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Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134325/spatial-context-and-health-inequity-reconfiguring-race-place-and-poverty
#1
Elizabeth L Tung, Kathleen A Cagney, Monica E Peek, Marshall H Chin
Intimate connections among race, place, and poverty are increasingly featured in the health disparities literature. However, few models exist that can guide our understanding of these interconnections. We build on the Chicago School of Sociology's contributions in urban research and one of its contemporary elaborations, often described as the "neighborhood effects approach," to propose a three-axis model of health inequity. This model, in alignment with Chicago School theory, postulates a dynamic and adaptive relationship between spatial context and health inequity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121406/multiple-mechanisms-of-early-plant-community-assembly-with-stochasticity-driving-the-process
#2
Bryndís Marteinsdóttir, Kristín Svavarsdóttir, Thóra Ellen Thórhallsdóttir
Initial plant establishment is one of the most critical phases in ecosystem development, where an early suite of physical (environmental filtering), biological (seed limitation, species interactions) and stochastic factors may affect successional trajectories and rates. While functional traits are commonly used to study processes that influence plant community assembly in late successional communities, few studies have applied them to primary succession. The objective here was to determine the importance of these factors in shaping early plant community assembly on a glacial outwash plain, Skeiðarársandur, in SE Iceland using a trait based approach...
November 9, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109507/chemometric-evaluation-of-thz-spectral-similarity-for-the-selection-of-early-drug-candidates
#3
Lukasz A Sterczewski, Kacper Nowak, Boguslaw Szlachetko, Michal P Grzelczak, Berenika Szczesniak-Siega, Stanislawa Plinska, Wieslaw Malinka, Edward F Plinski
In this paper we discuss the link between the domain of physical parameters - molecular descriptors of a drug, and terahertz (THz) spectra. We measured the derivatives of the well-known anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam using THz spectroscopy and employed Principal Component Analysis to build similarity maps in the molecular descriptor and spectral domains. We observed, that the spatial neighborhood on the molecular descriptors map is highly correlated with the spectral neighbourhood within a group of structurally-similar molecules...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108598/disentangling-the-reciprocal-relationship-between-change-in-crime-and-racial-ethnic-change
#4
Lyndsay N Boggess
Prior research has found that racial/ethnic change and residential instability are positively related to neighborhood crime. However, the process of racial/ethnic change differentially influences crime above and beyond residential instability. While both processes affect crime through the disruption of existing social ties, racial/ethnic change has additional consequences for crime by heightening racial/ethnic tensions and undercutting cross-group interactions. This means racial/ethnic change is a different process than residential instability, and suggests that neighborhoods experiencing high rates of instability and high rates of racial/ethnic change may be particularly susceptible to crime...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072503/a-segmentation-of-brain-mri-images-utilizing-intensity-and-contextual-information-by-markov-random-field
#5
Mingsheng Chen, Qingguang Yan, Mingxin Qin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Image segmentation is a preliminary and fundamental step in computer aided magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images analysis. But the performance of most current image segmentation methods is easily depreciated by noise in MRI images. A precise and anti-noise segmentation of MRI images is desired in modern medical image diagnosis. METHODS: This paper presents a segmentation of MRI images which combines fuzzy clustering and Markov random field (MRF)...
October 26, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047364/mapping-child-maltreatment-risk-a-12-year-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-neighborhood-influences
#6
Enrique Gracia, Antonio López-Quílez, Miriam Marco, Marisol Lila
BACKGROUND: 'Place' matters in understanding prevalence variations and inequalities in child maltreatment risk. However, most studies examining ecological variations in child maltreatment risk fail to take into account the implications of the spatial and temporal dimensions of neighborhoods. In this study, we conduct a high-resolution small-area study to analyze the influence of neighborhood characteristics on the spatio-temporal epidemiology of child maltreatment risk. METHODS: We conducted a 12-year (2004-2015) small-area Bayesian spatio-temporal epidemiological study with all families with child maltreatment protection measures in the city of Valencia, Spain...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043023/sapling-growth-rates-reveal-conspecific-negative-density-dependence-in-a-temperate-forest
#7
Benjamin S Ramage, Daniel J Johnson, Erika Gonzalez-Akre, William J McShea, Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira, Norman A Bourg, Keith Clay
Local tree species diversity is maintained in part by conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD). This pervasive mechanism occurs in a variety of forms and ecosystems, but research to date has been heavily skewed toward tree seedling survival in tropical forests. To evaluate CNDD more broadly, we investigated how sapling growth rates were affected by conspecific adult neighbors in a fully mapped 25.6 ha temperate deciduous forest. We examined growth rates as a function of the local adult tree neighborhood (via spatial autoregressive modeling) and compared the spatial positioning of faster-growing and slower-growing saplings with respect to adult conspecific and heterospecific trees (via bivariate point pattern analysis)...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040314/structure-of-311-service-requests-as-a-signature-of-urban-location
#8
Lingjing Wang, Cheng Qian, Philipp Kats, Constantine Kontokosta, Stanislav Sobolevsky
While urban systems demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity, many urban planning, economic and political decisions heavily rely on a deep understanding of local neighborhood contexts. We show that the structure of 311 Service Requests enables one possible way of building a unique signature of the local urban context, thus being able to serve as a low-cost decision support tool for urban stakeholders. Considering examples of New York City, Boston and Chicago, we demonstrate how 311 Service Requests recorded and categorized by type in each neighborhood can be utilized to generate a meaningful classification of locations across the city, based on distinctive socioeconomic profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983148/employment-proximity-and-outcomes-for-moving-to-opportunity-families
#9
Michael C Lens, C J Gabbe
The Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration (MTO) randomly assigned housing vouchers to public housing residents in an experimental test of the effect of neighborhood and location on household outcomes. In terms of adult employment outcomes, the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ from the control group. We use MTO data to examine whether spatial proximity to jobs and job growth explains this lack of treatment effect. We first estimate differences in access to jobs and job growth for the 3 MTO groups...
2017: Journal of Urban Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948787/blending-multiple-nitrogen-dioxide-data-sources-for-neighborhood-estimates-of-long-term-exposure-for-health-research
#10
Ivan C Hanigan, Grant J Williamson, Luke D Knibbs, Joshua Horsley, Margaret I Rolfe, Martin Cope, Adrian G Barnett, Christine T Cowie, Jane S Heyworth, Marc L Serre, Bin Jalaludin, Geoffrey G Morgan
Exposure to traffic related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes. Average pollutant concentrations for fixed monitoring sites are often used to estimate exposures for health studies, however these can be imprecise due to difficulty and cost of spatial modeling at the resolution of neighborhoods (e.g., a scale of tens of meters) rather than at a coarse scale (around several kilometers). The objective of this study was to derive improved estimates of neighborhood NO2 concentrations by blending measurements with modeled predictions in Sydney, Australia (a low pollution environment)...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940372/esophagus-segmentation-in-ct-via-3d-fully-convolutional-neural-network-and-random-walk
#11
Tobias Fechter, Sonja Adebahr, Dimos Baltas, Ismail Ben Ayed, Christian Desrosiers, Jose Dolz
PURPOSE: Precise delineation of organs at risk is a crucial task in radiotherapy treatment planning for delivering high doses to the tumor while sparing healthy tissues. In recent years, automated segmentation methods have shown an increasingly high performance for the delineation of various anatomical structures. However, this task remains challenging for organs like the esophagus, which have a versatile shape and poor contrast to neighboring tissues. For human experts, segmenting the esophagus from CT images is a time-consuming and error-prone process...
September 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917207/exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Perry Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Karen Tu, Jeffrey R Brook, Mark S Goldberg, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. METHODS: The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914787/a-sparse-dictionary-learning-based-adaptive-patch-inpainting-method-for-thick-clouds-removal-from-high-spatial-resolution-remote-sensing-imagery
#13
Fan Meng, Xiaomei Yang, Chenghu Zhou, Zhi Li
Cloud cover is inevitable in optical remote sensing (RS) imagery on account of the influence of observation conditions, which limits the availability of RS data. Therefore, it is of great significance to be able to reconstruct the cloud-contaminated ground information. This paper presents a sparse dictionary learning-based image inpainting method for adaptively recovering the missing information corrupted by thick clouds patch-by-patch. A feature dictionary was learned from exemplars in the cloud-free regions, which was later utilized to infer the missing patches via sparse representation...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910696/tissue-microstructure-estimation-using-a-deep-network-inspired-by-a-dictionary-based-framework
#14
Chuyang Ye
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) captures the anisotropic pattern of water displacement in the neuronal tissue and allows noninvasive investigation of the complex tissue microstructure. A number of biophysical models have been proposed to relate the tissue organization with the observed diffusion signals, so that the tissue microstructure can be inferred. The Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model has been a popular choice and has been widely used for many neuroscientific studies...
September 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886546/measuring-urban-tree-loss-dynamics-across-residential-landscapes
#15
Alessandro Ossola, Matthew E Hopton
The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss to decreases in canopy cover. However, this provides little information about location and structural characteristics of trees lost, as well as environmental and social factors affecting tree loss dynamics. This is particularly relevant in residential landscapes where access to residential parcels for field surveys is limited...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870083/socioeconomic-disparities-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-access-to-cancer-treatment-centers
#16
Blake Byron Walker, Nadine Schuurman, Ajit Auluck, Scott A Lear, Miriam Rosin
INTRODUCTION: Both socioeconomic status and travel time to cancer treatment have been associated with treatment choice and patient outcomes. An improved understanding of the relationship between these two dimensions of access may enable cancer control experts to better target patients with poor access, particularly in isolated suburban and rural communities. METHODS: Using geographical information systems, head and neck cancer patients across British Columbia, Canada from 1981 to 2009, were mapped and their travel times to the nearest treatment center at their time of diagnosis were modelled...
July 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858265/spatial-variability-of-geriatric-depression-risk-in-a-high-density-city-a-data-driven-socio-environmental-vulnerability-mapping-approach
#17
Hung Chak Ho, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Ruby Yu, Dan Wang, Jean Woo, Timothy Chi Yui Kwok, Edward Ng
Previous studies found a relationship between geriatric depression and social deprivation. However, most studies did not include environmental factors in the statistical models, introducing a bias to estimate geriatric depression risk because the urban environment was found to have significant associations with mental health. We developed a cross-sectional study with a binomial logistic regression to examine the geriatric depression risk of a high-density city based on five social vulnerability factors and four environmental measures...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847012/accuracy-of-cardiovascular-risk-prediction-varies-by-neighborhood-socioeconomic-position-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Jarrod E Dalton, Adam T Perzynski, David A Zidar, Michael B Rothberg, Claudia J Coulton, Alex T Milinovich, Douglas Einstadter, James K Karichu, Neal V Dawson
Background: Inequality in health outcomes in relation to Americans' socioeconomic position is rising. Objective: First, to evaluate the spatial relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)-related events; second, to evaluate the relative extent to which neighborhood disadvantage and physiologic risk account for neighborhood-level variation in ASCVD event rates. Design: Observational cohort analysis of geocoded longitudinal electronic health records...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840519/neighborhood-disadvantage-is-associated-with-high-cytomegalovirus-seroprevalence-in-pregnancy
#19
Paul M Lantos, Kate Hoffman, Sallie R Permar, Pearce Jackson, Brenna L Hughes, Amy Kind, Geeta Swamy
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of fetal malformations and childhood hearing loss. CMV is more common among socially disadvantaged groups, and geographically clusters in poor communities. The Area Deprivation Index (ADI) is a neighborhood-level index derived from census data that reflects material disadvantage. METHODS: We performed a geospatial analysis to determine if ADI predicts the local odds of CMV seropositivity. We analyzed a dataset of 3527 women who had been tested for CMV antibodies during pregnancy...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833191/exploring-spatially-varying-relationships-between-children-s-lead-poisoning-and-environmental-factors
#20
Liyang Shao, Lianjun Zhang, Zhen Zhen
Children's lead poisoning continues to compromise children's health and development, particularly in the inner cities of the United States. We applied a global Poisson model, a Poisson with random effects model, and a geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) model to deal with the spatial dependence and heterogeneity of the number of children's lead poisoning cases in Syracuse, New York. We used three environmental factors-the building year (i.e., the year of construction) of houses, the town taxable value of houses, and the soil lead concentration-averaged at the census block level to explore the spatially varying relationships between children's lead poisoning and environmental factors...
September 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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