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Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

Elvis A Akwo, Edmond K Kabagambe, Frank E Harrell, William J Blot, Justin M Bachmann, Thomas J Wang, Deepak K Gupta, Loren Lipworth
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic environment predicts heart failure (HF) hospital readmissions. We investigated whether neighborhood deprivation predicts risk of incident HF beyond individual socioeconomic status in a low-income population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 27 078 whites and blacks recruited during 2002 to 2009 in the SCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study), who had no history of HF and were using Centers for Medicare or Medicaid Services...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Raquel Martins Lana, Maíra Moreira Morais, Tiago França Melo de Lima, Tiago Garcia de Senna Carneiro, Lucas Martins Stolerman, Jefferson Pereira Caldas Dos Santos, José Joaquín Carvajal Cortés, Álvaro Eduardo Eiras, Cláudia Torres Codeço
The goal of this study was to assess the goodness-of-fit of theoretical models of population dynamics of Aedes aegypti to trap data collected by a long term entomological surveillance program. The carrying capacity K of this vector was estimated at city and neighborhood level. Adult mosquito abundance was measured via adults collected weekly by a network of sticky traps (Mosquitraps) from January 2008 to December 2011 in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. K was the only free parameter estimated by the model...
2018: PloS One
Aleksandra J Snowden, Sara Hockin, William Alex Pridemore
The aim of this study was to explore the neighborhood-level association between alcohol outlet density and non-intimate partner violent victimization rates among females. Violent offending and victimization are more prevalent for males than females, and most research on alcohol outlets and violence emphasizes males. Studies that do focus on alcohol outlets and female violent victimization tend to focus on intimate partner violence (IPV), yet non-IPV events are over three quarters of all female violent victimization incidents in the United States...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Markus H Schafer
The onset of disability is believed to undermine social connectedness and raise the risk of social isolation, yet spatial environments are seldom considered in this process. This study examines whether unruly home and neighborhood conditions intensify the association between disability onset and several dimensions of social connectedness. I incorporate longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, which contains environmental evaluations conducted by trained observers ( N = 1,558)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Zhengshi Yang, Xiaowei Zhuang, Karthik Sreenivasan, Virendra Mishra, Tim Curran, Richard Byrd, Rajesh Nandy, Dietmar Cordes
Local spatially-adaptive canonical correlation analysis (local CCA) with spatial constraints has been introduced to fMRI multivariate analysis for improved modeling of activation patterns. However, current algorithms require complicated spatial constraints that have only been applied to 2D local neighborhoods because the computational time would be exponentially increased if the same method is applied to 3D spatial neighborhoods. In this study, an efficient and accurate line search sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm has been developed to efficiently solve the 3D local CCA problem with spatial constraints...
December 14, 2017: NeuroImage
Joan A Casey, Peter James, Lara Cushing, Bill M Jesdale, Rachel Morello-Frosch
Background: Cross-sectional studies suggest urban greenness is unequally distributed by neighborhood demographics. However, the extent to which inequalities in greenness have changed over time remains unknown. Methods: We estimated 2001 and 2011 greenness using Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) in 59,483 urban census tracts in the contiguous U.S. We fit spatial error models to estimate the association between baseline census tract demographic composition in 2000 and (1) 2001 greenness and (2) change in greenness between 2001 and 2011...
December 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael J Wester, Jia Lin, Aaron K Neumann
Candida albicans is a virulent human opportunistic pathogen. It evades innate immune surveillance by masking an immunogenic cell wall polysaccharide, β-glucan, from recognition by the immunoreceptor Dectin-1. Glucan unmasking by the antifungal drug caspofungin leads to changes in the nanostructure of glucan exposure accessible to Dectin-1. The physical mechanism that regulates glucan exposure is poorly understood, but it controls the nanobiology of fungal pathogen recognition. We created computational models to simulate hypothetical physical processes of unmasking glucan in a biologically realistic distribution of cell wall glucan fibrils...
2017: PloS One
Séverine Deguen, Manon Padilla, Cindy Padilla, Wahida Kihal-Talantikite
Background: Despite improvements, air pollution still remains a major public health issue. Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure based on modeled measures, but only a few have considered the health impact of perceived air quality. Improving our knowledge of individual perceptions is crucial to defining targeted actions and promoting appropriate intervention measures. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between subjective and objective measures of air pollution and to focus on how individual characteristics combined with the neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation index, measured at a fine spatial scale, may or may not alter this relationship...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yingchi Mao, Hai Qi, Ping Ping, Xiaofang Li
Time series data of multiple water quality parameters are obtained from the water sensor networks deployed in the agricultural water supply network. The accurate and efficient detection and warning of contamination events to prevent pollution from spreading is one of the most important issues when pollution occurs. In order to comprehensively reduce the event detection deviation, a spatial-temporal-based event detection approach with multivariate time-series data for water quality monitoring (M-STED) was proposed...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
Chuyang Ye, Jerry L Prince
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has enabled in vivo investigation of white matter tracts. Fiber orientation (FO) estimation is a key step in tract reconstruction and has been a popular research topic in dMRI analysis. In particular, the sparsity assumption has been used in conjunction with a dictionary-based framework to achieve reliable FO estimation with a reduced number of gradient directions. Because image noise can have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of FO estimation, previous works have incorporated spatial consistency of FOs in the dictionary-based framework to improve the estimation...
November 23, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
Timnit Gebru, Jonathan Krause, Yilun Wang, Duyun Chen, Jia Deng, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Li Fei-Fei
The United States spends more than $250 million each year on the American Community Survey (ACS), a labor-intensive door-to-door study that measures statistics relating to race, gender, education, occupation, unemployment, and other demographic factors. Although a comprehensive source of data, the lag between demographic changes and their appearance in the ACS can exceed several years. As digital imagery becomes ubiquitous and machine vision techniques improve, automated data analysis may become an increasingly practical supplement to the ACS...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ivan C Hanigan, Thomas Cochrane, Rachel Davey
BACKGROUND: There are numerous studies that show an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease with increasing levels of socio-economic disadvantage. Exposures that might influence the relationship include elements of the built environment and social systems that shape lifestyle risk behaviors. In Canberra (the Australian capital city) there has been a particular housing policy to create 'mixed-tenure' neighborhoods so that small pockets of disadvantage are surrounded by more affluent residences (known as a 'salt-and-pepper' pattern)...
2017: PloS One
Matthew D Phelps, Andrew S Azman, Joseph A Lewnard, Marina Antillón, Lone Simonsen, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K M Jensen, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Planning interventions to respond to cholera epidemics requires an understanding of the major transmission routes. Interrupting short-cycle (household, foodborne) transmission may require different approaches as compared long-cycle (environmentally-mediated/waterborne) transmission. However, differentiating the relative contribution of short- and long-cycle routes has remained difficult, and most cholera outbreak control efforts focus on interrupting long-cycle transmission...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rahul Goel, Parth Jain, Geetam Tiwari
Pedestrians, cyclists, and users of motorised two-wheelers account for more than 85% of all the road fatality victims in Delhi. The three categories are often referred to as vulnerable road users (VRUs). Using Bayesian hierarchical approach with a Poisson-lognormal regression model, we present spatial analysis of road fatalities of VRUs with wards as areal units. The model accounts for spatially uncorrelated as well as correlated error. The explanatory variables include demographic factors, traffic characteristics, as well as built environment features...
November 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Heather Moody, Sue C Grady
Objective: The purpose of this research is to geographically model airborne lead emission concentrations and total lead deposition in the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA) from 2006 to 2013. Further, this study characterizes the racial and socioeconomic composition of recipient neighborhoods and estimates the potential for IQ (Intelligence Quotient) loss of children residing there. Methods: Lead emissions were modeled from emitting facilities in the DMA using AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model)...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elizabeth L Tung, Kathleen A Cagney, Monica E Peek, Marshall H Chin
Intimate connections among race, place, and poverty are increasingly featured in the health disparities literature. However, few models exist that can guide our understanding of these interconnections. We build on the Chicago School of Sociology's contributions in urban research and one of its contemporary elaborations, often described as the "neighborhood effects approach," to propose a three-axis model of health inequity. This model, in alignment with Chicago School theory, postulates a dynamic and adaptive relationship between spatial context and health inequity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Bryndís Marteinsdóttir, Kristín Svavarsdóttir, Thóra Ellen Thórhallsdóttir
Initial plant establishment is one of the most critical phases in ecosystem development, where an early suite of physical (environmental filtering), biological (seed limitation, species interactions) and stochastic factors may affect successional trajectories and rates. While functional traits are commonly used to study processes that influence plant community assembly in late successional communities, few studies have applied them to primary succession. The objective here was to determine the importance of these factors in shaping early plant community assembly on a glacial outwash plain, Skeiðarársandur, in SE Iceland using a trait based approach...
November 9, 2017: Ecology
Lukasz A Sterczewski, Kacper Nowak, Boguslaw Szlachetko, Michal P Grzelczak, Berenika Szczesniak-Siega, Stanislawa Plinska, Wieslaw Malinka, Edward F Plinski
In this paper we discuss the link between the domain of physical parameters - molecular descriptors of a drug, and terahertz (THz) spectra. We measured the derivatives of the well-known anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam using THz spectroscopy and employed Principal Component Analysis to build similarity maps in the molecular descriptor and spectral domains. We observed, that the spatial neighborhood on the molecular descriptors map is highly correlated with the spectral neighbourhood within a group of structurally-similar molecules...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lyndsay N Boggess
Prior research has found that racial/ethnic change and residential instability are positively related to neighborhood crime. However, the process of racial/ethnic change differentially influences crime above and beyond residential instability. While both processes affect crime through the disruption of existing social ties, racial/ethnic change has additional consequences for crime by heightening racial/ethnic tensions and undercutting cross-group interactions. This means racial/ethnic change is a different process than residential instability, and suggests that neighborhoods experiencing high rates of instability and high rates of racial/ethnic change may be particularly susceptible to crime...
November 2017: Social Science Research
Mingsheng Chen, Qingguang Yan, Mingxin Qin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Image segmentation is a preliminary and fundamental step in computer aided magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images analysis. But the performance of most current image segmentation methods is easily depreciated by noise in MRI images. A precise and anti-noise segmentation of MRI images is desired in modern medical image diagnosis. METHODS: This paper presents a segmentation of MRI images which combines fuzzy clustering and Markov random field (MRF)...
October 26, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
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