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Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816679/adaptive-unknown-input-estimation-by-sliding-modes-and-differential-neural-network-observer
#1
Ivan Salgado, Isaac Chairez
In this paper, a differential neural network (DNN) implemented as a robust observer estimates the dynamics of perturbed uncertain nonlinear systems affected by exogenous unknown inputs. In the first stage, the identification error converges into a neighborhood around the origin. Then, the second-order sliding mode supertwisting algorithm implemented as a robust exact differentiator reconstructed the unknown inputs. The approach proposed in this paper can be applied in the case of full access to the state vector (identification problem) and in the case of partial access to the state vector (estimation problem)...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815452/-18-f-fdg-pet-radiomics-approaches-comparing-and-clustering-features-in-cervical-cancer
#2
Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Tasmiah Rahman, Makoto Yamamoto, Shizuka Yamada, Hideaki Tsuyoshi, Yasushi Kiyono, Hirohiko Kimura, Yoshio Yoshida, Hidehiko Okazawa
OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to find the textural features on (18)F-FDG PET/CT which reflect the different histological architectures between cervical cancer subtypes and to make a visual assessment of the association between (18)F-FDG PET textural features in cervical cancer. METHODS: Eighty-three cervical cancer patients [62 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 21 non-SCCs (NSCCs)] who had undergone pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images, from which 18 PET radiomics features were extracted including first-order features such as standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), second- and high-order textural features using SUV histogram, normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774168/exploring-neighborhood-inequality-in-female-breast-cancer-incidence-in-tehran-using-bayesian-spatial-models-and-a-spatial-scan-statistic
#3
Erfan Ayubi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Ali Ghanbari Motlagh, Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi, Ali Hosseini, Kamran Yazdani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC) incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770059/conspecific-density-dependence-and-community-structure-insights-from-11%C3%A2-years-of-monitoring-in-an-old-growth-temperate-forest-in-northeast-china
#4
Xu Kuang, Kai Zhu, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Xugao Wang, Yunyun Wang, Zhanqing Hao
Forest community structure may be influenced by seedling density dependence, however, the effect is loosely coupled with population dynamics and diversity in the short term. In the long term the strength of conspecific density dependence may fluctuate over time because of seedling abundance, yet few long-term studies exist. Based on 11 years of seedling census data and tree census data from a 25-ha temperate forest plot in Northeast China, we used generalized linear mixed models to test the relative effects of local neighborhood density and abiotic factors on seedling density and seedling survival...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746975/breeding-habitat-selection-across-spatial-scales-is-grass-always-greener-on-the-other-side
#5
Paul Acker, Aurélien Besnard, Jean-Yves Monnat, Emmanuelle Cam
Habitat selection theory predicts that natural selection should favor mechanisms allowing individuals to choose habitats associated with the highest fitness prospects. However, identifying sources of information on habitat quality that individuals use to choose their breeding habitat has proved to be difficult. It has also proven difficult to identify dispersal costs that prevent individuals from joining the highest-quality sites. A synthesis that integrates dispersal costs and habitat selection mechanisms across space has remained elusive...
July 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743563/high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution-anthropogenic-heat-discharge-estimation-in-los-angeles-county-california
#6
Yuanfan Zheng, Qihao Weng
Anthropogenic heat flux (Qf), which originates through energy consumption from buildings, industrial plants, vehicle exhausts, and human metabolism releases, is an important component in the urban Surface Energy Balance (SEB) system, and is key to understanding of many urban environmental issues. The present study provided a hybrid Qf modeling approach, which combined the inventory and GIS approach to create a 365-day hourly Qf profile at 120 m spatial resolution in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Qf was estimated by separate calculation of heat release from buildings, traffics, and human metabolism, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716208/spatial-dynamics-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-ped-spread-in-the-southern-kyushu-japan
#7
Yosuke Sasaki, Haruya Toyomaki, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Masuo Sueyoshi, Kohei Makita, Satoshi Otake, Andres Perez, Julio Alvarez
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) was detected for the first time in seven years in Japan in October 2013 in Okinawa Prefecture. By December 2013, PED had spread into Miyazaki and Kagoshima Prefectures in the southern part of Kyushu, one of the regions with the highest farm density in the country. The objective of the study here was to assess the spatial dynamics of PED spread during the 8 months of the epidemic in the southern part of Kyushu between December 2013, the month observed first case in the studied region, and July 2014...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709291/continuous-variable-approach-to-the-spectral-properties-and-quantum-states-of-the-two-component-bose-hubbard-dimer
#8
F Lingua, V Penna
A bosonic gas formed by two interacting species trapped in a double-well potential features macroscopic localization effects when the interspecies interaction becomes sufficiently strong. A repulsive interaction spatially separates the species into different wells while an attractive interaction confines both species in the same well. We perform a fully analytic study of the transitions from the weak- to the strong-interaction regime by exploiting the semiclassical method in which boson populations are represented in terms of continuous variables...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699334/characterizing-cross-subject-spatial-interaction-patterns-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-a-two-stage-point-process-model
#9
Adél Lee, Aila Särkkä, Tara M Madhyastha, Thomas J Grabowski
We develop a two-stage spatial point process model that introduces new characterizations of activation patterns in multisubject functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies. Conventionally multisubject fMRI methods rely on combining information across subjects one voxel at a time in order to identify locations of peak activation in the brain. The two-stage model that we develop here addresses shortcomings of standard methods by explicitly modeling the spatial structure of functional signals and recognizing that corresponding cross-subject functional signals can be spatially misaligned...
July 12, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696688/convolutional-embedding-of-attributed-molecular-graphs-for-physical-property-prediction
#10
Connor W Coley, Regina Barzilay, William H Green, Tommi S Jaakkola, Klavs F Jensen
The task of learning an expressive molecular representation is central to developing quantitative structure-activity and property relationships. Traditional approaches rely on group additivity rules, empirical measurements or parameters, or generation of thousands of descriptors. In this paper, we employ a convolutional neural network for this embedding task by treating molecules as undirected graphs with attributed nodes and edges. Simple atom and bond attributes are used to construct atom-specific feature vectors that take into account the local chemical environment using different neighborhood radii...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679391/the-moderating-role-of-food-cue-sensitivity-in-the-behavioral-response-of-children-to-their-neighborhood-food-environment-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Catherine Paquet, Luc de Montigny, Alice Labban, David Buckeridge, Yu Ma, Narendra Arora, Laurette Dubé
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood food cues have been inconsistently related to residents' health, possibly due to variations in residents' sensitivity to such cues. This study sought to investigate the degree to which children's predisposition to eat upon exposure to food environment and food cues (external eating), could explain differences in strength of associations between their food consumption and the type of food outlets and marketing strategies present in their neighborhood. METHODS: Data were obtained from 616 6-12 y...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623451/neighborhood-inequalities-in-hepatitis-c-mortality-spatial-and-temporal-patterns-and-associated-factors
#12
Mary M Ford, Payal S Desai, Gil Maduro, Fabienne Laraque
Deaths attributable to hepatitis C (HCV) infection are increasing in the USA even as highly effective treatments become available. Neighborhood-level inequalities create barriers to care and treatment for many vulnerable populations. We seek to characterize citywide trends in HCV mortality rates over time and identify and describe neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) with disproportionately high rates and associated factors. We used a multiple cause of death (MCOD) definition for HCV mortality. Cases identified between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014, were geocoded to NYC census tracts (CT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605549/socio-ecological-mechanisms-supporting-high-densities-of-aedes-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-in-baltimore-md
#13
E Little, D Biehler, P T Leisnham, R Jordan, S Wilson, S L LaDeau
Social, ecological, and climatic factors interact creating a heterogeneous matrix that determines the spatiotemporal distribution of mosquitoes and human risks of exposure to the diseases they transmit. We explore linkages between the social and institutional processes behind residential abandonment, urban ecology, and the interactions of socio-ecological processes with abiotic drivers of mosquito production. Specifically, we test the relative roles of infrastructure degradation and vegetation for explaining the presence of Aedes albopictus Skuse 1894 to better predict spatial heterogeneity in mosquito exposure risk within urban environments...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582564/disengagement-as-withdrawal-from-public-space-rethinking-the-relation-between-place-attachment-place-appropriation-and-identity-building-among-older-adults
#14
Anna Wanka
Background and Objectives: Empirical research indicates that engagement with public space decreases with age. Why do some older adults withdraw from the public, and which role does the (urban) environment play in spatial (dis-)engagement? Environmental gerontology's model of person-environment (PE) fit suggests an interrelation between agency and belonging and their causal effects on identity and wellbeing in later life. However, there is little research on how these dimensions are actually related...
June 3, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581254/tree-spacing-impacts-the-individual-incidence-of-moniliophthora-roreri-disease-in-cacao-agroforests
#15
Marie Ange Ngo Bieng, Laudine Alem, Chloé Curtet, Philippe Tixier
BACKGROUND: Using conventional pesticides in crop protection has raised serious environmental concerns and there is therefore a need for integrated pest management (IPM) methods. In this paper, we found that the spacing of trees can impact disease, which could result in a reduction in pesticide applications and may act as a potential IPM method. We studied Frosty Pod Rot (FPR) in 20 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica (Upala region). RESULTS: Using a generalized linear mixed model, we analyzed the impact of the neighborhood composition and distance from a studied cacao individual on its individual FPR incidence...
June 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545423/determinants-of-tuberculosis-transmission-and-treatment-abandonment-in-fortaleza-brazil
#16
Guy Harling, Antonio S Lima Neto, Geziel S Sousa, Marcia M T Machado, Marcia C Castro
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil), the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT). These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540592/-assistance-nursing-and-participation-in-old-age-future-of-domestic-care-in-cases-of-care-dependency
#17
REVIEW
Josefine Heusinger, Kerstin Hämel, Susanne Kümpers
The future development of home care services for older people in need of care is associated with great challenges. This article begins with a brief summary of the most urgent care problems from the perspective of people requiring care and that of caring relatives. The problems exhibit social and spatial inequalities and are characterized by coordination problems within a fragmented organizational system. Calls for a viable "care mix" are nothing new but have recently gained considerable traction under the label of "caring communities"...
May 24, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535280/invited-commentary-the-enduring-role-of-place-in-health-a-historic-perspective
#18
Yvette C Cozier
In public health, it has long been observed that "place"-specifically, where one lives-affects individual health, with the main research question distinguishing between the effects of "context" (defined as area characteristics) and "composition" (the characteristics of inhabitants) on health outcomes. There have been many studies in which the spatial patterning of disease has been explored, but they were often ecological in design, used broad census geographic levels, lacked individual-level data, or when available, did not simultaneously analyze community- and individual-level risk factors using appropriate modeling techniques...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529389/effects-of-greening-and-community-reuse-of-vacant-lots-on-crime
#19
Michelle Kondo, Bernadette Hohl, SeungHoon Han, Charles Branas
The Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation initiated a 'Lots of Green' programme to reuse vacant land in 2010. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of the effects of this programme on crime in and around newly treated lots, in comparison to crimes in and around randomly selected and matched, untreated vacant lot controls. The effects of two types of vacant lot treatments on crime were tested: a cleaning and greening 'stabilisation' treatment and a 'community reuse' treatment mostly involving community gardens...
November 2016: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527328/living-in-violence-neighborhood-domestic-violence-and-small-for-gestational-age-births
#20
Erica Felker-Kantor, Maeve Wallace, Katherine Theall
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. METHODS: This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods...
July 2017: Health & Place
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