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Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762649/residential-racial-isolation-and-spatial-patterning-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-durham-north-carolina
#1
Mercedes A Bravo, Rebecca Anthopolos, Rachel T Kimbro, Marie Lynn Miranda
Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. We construct a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) for blacks, which measures the extent to which blacks are exposed to only one another, to estimate associations of diabetes with RI and examine how RI relates to spatial patterning in diabetes. We obtained 2007-2011 electronic health records from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724243/evaluating-neighborhood-structures-for-modeling-intercity-diffusion-of-large-scale-dengue-epidemics
#2
Tzai-Hung Wen, Ching-Shun Hsu, Ming-Che Hu
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a vector-borne infectious disease that is transmitted by contact between vector mosquitoes and susceptible hosts. The literature has addressed the issue on quantifying the effect of individual mobility on dengue transmission. However, there are methodological concerns in the spatial regression model configuration for examining the effect of intercity-scale human mobility on dengue diffusion. The purposes of the study are to investigate the influence of neighborhood structures on intercity epidemic progression from pre-epidemic to epidemic periods and to compare definitions of different neighborhood structures for interpreting the spread of dengue epidemics...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699370/exploring-spatial-patterns-of-colorectal-cancer-in-tehran-city-iran
#3
Kamyar Mansori, Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi, Ali Ganbary Motlagh, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud Salehi, Alireza Delavari, Ali Sanjari Moghaddam, Mohsen Asadi-Lari
Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) may now be the second most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to determine whether clusters of high and low risk of CRC might exist at the neighborhood level in Tehran city. Methods: In this study, new cases of CRC provided from Cancer Registry Data of the Management Center of Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran in the period from March 2008 to March 2011 were analyzed. Raw standardized incidence rates (SIRs) were calculated for CRC in each neighborhood, along with ratios of observed to expected cases...
April 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675321/burn-injured-tissue-detection-for-debridement-surgery-through-the-combination-of-non-invasive-optical-imaging-techniques
#4
Juan Heredia-Juesas, Jeffrey E Thatcher, Yang Lu, John J Squiers, Darlene King, Wensheng Fan, J Michael DiMaio, Jose A Martinez-Lorenzo
The process of burn debridement is a challenging technique requiring significant skills to identify the regions that need excision and their appropriate excision depths. In order to assist surgeons, a machine learning tool is being developed to provide a quantitative assessment of burn-injured tissue. This paper presents three non-invasive optical imaging techniques capable of distinguishing four kinds of tissue-healthy skin, viable wound bed, shallow burn, and deep burn-during serial burn debridement in a porcine model...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668993/accounting-for-age-structure-and-spatial-structure-in-eco-evolutionary-analyses-of-a-large-mobile-vertebrate
#5
Robin S Waples, Kim Scribner, Jennifer Moore, Hope Draheim, Dwayne Etter, Mark Boersen
The idealized concept of a population is integral to ecology, evolutionary biology, and natural resource management. To make analyses tractable, most models adopt simplifying assumptions, which almost inevitably are violated by real species in nature. Here we focus on both demographic and genetic estimates of effective population size per generation (Ne), the effective number of breeders per year (Nb), and Wright's neighborhood size (NS) for black bears (Ursus americanus) that are continuously distributed in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664928/a-kriging-based-spatiotemporal-approach-for-traffic-volume-data-imputation
#6
Hongtai Yang, Jianjiang Yang, Lee D Han, Xiaohan Liu, Li Pu, Shih-Miao Chin, Ho-Ling Hwang
Along with the rapid development of Intelligent Transportation Systems, traffic data collection technologies have progressed fast. The emergence of innovative data collection technologies such as remote traffic microwave sensor, Bluetooth sensor, GPS-based floating car method, and automated license plate recognition, has significantly increased the variety and volume of traffic data. Despite the development of these technologies, the missing data issue is still a problem that poses great challenge for data based applications such as traffic forecasting, real-time incident detection, dynamic route guidance, and massive evacuation optimization...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626164/neighborhood-child-opportunity-and-individual-level-pediatric-acute-care-use-and-diagnoses
#7
Ellen E Kersten, Nancy E Adler, Laura Gottlieb, Douglas P Jutte, Sarah Robinson, Katrina Roundfield, Kaja Z LeWinn
: media-1vid110.1542/5751513300001PEDS-VA_2017-2309 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: Although health care providers and systems are increasingly interested in patients' nonmedical needs as a means to improve health, little is known about neighborhood conditions that contribute to child health problems. We sought to determine if a novel, publicly available measure of neighborhood context, the Child Opportunity Index, was associated with pediatric acute care visit frequency and diagnoses. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included San Francisco residents <18 years of age with an emergency department and/or urgent care visit to any of 3 medical systems ( N = 47 175) between 2007 and 2011...
April 6, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608869/mobile-sensing-in-environmental-health-and-neighborhood-research
#8
Basile Chaix
Public health research has witnessed a rapid development in the use of location, environmental, behavioral, and biophysical sensors that provide high-resolution objective time-stamped data. This burgeoning field is stimulated by the development of novel multisensor devices that collect data for an increasing number of channels and algorithms that predict relevant dimensions from one or several data channels. Global positioning system (GPS) tracking, which enables geographic momentary assessment, permits researchers to assess multiplace personal exposure areas and the algorithm-based identification of trips and places visited, eventually validated and complemented using a GPS-based mobility survey...
April 1, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608124/young-urban-adolescents-activity-spaces-close-peers-and-the-risk-of-cannabis-use-a-social-spatial-longitudinal-analysis
#9
Michael J Mason, Jeremy Mennis
BACKGROUND: An understudied, yet important area of youth development research is the examination of how place affects critical psychosocial processes such as identity formation, problem solving, emotional regulation, and in particular with adolescents, belongingness, autonomy, social competency, and behavioral health. A growing spatially informed literature indicates that youth interact with meaningful places as environmental strategies, shaping developmental trajectories related to behavioral health...
April 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556112/modeling-accessibility-of-screening-and-treatment-facilities-for-older-adults-using-transportation-networks
#10
Qiuyi Zhang, Mary E Northridge, Zhu Jin, Sara S Metcalf
Increased lifespans and population growth have resulted in an older U.S. society that must reckon with the complex oral health needs that arise as adults age. Understanding accessibility to screening and treatment facilities for older adults is necessary in order to provide them with preventive and restorative services. This study uses an agent-based model to examine the accessibility of screening and treatment facilities via transportation networks for older adults living in the neighborhoods of northern Manhattan, New York City...
April 2018: Applied Geography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531678/how-do-similarities-in-spatial-distributions-and-interspecific-associations-affect-the-coexistence-of-quercus-species-in-the-baotianman-national-nature-reserve-henan-china
#11
Zhiliang Yuan, Boliang Wei, Yun Chen, Hongru Jia, Qingning Wei, Yongzhong Ye
Congeneric species often have similar ecological characteristics and use similar resources. These similarities may make it easier for them to co-occur in a similar habitat but may also lead to strong competitions that limit their coexistence. Hence, how do similarities in congeneric species affect their coexistence exactly? This study mainly used spatial point pattern analysis in two 1 hm2 plots in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Henan, China, to compare the similarities in spatial distributions and interspecific associations of Quercus species...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518029/modeling-pediatric-body-mass-index-and-neighborhood-environment-at-different-spatial-scales
#12
Lauren P Grant, Chris Gennings, Edmond P Wickham, Derek Chapman, Shumei Sun, David C Wheeler
In public health research, it has been well established that geographic location plays an important role in influencing health outcomes. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the impact of neighborhood or contextual factors as potential risk factors for childhood obesity. Some neighborhood factors relevant to childhood obesity include access to food sources, access to recreational facilities, neighborhood safety, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables. It is common for neighborhood or area-level variables to be available at multiple spatial scales (SS) or geographic units, such as the census block group and census tract, and selection of the spatial scale for area-level variables can be considered as a model selection problem...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495351/epidemiological-characteristics-and-space-time-analysis-of-the-2015-dengue-outbreak-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-tainan-city-taiwan
#13
Ting-Wu Chuang, Ka-Chon Ng, Thi Luong Nguyen, Luis Fernando Chaves
The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474393/poverty-concentration-in-an-affluent-city-geographic-variation-and-correlates-of-neighborhood-poverty-rates-in-hong-kong
#14
Yingqi Guo, Shu-Sen Chang, Feng Sha, Paul S F Yip
Previous investigations of geographic concentration of urban poverty indicate the contribution of a variety of factors, such as economic restructuring and class-based segregation, racial segregation, demographic structure, and public policy. However, the models used by most past research do not consider the possibility that poverty concentration may take different forms in different locations across a city, and most studies have been conducted in Western settings. We investigated the spatial patterning of neighborhood poverty and its correlates in Hong Kong, which is amongst cities with the highest GDP in the region, using the city-wide ordinary least square (OLS) regression model and the local-specific geographically weighted regression (GWR) model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459884/ecological-networks-and-urban-crime-the-structure-of-shared-routine-activity-locations-and-neighborhood-level-informal-control-capacity
#15
Christopher R Browning, Catherine A Calder, Bethany Boettner, Anna Smith
Drawing on Jacobs (1961), we hypothesize that public contact among neighborhood residents while engaged in day-to-day routines, captured by the aggregate network structure of shared local exposure, is consequential for crime. Neighborhoods in which residents come into contact more extensively in the course of conventional routines will exhibit higher levels of public familiarity, trust, and collective efficacy with implications for the informal social control of crime. We employ the concept of ecological ("eco-") networks - networks linking households within neighborhoods through shared activity locations - to formalize the notion of overlapping routines...
November 2017: Criminology; An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449905/searching-for-silver-linings-is-perceived-medical-discrimination-weaker-in-segregated-areas
#16
Joseph Gibbons, Tse-Chuan Yang
An ongoing obstacle in dealing with minority health disparities is discriminatory behavior from healthcare practitioners, also known as medical discrimination. It is not clear, however, if the effects of medical discriminations onto health are constant across space. For example, there is evidence to suspect minorities in racially segregated neighborhoods suffer less from discrimination compared to those living elsewhere. To determine the presence of spatial heterogeneity underlying medical discrimination, we implement logistic geographically weighted regression (GWR) using individual data in the city of Philadelphia from the 2006 and 2008 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Surveys...
March 2018: Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432455/vector-borne-disease-risk-indexes-in-spatially-structured-populations
#17
Jorge Velázquez-Castro, Andrés Anzo-Hernández, Beatriz Bonilla-Capilla, Moisés Soto-Bajo, Andrés Fraguela-Collar
There are economic and physical limitations when applying prevention and control strategies for urban vector borne diseases. Consequently, there are increasing concerns and interest in designing efficient strategies and regulations that health agencies can follow in order to reduce the imminent impact of viruses like Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. That includes fumigation, abatization, reducing the hatcheries, picking up trash, information campaigns. A basic question that arise when designing control strategies is about which and where these ones should focus...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413713/diving-into-the-consumer-nutrition-environment-a-bayesian-spatial-factor-analysis-of-neighborhood-restaurant-environment
#18
Hui Luan, Jane Law, Martin Lysy
Neighborhood restaurant environment (NRE) plays a vital role in shaping residents' eating behaviors. While NRE 'healthfulness' is a multi-facet concept, most studies evaluate it based only on restaurant type, thus largely ignoring variations of in-restaurant features. In the few studies that do account for such features, healthfulness scores are simply averaged over accessible restaurants, thereby concealing any uncertainty that attributed to neighborhoods' size or spatial correlation. To address these limitations, this paper presents a Bayesian Spatial Factor Analysis for assessing NRE healthfulness in the city of Kitchener, Canada...
February 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409006/vitamin-d-status-and-intakes-and-their-association-with-cognitive-trajectory-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-urban-adults
#19
May A Beydoun, Sharmin Hossain, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Hind A Beydoun, Jose-Atilio Canas, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
Context: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary and supplemental vitamin D may influence cognitive outcomes. Objectives: Sex/age-specific and race-specific associations of vitamin D status and intake were examined with longitudinal change in various cognitive domains in a large sample of ethnically and socio-economically diverse US urban adults. Design: Two prospective waves of data from Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study were used...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397644/spatial-inequalities-in-the-incidence-of-colorectal-cancer-and-associated-factors-in-the-neighborhoods-of-tehran-iran-bayesian-spatial-models
#20
Kamyar Mansori, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi, Ali Ganbary Motlagh, Masoud Salehi, Alireza Delavari, Mohsen Asadi-Lari
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the spatial distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran using Bayesian spatial models. Methods: This ecological study was implemented in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Socioeconomic variables, risk factors, and health costs were extracted from the Equity Assessment Study conducted in Tehran. The data on CRC incidence were extracted from the Iranian population-based cancer registry...
January 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
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