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Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535280/invited-commentary-the-enduring-role-of-place-in-health-a-historic-perspective
#1
Yvette C Cozier
In public health, it has long been observed that "place"-specifically, where one lives-affects individual health, with the main research question distinguishing between the effects of "context" (defined as area characteristics) and "composition" (the characteristics of inhabitants) on health outcomes. There have been many studies in which the spatial patterning of disease has been explored, but they were often ecological in design, used broad census geographic levels, lacked individual-level data, or when available, did not simultaneously analyze community- and individual-level risk factors using appropriate modeling techniques...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529389/effects-of-greening-and-community-reuse-of-vacant-lots-on-crime
#2
Michelle Kondo, Bernadette Hohl, SeungHoon Han, Charles Branas
The Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation initiated a 'Lots of Green' programme to reuse vacant land in 2010. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of the effects of this programme on crime in and around newly treated lots, in comparison to crimes in and around randomly selected and matched, untreated vacant lot controls. The effects of two types of vacant lot treatments on crime were tested: a cleaning and greening 'stabilisation' treatment and a 'community reuse' treatment mostly involving community gardens...
November 2016: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527328/living-in-violence-neighborhood-domestic-violence-and-small-for-gestational-age-births
#3
Erica Felker-Kantor, Maeve Wallace, Katherine Theall
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. METHODS: This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods...
May 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521192/long-term-exposure-to-residential-ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-and-incident-hypertension-in-post-menopausal-women
#4
Trenton Honda, Melissa N Eliot, Charles B Eaton, Eric Whitsel, James D Stewart, Lina Mu, Helen Suh, Adam Szpiro, Joel D Kaufman, Sverre Vedal, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. METHODS: Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM2...
May 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510602/tree-based-approach-for-exploring-marine-spatial-patterns-with-raster-datasets
#5
Xiaohan Liao, Cunjin Xue, Fenzhen Su
From multiple raster datasets to spatial association patterns, the data-mining technique is divided into three subtasks, i.e., raster dataset pretreatment, mining algorithm design, and spatial pattern exploration from the mining results. Comparison with the former two subtasks reveals that the latter remains unresolved. Confronted with the interrelated marine environmental parameters, we propose a Tree-based Approach for eXploring Marine Spatial Patterns with multiple raster datasets called TAXMarSP, which includes two models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481194/primary-rectal-cancer-repeatability-of-global-and-local-regional-mr-imaging-texture-features
#6
Sofia Gourtsoyianni, Georgia Doumou, Davide Prezzi, Benjamin Taylor, J James Stirling, N Jane Taylor, Musib Siddique, Gary J R Cook, Robert Glynne-Jones, Vicky Goh
Purpose To assess the day-to-day repeatability of global and local-regional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging texture features derived from primary rectal cancer. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and patient informed consent were obtained, two pretreatment T2-weighted axial MR imaging studies performed prospectively with the same imaging unit on 2 consecutive days in 14 patients with rectal cancer (11 men [mean age, 61.7 years], three women [mean age, 70.0 years]) were analyzed to extract (a) global first-order statistical histogram and model-based fractal features reflecting the whole-tumor voxel intensity histogram distribution and repeating patterns, respectively, without spatial information and (b) local-regional second-order and high-order statistical texture features reflecting the intensity and spatial interrelationships between adjacent in-plane or multiplanar voxels or regions, respectively...
May 5, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445425/association-of-long-term-near-highway-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-with-cardiovascular-diseases-diabetes-and-hypertension
#7
Yu Li, Kevin J Lane, Laura Corlin, Allison P Patton, John L Durant, Mohan Thanikachalam, Mark Woodin, Molin Wang, Doug Brugge
Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations are elevated near busy roadways, however, their effects on prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are not well understood. To investigate these associations, data on demographics, diseases, medication use, and time of activities were collected by in-home surveys for 704 participants in three pairs of near-highway and urban background neighborhoods in and near Boston (MA, USA). Body mass index (BMI) was measured for a subset of 435 participants...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404541/making-air-pollution-visible-a-tool-for-promoting-environmental-health-literacy
#8
Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Allison P Patton, Hsin-Ching Wu, Alan Xie, Joseph Stubblefield, William Mass, Georges Grinstein, Susan Koch-Weser, Doug Brugge, Carolyn Wong
BACKGROUND: Digital maps are instrumental in conveying information about environmental hazards geographically. For laypersons, computer-based maps can serve as tools to promote environmental health literacy about invisible traffic-related air pollution and ultrafine particles. Concentrations of these pollutants are higher near major roadways and increasingly linked to adverse health effects. Interactive computer maps provide visualizations that can allow users to build mental models of the spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in a community and learn about the risk of exposure in a geographic context...
April 12, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385056/spatial-social-polarization-and-birth-outcomes-preterm-birth-and-infant-mortality-new-york-city-2010-14
#9
M Huynh, J Spasojevic, W Li, G Maduro, G Van Wye, P D Waterman, N Krieger
AIMS: This study assessed the relationship between spatial social polarization measured by the index of the concentration of the extremes (ICE) and preterm birth (PTB) and infant mortality (IM) in New York City. A secondary aim was to examine the ICE measure in comparison to neighborhood poverty. METHODS: The sample included singleton births to adult women in New York City, 2010-2014 ( n=532,806). Three ICE measures were employed at the census tract level: ICE - Income (persons in households in the bottom vs top 20th percentile of US annual household income), ICE -Race/Ethnicity (black non-Hispanic vs white non-Hispanic populations), and ICE - Income + Race/Ethnicity combined...
April 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380130/spatial-temporal-diffusion-of-dengue-in-the-municipality-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2000-2013
#10
Diego Ricardo Xavier, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Renata Gracie, Izabel Cristina Dos Reis, Vanderlei Pascoal de Matos, Christovam Barcellos
The city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, shows high potential receptiveness to the introduction, dissemination, and persistence of dengue transmission. The pattern of territorial occupation in the municipality produced a heterogeneous and diverse mosaic, with differential vector distribution between and within neighborhoods, producing distinct epidemics on this scale of observation. The study seeks to identify these epidemics and the pattern of spatial and temporal diffusion of dengue transmission. A model was used for the identification of epidemics, considering the epidemic peak years and months, spatial distribution, and permanence of epidemics from January 2000 to December 2013...
March 30, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369149/socioeconomic-and-environmental-determinants-of-dengue-transmission-in-an-urban-setting-an-ecological-study-in-noum%C3%A3-a-new-caledonia
#11
Raphaël M Zellweger, Jorge Cano, Morgan Mangeas, François Taglioni, Alizé Mercier, Marc Despinoy, Christophe E Menkès, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Birgit Nikolay, Magali Teurlai
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne virus that causes extensive morbidity and economic loss in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Often present in cities, dengue virus is rapidly spreading due to urbanization, climate change and increased human movements. Dengue cases are often heterogeneously distributed throughout cities, suggesting that small-scale determinants influence dengue urban transmission. A better understanding of these determinants is crucial to efficiently target prevention measures such as vector control and education...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362024/modeling-a-secular-trend-by-monte-carlo-simulation-of-height-biased-migration-in-a-spatial-network
#12
Detlef Groth
Background: In a recent Monte Carlo simulation, the clustering of body height of Swiss military conscripts within a spatial network with characteristic features of the natural Swiss geography was investigated. In this study I examined the effect of migration of tall individuals into network hubs on the dynamics of body height within the whole spatial network. The aim of this study was to simulate height trends. Material and methods: Three networks were used for modeling, a regular rectangular fishing net like network, a real world example based on the geographic map of Switzerland, and a random network...
February 23, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358862/comprehensive-framework-for-visualizing-and-analyzing-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-racial-diversity-in-the-entire-united-states
#13
Anna Dmowska, Tomasz F Stepinski, Pawel Netzel
The United States is increasingly becoming a multi-racial society. To understand multiple consequences of this overall trend to our neighborhoods we need a methodology capable of spatio-temporal analysis of racial diversity at the local level but also across the entire U.S. Furthermore, such methodology should be accessible to stakeholders ranging from analysts to decision makers. In this paper we present a comprehensive framework for visualizing and analyzing diversity data that fulfills such requirements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346484/a-neighborhood-wide-association-study-nwas-example-of-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness
#14
Shannon M Lynch, Nandita Mitra, Michelle Ross, Craig Newcomb, Karl Dailey, Tara Jackson, Charnita M Zeigler-Johnson, Harold Riethman, Charles C Branas, Timothy R Rebbeck
PURPOSE: Cancer results from complex interactions of multiple variables at the biologic, individual, and social levels. Compared to other levels, social effects that occur geospatially in neighborhoods are not as well-studied, and empiric methods to assess these effects are limited. We propose a novel Neighborhood-Wide Association Study(NWAS), analogous to genome-wide association studies(GWAS), that utilizes high-dimensional computing approaches from biology to comprehensively and empirically identify neighborhood factors associated with disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333630/multilinear-spatial-discriminant-analysis-for-dimensionality-reduction
#15
Sen Yuan, Xia Mao, Lijiang Chen
In the last few years, great efforts have been made to extend the linear projection technique (LPT) for multidimensional data (i.e., tensor), generally referred to as the multilinear projection technique (MPT). The vectorized nature of LPT requires high-dimensional data to be converted into vector, and hence may lose spatial neighborhood information of raw data. MPT well addresses this problem by encoding multidimensional data as general tensors of a second or even higher order. In this paper, we propose a novel multilinear projection technique, called multilinear spatial discriminant analysis (MSDA), to identify the underlying manifold of high-order tensor data...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328502/spatial-statistics-for-segmenting-histological-structures-in-h-e-stained-tissue-images
#16
Luong Nguyen, A Burak Tosun, Jeffrey Fine, Adrian Lee, D Lansing Taylor, Chakra Chennubhotla
Segmenting a broad class of histological structures in transmitted light and/or fluorescence-based images is a prerequisite for determining the pathological basis of cancer, elucidating spatial interactions between histological structures in tumor microenvironments (e.g. tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), facilitating precision medicine studies with deep molecular profiling, and providing an exploratory tool for pathologists. Our paper focuses on segmenting histological structures in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images of breast tissues, e...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317230/cortical-surface-based-threshold-free-cluster-enhancement-and-cortexwise-mediation
#17
Tristram A Lett, Lea Waller, Heike Tost, Ilya M Veer, Arash Nazeri, Susanne Erk, Eva J Brandl, Katrin Charlet, Anne Beck, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Anne Jorde, Falk Kiefer, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, M Mallar Chakravarty, Henrik Walter
Threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) is a sensitive means to incorporate spatial neighborhood information in neuroimaging studies without using arbitrary thresholds. The majority of methods have applied TFCE to voxelwise data. The need to understand the relationship among multiple variables and imaging modalities has become critical. We propose a new method of applying TFCE to vertexwise statistical images as well as cortexwise (either voxel- or vertexwise) mediation analysis. Here we present TFCE_mediation, a toolbox that can be used for cortexwise multiple regression analysis with TFCE, and additionally cortexwise mediation using TFCE...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294963/voxel-based-neighborhood-for-spatial-shape-pattern-classification-of-lidar-point-clouds-with-supervised-learning
#18
Victoria Plaza-Leiva, Jose Antonio Gomez-Ruiz, Anthony Mandow, Alfonso García-Cerezo
Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself...
March 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236183/validation-of-a-google-street-view-based-neighborhood-disorder-observational-scale
#19
Miriam Marco, Enrique Gracia, Manuel Martín-Fernández, Antonio López-Quílez
Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing new tools to measure neighborhood features using the benefits of emerging technologies. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a neighborhood disorder observational scale using Google Street View (GSV). Two groups of raters conducted virtual audits of neighborhood disorder on all census block groups (N = 92) in a district of the city of Valencia (Spain). Four different analyses were conducted to validate the instrument. First, inter-rater reliability was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficients, indicating moderated levels of agreement among raters...
April 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225909/tuberculosis-as-a-marker-of-inequities-in-the-context-of-socio-spatial-transformation
#20
Alexandre San Pedro, Gerusa Gibson, Jefferson Pereira Caldas Dos Santos, Luciano Medeiros de Toledo, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Rosely Magalhães de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the association between the incidence of tuberculosis and different socioeconomic indicators in a territory of intense transformation of the urban space. METHODS: This is an ecological study, whose analysis units were the neighborhoods of the city of Itaboraí, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The data have been analyzed by generalized linear models. The response variable was incidence of tuberculosis from 2006 to 2011. The independent variables were the socio-demographic indicators...
February 16, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
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