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Jian Zou, Feng Tian, Yi Zhang, Zeping Li, Chao Yang, Haixu Chen, Jiajia Zhai, Min Shi, Chao Xu, Juan Zhang, Wenjuan Li, Yonghong Xie, Xiaomiao Li
The association between normal thyroid function and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has gained increasing attention. The present study evaluated the relationship between normal thyroid hormone levels and DKD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A total of 862 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, China. The subjects were evaluated for anthropometric measurements, thyroid function and DKD. Of 862 patients, 246 (28.5%) suffered from DKD, and the prevalence of DKD did not differ between men and women...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kiran Shah, Alka Gandhi, Sundaram Natarajan
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is leading cause of visual impairment in working-age adults. Macular edema can occur with or without other signs of retinopathy. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study conducted over 2 years in patients (>40 years of age) having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Outcome measures were to analyze awareness and prevalence of DR and association of DR with identified risk factors. Results: Overall 6000 T2DM patients over 2 years were retrospectively evaluated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Fionnuala B Hickey, Finian Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the proposed role of immune modulation in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic kidney disease has not historically been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, increasing evidence is emerging in support of an immune role in its pathophysiology. Both systemic and local renal inflammation have been associated with DKD. Infiltration of immune cells, predominantly macrophages, into the kidney has been reported in a number of both experimental and clinical studies...
March 12, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Muxin Yu, Rujuan Xie, Yan Zhang, Hui Liang, Li Hou, Chengyuan Yu, Jinming Zhang, Zengxiang Dong, Ye Tian, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Valerie A Novakovic, Jialan Shi
Background: Relatively little is known about the role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study was designed to evaluate whether exposed PS on microparticles (MPs) and MP-origin cells were involved in the hypercoagulability in DKD patients. Methods: DKD patients (n = 90) were divided into three groups based on urinary albumin excretion rate, defined as normoalbuminuria (No-A) (<30 mg/24 h), microalbuminuria (Mi-A) (30-299 mg/24 h) or macroalbuminuria (Ma-A) (>300 mg/24 h), and compared with healthy controls (n = 30)...
February 26, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Helen M Colhoun, M Loredana Marcovecchio
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains one of the leading causes of reduced lifespan in diabetes. The quest for both prognostic and surrogate endpoint biomarkers for advanced DKD and end-stage renal disease has received major investment and interest in recent years. However, at present no novel biomarkers are in routine use in the clinic or in trials. This review focuses on the current status of prognostic biomarkers. First, we emphasise that albuminuria and eGFR, with other routine clinical data, show at least modest prediction of future renal status if properly used...
March 8, 2018: Diabetologia
Minu R Pilvankar, Michele A Higgins, Ashlee N Ford Versypt
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the primary cause of kidney failure. Diabetic hyperglycemia primarily damages podocyte cells. Podocytes express a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that produces angiotensin II (ANG II). ANG II levels are elevated by hyperglycemia, triggering podocyte injury. Quantitative descriptions of glucose dose dependency of ANG II are scarce in the literature. For better understanding of the mechanism of glycemic injury in DKD, a mathematical model is developed to describe the glucose-stimulated local RAS in podocytes...
March 8, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Kwang-Soo Kim, Jiewan Kim, Nuri Oh, Mi-Young Kim, Kyung-Soon Park
Gata3 is a master regulator that drives mammary epithelial cell differentiation, and the suppression of GATA3 expression is associated with the development of aggressive breast cancer. However, the mechanism through which GATA3 loss drives cancer development is poorly understood. Previously, we reported that ELK3 suppression in MDA-MB-231 (ELK3 KD) resulted in the reprogramming of these cells from a basal to luminal subtype, which was associated with the induction of GATA3 expression, and that the ELK3-GATA3 axis orchestrated the metastatic characteristics of MDA-MB-231...
March 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yi-Chih Lin, Yu-Hsing Chang, Shao-Yu Yang, Kwan-Dun Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. The most characteristic marker of DKD is albuminuria, which is associated with renal disease progression and cardiovascular events. Renal hemodynamics changes, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia and overactive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of DKD, and renal fibrosis plays the key role. Intensified multifactorial interventions, including RAAS blockades, blood pressure and glucose control, and quitting smoking, help to prevent DKD development and progression...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Katherine R Tuttle, Frank C Brosius, Sharon G Adler, Matthias Kretzler, Ravindra L Mehta, James A Tumlin, Yoshiya Tanaka, Masakazu Haneda, Jiajun Liu, Maria E Silk, Tracy E Cardillo, Kevin L Duffin, Joseph V Haas, William L Macias, Fabio P Nunes, Jonathan M Janes
Background: Inflammation signaled by Janus kinases (JAKs) promotes progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Baricitinib is an oral, reversible, selective inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2. This study tested the efficacy of baricitinib versus placebo on albuminuria in adults with Type 2 diabetes at high risk for progressive DKD. Methods: In this Phase 2, double-blind, dose-ranging study, participants were randomized 1:1:1:1:1 to receive placebo or baricitinib (0.75 mg daily; 0...
February 22, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are stable posttranslational modifications of proteins formed by the spontaneous reaction with glucose and related metabolites. Important AGEs quantitatively are methylglyoxal (MG)-derived hydroimidazolone MG-H1, Nε -carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and glucosepane. They contribute to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cellular proteolysis of AGE-modified proteins forms AGE free adducts, glycated amino acids, which are cleared by the kidneys and excreted in urine...
February 22, 2018: Kidney International
Saihua Ma, Ruihong Ma, Tian Xia, Masoud Afnan, Xueru Song, Fengqin Xu, Guimin Hao, Fangfang Zhu, Jingpei Han, Zhimei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) who have a predicted poor ovarian response (POR) present a challenge for reproductive medicine specialists. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly used in China for such patients, in the belief that it will improve the ovarian response and ultimately increase pregnancy rates. However, there is a lack of high-quality evidence about the effect of TCM on improving ovarian response in such patients...
February 20, 2018: Trials
O Kenrik Duru, Tim Middleton, Mona K Tewari, Keith Norris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review are to identify population characteristics of important risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in the United States and to discuss barriers and opportunities to improve awareness, management, and outcomes in patients with DKD. RECENT FINDINGS: The major risk factors for the development and progression of DKD include hyperglycemia, hypertension, and albuminuria. DKD disproportionately affects minorities and individuals with low educational and socioeconomic status...
February 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Josephine M Forbes, David R Thorburn
Globally, diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. Despite this burden, the factors that precipitate the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remain to be fully elucidated. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with kidney disease in nondiabetic contexts, and increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctional renal mitochondria are pathological mediators of DKD. These complex organelles have a broad range of functions, including the generation of ATP...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Savitha Subramanian, Irl B Hirsch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease globally. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a heterogeneous disorder manifested as albuminuria and/or decreasing GFR. Hyperglycemic burden is the major contributor to the development of DKD. In this article, we review the evidence for the contribution of glycemic variability and the pitfalls associated with use of hemoglobin A1c (A1C), the gold standard for assessment of glucose control, in the setting of DKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Glycemic variability, characterized by swings in blood glucose levels, can result in generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, a putative inciting factor for hyperglycemia-induced alterations in intracellular metabolic pathways...
February 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Xiaoqian Yang, Shan Mou
Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is one of the major complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and is currently the most common cause of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) worldwide. Traditionally, DKD is considered a disease which has nothing to do with the immune system, and the pathogenesis is mainly characterized to be metabolic disturbance. Recent growing evidence indicates immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms in the development and progression of DKD. This overview of macrophages, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, neutrophils and mast cells is closely involved in the pathologic process of DKD, with more emphasis on the leucocyte accumulation and related molecular mechanisms...
2017: Current Gene Therapy
Agata Grzelka, Dariusz Naskręt, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Aleksandra Uruska, Małgorzata Wegner, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an arterial calcification marker which has been associated with vascular damage. Elevated OPG concentrations associated with low-grade inflammatory processes are found in diabetic subjects. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess concentrations of OPG in relation to the presence of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes type 1 (DM 1) participating in the Poznań Prospective Study (PoProStu). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 74 patients with DM1 (48 men) with a median age of 39 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 34-43) and a median 15-year history (IQR: 14-16) of diabetes, who were participants in the PoProStu...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Fei Mao, Xiaoming Zhu, Bin Lu, Yiming Li
OBJECTIVE: SUDOSCAN (Impeto Medical, Paris, France) has been proved to be a new and non-invasive method in detecting renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, we sought to compare the result of diabetic kidney dysfunction score (DKD-score) of SUDOSCAN with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by using quantile regression analysis, which was completely different from previous studies. METHODS: A total number of 223 Chinese T2DM patients were enrolled in the study...
February 3, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
F Barutta, R Mastrocola, S Bellini, G Bruno, Gabriella Gruden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine and summarize studies assessing the relevance of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid receptors of type 1 (CB1R) and of type 2 (CB2R) are present in the normal kidney. Expression of CB1R and CB2R is altered in experimental DKD. Studies in experimental animals and cultured kidney cells show a beneficial effect of peripheral CB1R blockade and CB2R activation in DKD and an even greater efficacy of a combined treatment...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Giuseppina T Russo, Salvatore De Cosmo, Francesca Viazzi, Antonio Mirijello, Antonio Ceriello, Pietro Guida, Carlo Giorda, Domenico Cucinotta, Roberto Pontremoli, Paola Fioretto
BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major burden in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR+, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and albuminuria (Alb+) are essential for the diagnosis of DKD, but their association with clinical variables and quality of care may be influenced by ageing. METHODS: Here we investigated the association of clinical variables and quality of care measures with eGFR+ and Alb+ in 157,595 T2DM individuals participating to the Italian Association of Clinical Diabetologists (AMD) Annals Initiative, stratified by age...
February 2, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Samir Assaad Khalil, Magdy Helmy Megallaa, Kamel Hemida Rohoma, Myriam AbouSeif Guindy, Adel Zaki, Mohamed Hassanein, Amin Helmy Malaty, Hanaa Mohamed Ismael, Ibrahim Fahmy Kharboush, Dalal Nasr-Eldein El Kafash, Hassan Nooman Sallam, Iman Abdelkareem Desouky
BACKGROUND: In Egypt, data on the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications, which are essential for the adjustment of policies and practices related to diabetes care, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of chronic complications of diabetes; namely neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease (DKD), retinopathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in newly-diagnosed versus known type 2 diabetic patients. SUBJECTS & METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that is based on a previous household survey conducted on a representative sample of the population of Alexandria, Egypt...
January 24, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
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