-angeles
#16
Amy A Mericle, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Shalika Gupta, David M Sheridan, Doug L Polcin
Sober living houses (SLHs) are alcohol and drug-free living environments for individuals in recovery. The goal of this study was to map the distribution of SLHs in Los Angeles (LA) County, California (N = 260) and examine neighborhood correlates of SLH density. Locations of SLHs were geocoded and linked to tract-level Census data as well as to publicly available information on alcohol outlets and recovery resources. Neighborhoods with SLHs differed from neighborhoods without them on measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and accessibility of recovery resources...
September 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619189/a-spatial-model-of-socioeconomic-and-environmental-determinants-of-dengue-fever-in-cali-colombia
#17
Eric Delmelle, Michael Hagenlocher, Stefan Kienberger, Irene Casas
Dengue fever has gradually re-emerged across the global South, particularly affecting urban areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The dynamics of dengue fever transmission are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors. In 2010, the municipality of Cali, Colombia, experienced one of its worst outbreaks, however the outbreak was not spatially homogeneous across the city. In this paper, we evaluate the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with this outbreak at the neighborhood level, using a Geographically Weighted Regression model...
September 9, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612577/the-context-of-context-examining-the-associations-between-healthy-and-unhealthy-measures-of-neighborhood-food-physical-activity-and-social-environments
#18
Candice A Myers, Kara D Denstel, Stephanie T Broyles
Multilevel health research often focuses on a singular dimension of the neighborhood environment in relation to individual-level health behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity) and outcomes (e.g., obesity). This study examined associations between healthy and unhealthy neighborhood features across food, physical activity, and social environments. We used neighborhood-level (i.e., census block group) access (0/1) measures of the 1) food (grocery store, convenience store, fast food restaurant), 2) physical activity (fitness/recreation facility, park), and 3) social (crime, renter occupancy) environments to capture both healthy and unhealthy neighborhood features for a sample of neighborhoods (n=126) in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, United States...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609405/stabilization-of-species-coexistence-in-spatial-models-through-the-aggregation-segregation-effect-generated-by-local-dispersal-and-nonspecific-local-interactions
#19
Matteo Detto, Helene C Muller-Landau
Spatial interactions are widely acknowledged to play a significant role in sustaining diversity in ecological communities. However, theoretical work on this topic has focused on how spatial processes affect coexistence of species that differ in their strategies, with less attention to how spatial processes matter when competitors are equivalent. Furthermore, though it is recognized that models with local dispersal and local competition may sustain higher diversities of equivalent competitors than models in which these are not both localized, there is debate as to whether this reflects merely equalizing effects or whether there is also a stabilizing component...
December 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598186/neighborhood-landscape-spatial-patterns-and-land-surface-temperature-an-empirical-study-on-single-family-residential-areas-in-austin-texas
#20
Jun-Hyun Kim, Donghwan Gu, Wonmin Sohn, Sung-Ho Kil, Hwanyong Kim, Dong-Kun Lee
Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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