Read by QxMD icon Read

Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

Zhiliang Yuan, Boliang Wei, Yun Chen, Hongru Jia, Qingning Wei, Yongzhong Ye
Congeneric species often have similar ecological characteristics and use similar resources. These similarities may make it easier for them to co-occur in a similar habitat but may also lead to strong competitions that limit their coexistence. Hence, how do similarities in congeneric species affect their coexistence exactly? This study mainly used spatial point pattern analysis in two 1 hm2 plots in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Henan, China, to compare the similarities in spatial distributions and interspecific associations of Quercus species...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Lauren P Grant, Chris Gennings, Edmond P Wickham, Derek Chapman, Shumei Sun, David C Wheeler
In public health research, it has been well established that geographic location plays an important role in influencing health outcomes. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the impact of neighborhood or contextual factors as potential risk factors for childhood obesity. Some neighborhood factors relevant to childhood obesity include access to food sources, access to recreational facilities, neighborhood safety, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables. It is common for neighborhood or area-level variables to be available at multiple spatial scales (SS) or geographic units, such as the census block group and census tract, and selection of the spatial scale for area-level variables can be considered as a model selection problem...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ting-Wu Chuang, Ka-Chon Ng, Thi Luong Nguyen, Luis Fernando Chaves
The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yingqi Guo, Shu-Sen Chang, Feng Sha, Paul S F Yip
Previous investigations of geographic concentration of urban poverty indicate the contribution of a variety of factors, such as economic restructuring and class-based segregation, racial segregation, demographic structure, and public policy. However, the models used by most past research do not consider the possibility that poverty concentration may take different forms in different locations across a city, and most studies have been conducted in Western settings. We investigated the spatial patterning of neighborhood poverty and its correlates in Hong Kong, which is amongst cities with the highest GDP in the region, using the city-wide ordinary least square (OLS) regression model and the local-specific geographically weighted regression (GWR) model...
2018: PloS One
Christopher R Browning, Catherine A Calder, Bethany Boettner, Anna Smith
Drawing on Jacobs (1961), we hypothesize that public contact among neighborhood residents while engaged in day-to-day routines, captured by the aggregate network structure of shared local exposure, is consequential for crime. Neighborhoods in which residents come into contact more extensively in the course of conventional routines will exhibit higher levels of public familiarity, trust, and collective efficacy with implications for the informal social control of crime. We employ the concept of ecological ("eco-") networks - networks linking households within neighborhoods through shared activity locations - to formalize the notion of overlapping routines...
November 2017: Criminology; An Interdisciplinary Journal
Joseph Gibbons, Tse-Chuan Yang
An ongoing obstacle in dealing with minority health disparities is discriminatory behavior from healthcare practitioners, also known as medical discrimination. It is not clear, however, if the effects of medical discriminations onto health are constant across space. For example, there is evidence to suspect minorities in racially segregated neighborhoods suffer less from discrimination compared to those living elsewhere. To determine the presence of spatial heterogeneity underlying medical discrimination, we implement logistic geographically weighted regression (GWR) using individual data in the city of Philadelphia from the 2006 and 2008 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Surveys...
March 2018: Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy
Jorge Velázquez-Castro, Andrés Anzo-Hernández, Beatriz Bonilla-Capilla, Moisés Soto-Bajo, Andrés Fraguela-Collar
There are economic and physical limitations when applying prevention and control strategies for urban vector borne diseases. Consequently, there are increasing concerns and interest in designing efficient strategies and regulations that health agencies can follow in order to reduce the imminent impact of viruses like Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. That includes fumigation, abatization, reducing the hatcheries, picking up trash, information campaigns. A basic question that arise when designing control strategies is about which and where these ones should focus...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hui Luan, Jane Law, Martin Lysy
Neighborhood restaurant environment (NRE) plays a vital role in shaping residents' eating behaviors. While NRE 'healthfulness' is a multi-facet concept, most studies evaluate it based only on restaurant type, thus largely ignoring variations of in-restaurant features. In the few studies that do account for such features, healthfulness scores are simply averaged over accessible restaurants, thereby concealing any uncertainty that attributed to neighborhoods' size or spatial correlation. To address these limitations, this paper presents a Bayesian Spatial Factor Analysis for assessing NRE healthfulness in the city of Kitchener, Canada...
February 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
May A Beydoun, Sharmin Hossain, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Hind A Beydoun, Jose-Atilio Canas, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
Context: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary and supplemental vitamin D may influence cognitive outcomes. Objectives: Sex/age-specific and race-specific associations of vitamin D status and intake were examined with longitudinal change in various cognitive domains in a large sample of ethnically and socio-economically diverse US urban adults. Design: Two prospective waves of data from Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study were used...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kamyar Mansori, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi, Ali Ganbary Motlagh, Masoud Salehi, Alireza Delavari, Mohsen Asadi-Lari
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the spatial distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran using Bayesian spatial models. Methods: This ecological study was implemented in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Socioeconomic variables, risk factors, and health costs were extracted from the Equity Assessment Study conducted in Tehran. The data on CRC incidence were extracted from the Iranian population-based cancer registry...
January 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Ozgur Aydogmus
The classical idea of evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) modeling animal behavior does not involve any spatial dependence. We considered a spatial Hawk-Dove game played by animals in a patchy environment with wrap around boundaries. We posit that each site contains the same number of individuals. An evolution equation for analyzing the stability of the ESS is found as the mean dynamics of the classical frequency dependent Moran process coupled via migration and nonlocal payoff calculation in 1D and 2D habitats...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Elvis A Akwo, Edmond K Kabagambe, Frank E Harrell, William J Blot, Justin M Bachmann, Thomas J Wang, Deepak K Gupta, Loren Lipworth
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic environment predicts heart failure (HF) hospital readmissions. We investigated whether neighborhood deprivation predicts risk of incident HF beyond individual socioeconomic status in a low-income population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 27 078 whites and blacks recruited during 2002 to 2009 in the SCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study), who had no history of HF and were using Centers for Medicare or Medicaid Services...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Raquel Martins Lana, Maíra Moreira Morais, Tiago França Melo de Lima, Tiago Garcia de Senna Carneiro, Lucas Martins Stolerman, Jefferson Pereira Caldas Dos Santos, José Joaquín Carvajal Cortés, Álvaro Eduardo Eiras, Cláudia Torres Codeço
The goal of this study was to assess the goodness-of-fit of theoretical models of population dynamics of Aedes aegypti to trap data collected by a long term entomological surveillance program. The carrying capacity K of this vector was estimated at city and neighborhood level. Adult mosquito abundance was measured via adults collected weekly by a network of sticky traps (Mosquitraps) from January 2008 to December 2011 in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. K was the only free parameter estimated by the model...
2018: PloS One
Aleksandra J Snowden, Sara Hockin, William Alex Pridemore
The aim of this study was to explore the neighborhood-level association between alcohol outlet density and non-intimate partner violent victimization rates among females. Violent offending and victimization are more prevalent for males than females, and most research on alcohol outlets and violence emphasizes males. Studies that do focus on alcohol outlets and female violent victimization tend to focus on intimate partner violence (IPV), yet non-IPV events are over three quarters of all female violent victimization incidents in the United States...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Markus H Schafer
The onset of disability is believed to undermine social connectedness and raise the risk of social isolation, yet spatial environments are seldom considered in this process. This study examines whether unruly home and neighborhood conditions intensify the association between disability onset and several dimensions of social connectedness. I incorporate longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, which contains environmental evaluations conducted by trained observers ( N = 1,558)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Zhengshi Yang, Xiaowei Zhuang, Karthik Sreenivasan, Virendra Mishra, Tim Curran, Richard Byrd, Rajesh Nandy, Dietmar Cordes
Local spatially-adaptive canonical correlation analysis (local CCA) with spatial constraints has been introduced to fMRI multivariate analysis for improved modeling of activation patterns. However, current algorithms require complicated spatial constraints that have only been applied to 2D local neighborhoods because the computational time would be exponentially increased if the same method is applied to 3D spatial neighborhoods. In this study, an efficient and accurate line search sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm has been developed to efficiently solve the 3D local CCA problem with spatial constraints...
December 14, 2017: NeuroImage
Joan A Casey, Peter James, Lara Cushing, Bill M Jesdale, Rachel Morello-Frosch
Background: Cross-sectional studies suggest urban greenness is unequally distributed by neighborhood demographics. However, the extent to which inequalities in greenness have changed over time remains unknown. Methods: We estimated 2001 and 2011 greenness using Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) in 59,483 urban census tracts in the contiguous U.S. We fit spatial error models to estimate the association between baseline census tract demographic composition in 2000 and (1) 2001 greenness and (2) change in greenness between 2001 and 2011...
December 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael J Wester, Jia Lin, Aaron K Neumann
Candida albicans is a virulent human opportunistic pathogen. It evades innate immune surveillance by masking an immunogenic cell wall polysaccharide, β-glucan, from recognition by the immunoreceptor Dectin-1. Glucan unmasking by the antifungal drug caspofungin leads to changes in the nanostructure of glucan exposure accessible to Dectin-1. The physical mechanism that regulates glucan exposure is poorly understood, but it controls the nanobiology of fungal pathogen recognition. We created computational models to simulate hypothetical physical processes of unmasking glucan in a biologically realistic distribution of cell wall glucan fibrils...
2017: PloS One
Séverine Deguen, Manon Padilla, Cindy Padilla, Wahida Kihal-Talantikite
Background : Despite improvements, air pollution still remains a major public health issue. Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure based on modeled measures, but only a few have considered the health impact of perceived air quality. Improving our knowledge of individual perceptions is crucial to defining targeted actions and promoting appropriate intervention measures. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between subjective and objective measures of air pollution and to focus on how individual characteristics combined with the neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation index, measured at a fine spatial scale, may or may not alter this relationship...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yingchi Mao, Hai Qi, Ping Ping, Xiaofang Li
Time series data of multiple water quality parameters are obtained from the water sensor networks deployed in the agricultural water supply network. The accurate and efficient detection and warning of contamination events to prevent pollution from spreading is one of the most important issues when pollution occurs. In order to comprehensively reduce the event detection deviation, a spatial-temporal-based event detection approach with multivariate time-series data for water quality monitoring (M-STED) was proposed...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"