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Spatial modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793079/shifts-in-wind-energy-potential-following-land-use-driven-vegetation-dynamics-in-complex-terrain
#1
Jiannong Fang, Alexander Peringer, Mihai-Sorin Stupariu, Ileana Pǎtru-Stupariu, Alexandre Buttler, Francois Golay, Fernando Porté-Agel
Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792806/fate-of-fluorescence-labels-their-adsorption-and-desorption-kinetics-to-silver-nanoparticles
#2
Claudia Kästner, Linda Böhmert, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen, Andreas F Thünemann
Silver nanoparticles are among the most widely used und produced nanoparticles. Due to their frequent application in consumer products, the assessment of their toxicological potential has seen a renewed importance. A major difficulty is the traceability of nanoparticles in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Even if the particles are labeled, for example by a fluorescent marker, the dynamic exchange of ligands often prohibits their spatial localization. Our study provides an insight into the adsorption and desorption kinetics of two different fluorescent labels on silver nanoparticles with a core radius of 3 nm by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence spectroscopy...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792373/author-accepted-manuscript-systematic-spatial-patterns-of-the-sense-of-familiarity-hierarchical-modelling-based-on-eye-tracking-experiments
#3
Kiyofumi Miyoshi, Hiroshi Ashida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792238/mapping-the-neuroanatomic-substrates-of-cognition-in-familial-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Rachel Muster, Saadia Choudhury, Wendy Sharp, Steven Kasparek, Gustavo Sudre, Philip Shaw
BACKGROUND: While the neuroanatomic substrates of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been investigated, less is known about the neuroanatomic correlates of cognitive abilities pertinent to the disorder, particularly in adults. Here we define the neuroanatomic correlates of key cognitive abilities and determine if there are associations with histories of psychostimulant medication. METHODS: We acquired neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging data from 264 members of 60 families (mean age 29...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792162/overlapping-but-distinct-topology-for-zebrafish-v2r-like-olfactory-receptors-reminiscent-of-odorant-receptor-spatial-expression-zones
#5
Gaurav Ahuja, Vera Reichel, Daniel Kowatschew, Adnan S Syed, Aswani Kumar Kotagiri, Yuichiro Oka, Franco Weth, Sigrun I Korsching
BACKGROUND: The sense of smell is unrivaled in terms of molecular complexity of its input channels. Even zebrafish, a model vertebrate system in many research fields including olfaction, possesses several hundred different olfactory receptor genes, organized in four different gene families. For one of these families, the initially discovered odorant receptors proper, segregation of expression into distinct spatial subdomains within a common sensory surface has been observed both in teleost fish and in mammals...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791796/tracking-of-engineered-bacteria-in-vivo-using-non-standard-amino-acid-incorporation
#6
Pichet Praveschotinunt, Noemie-Manuelle Dorval Courchesne, Ilona den Hartog, Chaochen Lu, Jessica J Kim, Peter Q Nguyen, Neel S Joshi
The rapidly growing field of microbiome research presents a need for better methods of monitoring gut microbes in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution. We report a method of tracking microbes in vivo within the gastrointestinal tract by programming them to incorporate non-standard amino acids (NSAA) and labeling them via click chemistry. Using established machinery constituting an orthogonal translation system (OTS), we engineered Escherichia coli to incorporate p-azido-L-phenylalanine (pAzF) in place of the UAG (amber) stop codon...
May 23, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791491/community-structure-informs-species-geographic-distributions
#7
Alicia Montesinos-Navarro, Alba Estrada, Xavier Font, Miguel G Matias, Catarina Meireles, Manuel Mendoza, Joao P Honrado, Hari D Prasad, Joana R Vicente, Regan Early
Understanding what determines species' geographic distributions is crucial for assessing global change threats to biodiversity. Measuring limits on distributions is usually, and necessarily, done with data at large geographic extents and coarse spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. 'community structure') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales, and are often available for relatively extensive areas, so could be useful for explaining species distributions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791432/logistical-constraints-lead-to-an-intermediate-optimum-in-outbreak-response-vaccination
#8
Yun Tao, Katriona Shea, Matthew Ferrari
Dynamic models in disease ecology have historically evaluated vaccination strategies under the assumption that they are implemented homogeneously in space and time. However, this approach fails to formally account for operational and logistical constraints inherent in the distribution of vaccination to the population at risk. Thus, feedback between the dynamic processes of vaccine distribution and transmission might be overlooked. Here, we present a spatially explicit, stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Vaccinated model that highlights the density-dependence and spatial constraints of various diffusive strategies of vaccination during an outbreak...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791388/calibration-of-focusing-lens-artifacts-in-a-dual-rotating-compensator-mueller-matrix-ellipsometer
#9
Zhentao Fan, Yuanyuan Tang, Kai Wei, Yudong Zhang
A focusing lens consisting of two or more elements is widely used in ellipsometers for spatial resolution. In a typical ellipsometer layout, a lens is placed before the sample to focus light emerging to the sample, and another after the sample to collect the scattered light from the sample. Accurately calibrating the artifacts of the focusing lens is of great importance. In this paper, a method to improve calibration accuracy is proposed. A general analytical model is deduced to describe the artifacts of the focusing lens...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791372/theoretical-compensation-of-static-deformations-of-freeform-multimirror-substrates
#10
Johannes Hartung, Henrik von Lukowicz, Jan Kinast
Varying temperatures influence the figure errors of freeform metal mirrors by thermal expansion. Furthermore, different materials lead to thermo-elastic bending effects. The paper presents a derivation of a compensation approach for general static loads. Utilizing perturbation theory, this approach works for shape compensation of substrates that operate in various temperature environments. Verification is made using a finite element analysis, which is further used to produce manufacturable CAD models. The remaining low spatial frequency errors are deterministically correctable using diamond turning or polishing techniques...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791354/improved-three-dimensional-reconstruction-algorithm-from-a-multifocus-microscopic-image-sequence-based-on-a-nonsubsampled-wavelet-transform
#11
Yingzhong Tian, Haoyang Cui, Zhiyan Pan, Jiaorong Liu, Shouchen Yang, Lilan Liu, Wenbin Wang, Long Li
In the multifocus microscopic image measurement method, the distortion of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model has always been an important factor affecting the measurement result. In spatial domains, the focus measure algorithm is based on the gradient change of the pixel point to determine the degree of focus of the pixel. So it will be difficult to accurately extract the focus of the pixel in the areas where color difference is not obvious, resulting in 3D model distortion. According to the optical principle, the high-frequency coefficients of the clear image are larger than the high-frequency coefficients of the blurred image...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791348/detection-of-iron-atoms-by-emission-spectroscopy-and-laser-induced-fluorescence-in-solid-propellant-flames
#12
G Vilmart, N Dorval, M Orain, D Lambert, R Devillers, Y Fabignon, B Attal-Tretout, A Bresson
Planar laser-induced fluorescence on atomic iron is investigated in this paper, and a measurement strategy is proposed to monitor the fluorescence of iron atoms with good sensitivity. A model is proposed to fit the experimental fluorescence spectra, and good agreement is found between simulated and experimental spectra. Emission and laser-induced fluorescence measurements are performed in the flames of ammonium perchlorate composite propellants containing iron-based catalysts. A fluorescence signal from iron atoms after excitation at 248 nm is observed for the first time in propellant flames...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791146/effect-of-cholesterol-on-membrane-dipole-potential-atomistic-and-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#13
Hujun Shen, Mingsen Deng, Zhenhua Wu, Jihua Zhang, Yachao Zhang, Chengui Gao, Chao Cen
The effect of cholesterol on membrane dipole potential has been the subject of a great number of experimental and theoretical investigations, but these studies have yielded different findings and interpretations at high cholesterol concentrations. This suggests that the underlying mechanism of the cholesterol effect is not well addressed. Moreover, as far as we know, none of the previously proposed coarse-grained (CG) models (including MARTINI and its improved versions) has been successfully used to probe the effect of cholesterol on membrane dipole potential, owing to either an inaccurate description of water-cholesterol electrostatics or the neglect of the contribution of cholesterol to membrane dipole potential...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790876/novel-chemiluminescent-immunochromatographic-assay-using-a-dual-readout-signal-probe-for-multiplexed-detection-of-pesticide-residues
#14
Hui Ouyang, Wenwen Wang, Qi Shu, Zhifeng Fu
A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using a dual-readout signal probe was developed for multiplexed detection of pesticide residues by adopting methyl parathion and fenpropathrin as model analytes. Luminol-reduced Au nanoparticles (LRAuNPs) were synthesized and utilized in the proposed ICA platform as a colorimetric/chemiluminescent (CL) dual-readout probe. The methyl parathion antibody and fenpropathrin antibody were tagged with the prepared LRAuNPs to conduct spatially-resolved multiplexed detection...
May 23, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789673/peatland-vegetation-composition-and-phenology-drive-the-seasonal-trajectory-of-maximum-gross-primary-production
#15
Matthias Peichl, Michal Gažovič, Ilse Vermeij, Eefje de Goede, Oliver Sonnentag, Juul Limpens, Mats B Nilsson
Gross primary production (GPP) is a key driver of the peatland carbon cycle. Although many studies have explored the apparent GPP under natural light conditions, knowledge of the maximum GPP at light-saturation (GPPmax ) and its spatio-temporal variation is limited. This information, however, is crucial since GPPmax essentially constrains the upper boundary for apparent GPP. Using chamber measurements combined with an external light source across experimental plots where vegetation composition was altered through long-term (20-year) nitrogen addition and artificial warming, we could quantify GPPmax in-situ and disentangle its biotic and abiotic controls in a boreal peatland...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789670/noise-estimation-model-development-using-high-resolution-transportation-and-land-use-regression
#16
Omer Harouvi, Eran Ben-Elia, Roni Factor, Kees de Hoogh, Itai Kloog
Noise pollution is a common phenomenon of the 21st century. Noise prediction models tend to estimate noise levels mainly from road traffic sources (such as cars, public transportation etc.). This paper describes the adoption of land use regression (LUR) modeling methodology to assess noise pollution in two periods of the day (rush hour and off-peak), in two major cities in Israel (Tel Aviv and Beer Sheva). For both rush hour and off-peak times, 20 min short term measurements were used to develop a LUR noise estimation model...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789654/direct-observation-of-pitting-corrosion-evolutions-on-carbon-steel-surfaces-at-the-nano-to-micro-scales
#17
Peng Guo, Erika Callagon La Plante, Bu Wang, Xin Chen, Magdalena Balonis, Mathieu Bauchy, Gaurav Sant
The Cl- -induced corrosion of metals and alloys is of relevance to a wide range of engineered materials, structures, and systems. Because of the challenges in studying pitting corrosion in a quantitative and statistically significant manner, its kinetics remain poorly understood. Herein, by direct, nano- to micro-scale observations using vertical scanning interferometry (VSI), we examine the temporal evolution of pitting corrosion on AISI 1045 carbon steel over large surface areas in Cl- -free, and Cl- -enriched solutions...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789619/a-predictive-spatial-distribution-framework-for-filovirus-infected-bats
#18
Graziano Fiorillo, Paolo Bocchini, Javier Buceta
Tools with predictive capabilities in regards of filovirus outbreaks are mainly anthropocentric and have disregarded the ecological dimension of the problem. Here we contribute to shift the current paradigm by studying the dynamics of the putative main zoonotic niche of filoviruses, bats, and its link to environmental drivers. We propose a framework that combines data analysis, modeling, and the evaluation of sources of variability. We implement a regression analysis using factual data to correlate environmental parameters and the presence of bats to find the distribution of resources...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789548/deep-2-photon-imaging-and-artifact-free-optogenetics-through-transparent-graphene-microelectrode-arrays
#19
Martin Thunemann, Yichen Lu, Xin Liu, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Michèle Desjardins, Matthieu Vandenberghe, Sanaz Sadegh, Payam A Saisan, Qun Cheng, Kimberly L Weldy, Hongming Lyu, Srdjan Djurovic, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Anna Devor, Duygu Kuzum
Recent advances in optical technologies such as multi-photon microscopy and optogenetics have revolutionized our ability to record and manipulate neuronal activity. Combining optical techniques with electrical recordings is of critical importance to connect the large body of neuroscience knowledge obtained from animal models to human studies mainly relying on electrophysiological recordings of brain-scale activity. However, integration of optical modalities with electrical recordings is challenging due to generation of light-induced artifacts...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789377/polyamine-modulation-of-anticonvulsant-drug-response-a-potential-mechanism-contributing-to-pharmacoresistance-in-chronic-epilepsy
#20
Niklas Michael Beckonert, Thoralf Opitz, Julika Pitsch, Patrício Soares da Silva, Heinz Beck
Despite the development of numerous novel anticonvulsant drugs, approximately 30% of epilepsy patients remain refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Many established and novel AEDs reduce hyperexcitability via voltage- and use-dependent inhibition of voltage-gated Na+ channels. For the widely-used anticonvulsant carbamazepine (CBZ), use-dependent block of Na+ channels is significantly reduced both in experimental and human epilepsy. However, the molecular underpinnings of this potential cellular mechanism for pharmacoresistance have remained enigmatic...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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