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Spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732401/can-brook-trout-survive-climate-change-in-large-rivers-if-it-rains
#1
Eric R Merriam, Rodrigo Fernandez, J Todd Petty, Nicolas Zegre
We provide an assessment of thermal characteristics and climate change vulnerability for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitats in the upper Shavers Fork sub-watershed, West Virginia. Spatial and temporal (2001-2015) variability in observed summer (6/1-8/31) stream temperatures was quantified in 23 (9 tributary, 14 main-stem) reaches. We developed a mixed effects model to predict site-specific mean daily stream temperature from air temperature and discharge and coupled this model with a hydrologic model to predict future (2016-2100) changes in stream temperature under low (RCP 4...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732398/simulation-of-targeted-pollutant-mitigation-strategies-to-reduce-nitrate-and-sediment-hotspots-in-agricultural-watershed
#2
Awoke Dagnew Teshager, Philip W Gassman, Silvia Secchi, Justin T Schoof
About 50% of U.S. water pollution problems are caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients from agricultural areas, despite the widespread implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). However, the effectiveness of implementation strategies and type of BMPs at watershed scale are still not well understood. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological model was used to assess the effectiveness of pollutant mitigation strategies in the Raccoon River watershed (RRW) in west-central Iowa, USA...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732174/spatial-organization-of-fibroblast-and-spermatocyte-nuclei-with-different-b-chromosome-content-in-korean-field-mouse-i-apodemus-peninsulae-i-rodentia-muridae
#3
Tatyana V Karamysheva, Anna A Torgasheva, Yaroslav R Yefremov, Anton G Bogomolov, Thomas Liehr, Pavel M Borodin, Nikolay B Rubtsov
Korean field mouse (<i>Apodemus peninsulae</i>) shows a wide variation in the number of B chromosomes composed of constitutive heterochromatin. For this reason, it provides a good model to study the influence of the number of centromeres and amount of heterochromatin on spatial organization of interphase nuclei. We analyzed the three-dimensional organization of fibroblast and spermatocyte nuclei of the field mice carrying different number of B chromosomes using laser scanning microscopy and 3D fluorescence <i>in situ</i> hybridization...
July 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#4
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731892/racial-differences-in-geographic-access-to-medical-care-as-measured-by-patient-report-and-geographic-information-systems
#5
Michelle S Wong, David T Grande, Nandita Mitra, Archana Radhakrishnan, Charles C Branas, Katelyn R Ward, Craig E Pollack
BACKGROUND: Geographic access-the travel burden required to reach medical care-is an important aspect of care. Studies, which typically rely on geographic information system (GIS) calculated travel times, have found some evidence of racial disparities in spatial access to care. However, the validity of these studies depends on the accuracy of travel times by patient race. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there are racial differences when comparing patient-reported and GIS-calculated travel times...
July 20, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731794/a-neutral-model-for-the-evolution-of-diet-breadth
#6
Matthew L Forister, Stephen H Jenkins
Variation in diet breadth among organisms is a pervasive feature of the natural world that has resisted general explanation. In particular, trade-offs in the ability to use one resource at the expense of another have been expected but rarely detected. We explore a spatial model for the evolution of specialization, motivated by studies of plant-feeding insects. The model is neutral with respect to the causes and consequences of diet breadth: the number of hosts utilized is not constrained by trade-offs, and specialization or generalization does not confer a direct advantage with respect to the persistence of populations or the probability of diversification...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731793/phylogeny-traits-and-biodiversity-of-a-neotropical-bat-assemblage-close-relatives-show-similar-responses-to-local-deforestation
#7
Hannah K Frank, Luke O Frishkoff, Chase D Mendenhall, Gretchen C Daily, Elizabeth A Hadly
If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731748/characterizing-time-irreversibility-in-disordered-fermionic-systems-by-the-effect-of-local-perturbations
#8
Shreya Vardhan, Giuseppe De Tomasi, Markus Heyl, Eric J Heller, Frank Pollmann
We study the effects of local perturbations on the dynamics of disordered fermionic systems in order to characterize time irreversibility. We focus on three different systems: the noninteracting Anderson and Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) models and the interacting spinless disordered t-V chain. First, we consider the effect on the full many-body wave functions by measuring the Loschmidt echo (LE). We show that in the extended or ergodic phase the LE decays exponentially fast with time, while in the localized phase the decay is algebraic...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731101/selective-molecular-annealing-in-situ-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-study-of-microwave-assisted-annealing-of-block-copolymers
#9
Daniel T W Toolan, Kevin Adlington, Anna Isakova, Alexis Kalamiotis, Parvaneh Mokarian-Tabari, Georgios Dimitrakis, Christopher Dodds, Thomas Arnold, Nick J Terrill, Wim Bras, Daniel Hermida Merino, Paul D Topham, Derek J Irvine, Jonathan R Howse
Microwave annealing has emerged as an alternative to traditional thermal annealing approaches for optimising block copolymer self-assembly. A novel sample environment enabling small angle X-ray scattering to be performed in situ during microwave annealing is demonstrated, which has enabled, for the first time, the direct study of the effects of microwave annealing upon the self-assembly behavior of a model, commercial triblock copolymer system [polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-polystyrene]...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730814/persistent-urban-influence-on-surface-water-quality-via-impacted-groundwater
#10
Rachel S Gabor, Steven J Hall, David Eiriksson, Yusuf Jameel, Mallory Millington, Trinity Stout, Michelle L Barnes, Andrew Gelderloos, Hyrum Tennant, Gabriel J Bowen, Bethany T Neilson, Paul D Brooks
Growing urban environments stress hydrologic systems and impact downstream water quality. We examined a third-order catchment that transitions from an undisturbed mountain environment into urban Salt Lake City, Utah. We performed synoptic surveys during a range of seasonal baseflow conditions and utilized multiple lines of evidence to identify mechanisms by which urbanization impacts water quality. Surface water chemistry did not change appreciably until several kilometers into the urban environment, where concentrations of solutes such as chloride and nitrate increase quickly in a gaining reach...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729901/aptamer-functionalized-neural-recording-electrodes-for-the-direct-measurement-of-cocaine-in-vivo
#11
I Mitch Taylor, Zhanhong Du, Emma T Bigelow, James R Eles, Anthony R Horner, Kasey A Catt, Stephen G Weber, Brian G Jamieson, X Tracy Cui
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that acts through competitive inhibition of the dopamine transporter. In order to fully understand the region specific neuropathology of cocaine abuse and addiction, it is unequivocally necessary to develop cocaine sensing technology capable of directly measuring real-time cocaine transient events local to different brain regions throughout the pharmacokinetic time course of exposure. We have developed an electrochemical aptamer-based in vivo cocaine sensor on a silicon based neural recording probe platform capable of directly measuring cocaine from discrete brain locations using square wave voltammetry (SWV)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729748/on-flare-cme-characteristics-from-sun-to-earth-combining-remote-sensing-image-data-with-in-situ-measurements-supported-by-modeling
#12
Manuela Temmer, Julia K Thalmann, Karin Dissauer, Astrid M Veronig, Johannes Tschernitz, Jürgen Hinterreiter, Luciano Rodriguez
We analyze the well-observed flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from 1 October 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of effects - from Sun to Earth - to better understand the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere associated with the flare and CME using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based instruments. We also track the CME signature off-limb with combined extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)...
2017: Solar Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729701/a-model-based-estimate-of-regional-wheat-yield-gaps-and-water-use-efficiency-in-main-winter-wheat-production-regions-of-china
#13
Zunfu Lv, Xiaojun Liu, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu
Wheat production is of great importance for national food security and is greatly influenced by the spatial variation of climatic variables, soils, cultivars, etc. This study used WheatGrow and CERES-Wheat models integrated with a GIS to estimate winter wheat productivity, yield gap and water use in the main wheat production regions of China. The results showed that the potential wheat yield gradually increased from south to north and from west to east, with a spatial distribution consistent with the accumulated hours of sunshine...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729016/learning-based-structurally-guided-construction-of-resting-state-functional-correlation-tensors
#14
Lichi Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Qian Wang, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals to detect brain activities. It has been recently reported that the spatial correlation patterns of resting-state BOLD signals in the white matter (WM) also give WM information often measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). These correlation patterns can be captured using functional correlation tensor (FCT), which is analogous to the diffusion tensor (DT) obtained from DTI. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust FCT method aiming at further improving its quality, and making it eligible for further neuroscience study...
July 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728836/chromosome-intermingling-mechanical-hotspots-for-genome-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Caroline Uhler, G V Shivashankar
Cells sense physical and chemical signals from their local microenvironment and transduce them to the nucleus to regulate genomic programs. In this review, we first discuss different modes of mechanotransduction to the nucleus. We then highlight the role of the spatial organization of chromosomes for integrating these signals. In particular, we emphasize the importance of chromosome intermingling for gene regulation. We also discuss various geometric models and recent advances in microscopy and genomics that have allowed access to these nanoscale chromosome intermingling regions...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728002/development-of-an-integrated-generic-model-for-multi-scale-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-agro-ecosystems-on-major-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#16
Mahamadou Belem, Mehdi Saqalli
This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727829/functional-differentiation-and-spatial-temporal-co-expression-networks-of-the-nbs-encoding-gene-family-in-jilin-ginseng-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#17
Rui Yin, Mingzhu Zhao, Kangyu Wang, Yanping Lin, Yanfang Wang, Chunyu Sun, Yi Wang, Meiping Zhang
Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most important medicinal plants for human health and medicine. It has been documented that over 80% of genes conferring resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes are contributed by the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family. Therefore, identification and characterization of NBS genes expressed in ginseng are paramount to its genetic improvement and breeding. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in ginseng. Here we report genome-wide identification and systems analysis of the NBS genes actively expressed in ginseng (PgNBS genes)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727786/is-there-a-relationship-between-geographic-distance-and-uptake-of-hiv-testing-services-a-representative-population-based-study-of-chinese-adults-in-guangzhou-china
#18
Wen Chen, Fangjing Zhou, Brian J Hall, Joseph D Tucker, Carl Latkin, Andre M N Renzaho, Li Ling
Achieving high coverage of HIV testing services is critical in many health systems, especially where HIV testing services remain centralized and inconvenient for many. As a result, planning the optimal spatial distribution of HIV testing sites is increasingly important. We aimed to assess the relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services among the general population in Guangzhou, China. Utilizing spatial epidemiological methods and stratified household random sampling, we studied 666 adults aged 18-59...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727744/climate-change-and-sugarcane-expansion-increase-hantavirus-infection-risk
#19
Paula Ribeiro Prist, María Uriarte, Katia Fernandes, Jean Paul Metzger
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727456/constrained-mixed-effect-models-with-ensemble-learning-for-prediction-of-nitrogen-oxides-concentrations-at-a-high-spatiotemporal-resolution
#20
Lianfa Li, Fred Lurmann, Rima Habre, Robert Urman, Edward Rappaport, Beate Ritz, Jiu-Chiuan Chen, Frank Gilliland, Jun Wu
Spatiotemporal models to estimate ambient exposures at high spatiotemporal resolutions are crucial in large-scale air pollution epidemiological studies that follow participants over extended periods. Previous models typically rely on central-site monitoring data and/or covered short periods, limiting their applications to long-term cohort studies. Here we developed a spatiotemporal model that can reliably predict nitrogen oxide concentrations with a high spatiotemporal resolution over a long time span (>20 years)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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