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Neighborhood AND spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917207/exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Perry Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Karen Tu, Jeffrey R Brook, Mark S Goldberg, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. METHODS: The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914787/a-sparse-dictionary-learning-based-adaptive-patch-inpainting-method-for-thick-clouds-removal-from-high-spatial-resolution-remote-sensing-imagery
#2
Fan Meng, Xiaomei Yang, Chenghu Zhou, Zhi Li
Cloud cover is inevitable in optical remote sensing (RS) imagery on account of the influence of observation conditions, which limits the availability of RS data. Therefore, it is of great significance to be able to reconstruct the cloud-contaminated ground information. This paper presents a sparse dictionary learning-based image inpainting method for adaptively recovering the missing information corrupted by thick clouds patch-by-patch. A feature dictionary was learned from exemplars in the cloud-free regions, which was later utilized to infer the missing patches via sparse representation...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910696/tissue-microstructure-estimation-using-a-deep-network-inspired-by-a-dictionary-based-framework
#3
Chuyang Ye
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) captures the anisotropic pattern of water displacement in the neuronal tissue and allows noninvasive investigation of the complex tissue microstructure. A number of biophysical models have been proposed to relate the tissue organization with the observed diffusion signals, so that the tissue microstructure can be inferred. The Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model has been a popular choice and has been widely used for many neuroscientific studies...
September 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886546/measuring-urban-tree-loss-dynamics-across-residential-landscapes
#4
Alessandro Ossola, Matthew E Hopton
The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss to decreases in canopy cover. However, this provides little information about location and structural characteristics of trees lost, as well as environmental and social factors affecting tree loss dynamics. This is particularly relevant in residential landscapes where access to residential parcels for field surveys is limited...
September 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870083/socioeconomic-disparities-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-access-to-cancer-treatment-centers
#5
Blake Byron Walker, Nadine Schuurman, Ajit Auluck, Scott A Lear, Miriam Rosin
INTRODUCTION: Both socioeconomic status and travel time to cancer treatment have been associated with treatment choice and patient outcomes. An improved understanding of the relationship between these two dimensions of access may enable cancer control experts to better target patients with poor access, particularly in isolated suburban and rural communities. METHODS: Using geographical information systems, head and neck cancer patients across British Columbia, Canada from 1981 to 2009, were mapped and their travel times to the nearest treatment center at their time of diagnosis were modelled...
July 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858265/spatial-variability-of-geriatric-depression-risk-in-a-high-density-city-a-data-driven-socio-environmental-vulnerability-mapping-approach
#6
Hung Chak Ho, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Ruby Yu, Dan Wang, Jean Woo, Timothy Chi Yui Kwok, Edward Ng
Previous studies found a relationship between geriatric depression and social deprivation. However, most studies did not include environmental factors in the statistical models, introducing a bias to estimate geriatric depression risk because the urban environment was found to have significant associations with mental health. We developed a cross-sectional study with a binomial logistic regression to examine the geriatric depression risk of a high-density city based on five social vulnerability factors and four environmental measures...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847012/accuracy-of-cardiovascular-risk-prediction-varies-by-neighborhood-socioeconomic-position-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Jarrod E Dalton, Adam T Perzynski, David A Zidar, Michael B Rothberg, Claudia J Coulton, Alex T Milinovich, Douglas Einstadter, James K Karichu, Neal V Dawson
Background: Inequality in health outcomes in relation to Americans' socioeconomic position is rising. Objective: First, to evaluate the spatial relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)-related events; second, to evaluate the relative extent to which neighborhood disadvantage and physiologic risk account for neighborhood-level variation in ASCVD event rates. Design: Observational cohort analysis of geocoded longitudinal electronic health records...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840519/neighborhood-disadvantage-is-associated-with-high-cytomegalovirus-seroprevalence-in-pregnancy
#8
Paul M Lantos, Kate Hoffman, Sallie R Permar, Pearce Jackson, Brenna L Hughes, Amy Kind, Geeta Swamy
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of fetal malformations and childhood hearing loss. CMV is more common among socially disadvantaged groups, and geographically clusters in poor communities. The Area Deprivation Index (ADI) is a neighborhood-level index derived from census data that reflects material disadvantage. METHODS: We performed a geospatial analysis to determine if ADI predicts the local odds of CMV seropositivity. We analyzed a dataset of 3527 women who had been tested for CMV antibodies during pregnancy...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833191/exploring-spatially-varying-relationships-between-children-s-lead-poisoning-and-environmental-factors
#9
Liyang Shao, Lianjun Zhang, Zhen Zhen
Children's lead poisoning continues to compromise children's health and development, particularly in the inner cities of the United States. We applied a global Poisson model, a Poisson with random effects model, and a geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) model to deal with the spatial dependence and heterogeneity of the number of children's lead poisoning cases in Syracuse, New York. We used three environmental factors-the building year (i.e., the year of construction) of houses, the town taxable value of houses, and the soil lead concentration-averaged at the census block level to explore the spatially varying relationships between children's lead poisoning and environmental factors...
August 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821371/at-the-intersection-of-place-race-and-health-in-brazil-residential-segregation-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#10
Sharrelle Barber, Ana V Diez Roux, Letícia Cardoso, Simone Santos, Veronica Toste, Sherman James, Sandhi Barreto, Maria Schmidt, Luana Giatti, Dora Chor
Residential segregation is the spatial manifestation of entrenched socioeconomic and racial inequities and is considered a fundamental cause of racial inequalities in health. Despite the well-documented racialized spatial inequalities that exist in urban areas throughout Brazil, few empirical investigations have examined the link between residential segregation and health and considered its implications for racial health inequalities in this setting. In the present study, we used data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (2008-2010) to examine the association between economic residential segregation and two major cardio-metabolic risk factors-hypertension and diabetes...
May 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816679/adaptive-unknown-input-estimation-by-sliding-modes-and-differential-neural-network-observer
#11
Ivan Salgado, Isaac Chairez
In this paper, a differential neural network (DNN) implemented as a robust observer estimates the dynamics of perturbed uncertain nonlinear systems affected by exogenous unknown inputs. In the first stage, the identification error converges into a neighborhood around the origin. Then, the second-order sliding mode supertwisting algorithm implemented as a robust exact differentiator reconstructed the unknown inputs. The approach proposed in this paper can be applied in the case of full access to the state vector (identification problem) and in the case of partial access to the state vector (estimation problem)...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815452/-18-f-fdg-pet-radiomics-approaches-comparing-and-clustering-features-in-cervical-cancer
#12
Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Tasmiah Rahman, Makoto Yamamoto, Shizuka Yamada, Hideaki Tsuyoshi, Yasushi Kiyono, Hirohiko Kimura, Yoshio Yoshida, Hidehiko Okazawa
OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to find the textural features on (18)F-FDG PET/CT which reflect the different histological architectures between cervical cancer subtypes and to make a visual assessment of the association between (18)F-FDG PET textural features in cervical cancer. METHODS: Eighty-three cervical cancer patients [62 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 21 non-SCCs (NSCCs)] who had undergone pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images, from which 18 PET radiomics features were extracted including first-order features such as standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), second- and high-order textural features using SUV histogram, normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774168/exploring-neighborhood-inequality-in-female-breast-cancer-incidence-in-tehran-using-bayesian-spatial-models-and-a-spatial-scan-statistic
#13
Erfan Ayubi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Ali Ghanbari Motlagh, Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi, Ali Hosseini, Kamran Yazdani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC) incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770059/conspecific-density-dependence-and-community-structure-insights-from-11%C3%A2-years-of-monitoring-in-an-old-growth-temperate-forest-in-northeast-china
#14
Xu Kuang, Kai Zhu, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Xugao Wang, Yunyun Wang, Zhanqing Hao
Forest community structure may be influenced by seedling density dependence, however, the effect is loosely coupled with population dynamics and diversity in the short term. In the long term the strength of conspecific density dependence may fluctuate over time because of seedling abundance, yet few long-term studies exist. Based on 11 years of seedling census data and tree census data from a 25-ha temperate forest plot in Northeast China, we used generalized linear mixed models to test the relative effects of local neighborhood density and abiotic factors on seedling density and seedling survival...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746975/breeding-habitat-selection-across-spatial-scales-is-grass-always-greener-on-the-other-side
#15
Paul Acker, Aurélien Besnard, Jean-Yves Monnat, Emmanuelle Cam
Habitat selection theory predicts that natural selection should favor mechanisms allowing individuals to choose habitats associated with the highest fitness prospects. However, identifying sources of information on habitat quality that individuals use to choose their breeding habitat has proved to be difficult. It has also proven difficult to identify dispersal costs that prevent individuals from joining the highest-quality sites. A synthesis that integrates dispersal costs and habitat selection mechanisms across space has remained elusive...
July 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743563/high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution-anthropogenic-heat-discharge-estimation-in-los-angeles-county-california
#16
Yuanfan Zheng, Qihao Weng
Anthropogenic heat flux (Qf), which originates through energy consumption from buildings, industrial plants, vehicle exhausts, and human metabolism releases, is an important component in the urban Surface Energy Balance (SEB) system, and is key to understanding of many urban environmental issues. The present study provided a hybrid Qf modeling approach, which combined the inventory and GIS approach to create a 365-day hourly Qf profile at 120 m spatial resolution in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Qf was estimated by separate calculation of heat release from buildings, traffics, and human metabolism, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716208/spatial-dynamics-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-ped-spread-in-the-southern-kyushu-japan
#17
Yosuke Sasaki, Haruya Toyomaki, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Masuo Sueyoshi, Kohei Makita, Satoshi Otake, Andres Perez, Julio Alvarez
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) was detected for the first time in seven years in Japan in October 2013 in Okinawa Prefecture. By December 2013, PED had spread into Miyazaki and Kagoshima Prefectures in the southern part of Kyushu, one of the regions with the highest farm density in the country. The objective of the study here was to assess the spatial dynamics of PED spread during the 8 months of the epidemic in the southern part of Kyushu between December 2013, the month observed first case in the studied region, and July 2014...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709291/continuous-variable-approach-to-the-spectral-properties-and-quantum-states-of-the-two-component-bose-hubbard-dimer
#18
F Lingua, V Penna
A bosonic gas formed by two interacting species trapped in a double-well potential features macroscopic localization effects when the interspecies interaction becomes sufficiently strong. A repulsive interaction spatially separates the species into different wells while an attractive interaction confines both species in the same well. We perform a fully analytic study of the transitions from the weak- to the strong-interaction regime by exploiting the semiclassical method in which boson populations are represented in terms of continuous variables...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699334/characterizing-cross-subject-spatial-interaction-patterns-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-a-two-stage-point-process-model
#19
Adél Lee, Aila Särkkä, Tara M Madhyastha, Thomas J Grabowski
We develop a two-stage spatial point process model that introduces new characterizations of activation patterns in multisubject functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies. Conventionally multisubject fMRI methods rely on combining information across subjects one voxel at a time in order to identify locations of peak activation in the brain. The two-stage model that we develop here addresses shortcomings of standard methods by explicitly modeling the spatial structure of functional signals and recognizing that corresponding cross-subject functional signals can be spatially misaligned...
July 12, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696688/convolutional-embedding-of-attributed-molecular-graphs-for-physical-property-prediction
#20
Connor W Coley, Regina Barzilay, William H Green, Tommi S Jaakkola, Klavs F Jensen
The task of learning an expressive molecular representation is central to developing quantitative structure-activity and property relationships. Traditional approaches rely on group additivity rules, empirical measurements or parameters, or generation of thousands of descriptors. In this paper, we employ a convolutional neural network for this embedding task by treating molecules as undirected graphs with attributed nodes and edges. Simple atom and bond attributes are used to construct atom-specific feature vectors that take into account the local chemical environment using different neighborhood radii...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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