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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456241/ecology-and-evolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Sebastien Gagneux
Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one cause of human death due to an infectious disease. The causative agents of TB are a group of closely related bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). As the MTBC exhibits a clonal population structure with low DNA sequence diversity, methods (such as multilocus sequence typing) that are applied to more genetically diverse bacteria are uninformative, and much of the ecology and evolution of the MTBC has therefore remained unknown. Owing to recent advances in whole-genome sequencing and analyses of large collections of MTBC clinical isolates from around the world, many new insights have been gained, including a better understanding of the origin of the MTBC as an obligate pathogen and its molecular evolution and population genetic characteristics both within and between hosts, as well as many aspects related to antibiotic resistance...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453405/widespread-use-of-incorrect-pcr-ramp-rate-negatively-impacts-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnosis-mtbdrplus
#2
B Derendinger, M de Vos, R R Nathavitharana, T Dolby, J A Simpson, P D van Helden, R M Warren, G Theron
The scale-up of rapid drug resistance testing for TB is a global priority. MTBDRplus is a WHO-endorsed multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB PCR assay with suboptimal sensitivities and high indeterminate rates on smear-negative specimens. We hypothesised that widespread use of incorrect thermocycler ramp rate (speed of temperature change between cycles) impacts performance. A global sample of 72 laboratories was surveyed. We tested 107 sputa from Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients and, separately, dilution series of bacilli, both at the manufacturer-recommended ramp rate (2...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447161/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-genotypes-circulating-in-nigeria-based-on-spoligotyping-obtained-from-ziehl-neelsen-stained-slides-extracted-dna
#3
Barbara Molina-Moya, Michel K Gomgnimbou, Lizania Spinasse, Joshua Obasanya, Olanrewaju Oladimeji, Russell Dacombe, Thomas Edwards, Xavier-Olessa Daragon, Lovett Lawson, Saddiq T Abdurrahman, Luis E Cuevas, Jose Dominguez, Christophe Sola
METHODS: All State TB control programmes in Nigeria were requested to submit 25-50 smear-positive Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained slides for screening during 2013-2014. DNA was extracted from 929 slides for spoligotyping and drug-resistance analysis using microbead-based flow-cytometry suspension arrays. RESULTS: Spoligotyping results were obtained for 549 (59.1%) of 929 samples. Lineage 4 Cameroon sublineage (L4.6.2) represented half of the patterns, Mycobacterium africanum (L5 and L6) represented one fifth of the patterns, and all other lineages, including other L4 sublineages, represented one third of the patterns...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435709/the-prevalence-and-isolated-subtypes-of-bk-polyomavirus-reactivation-among-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-in-southeastern-china
#4
Caiqin Hu, Ying Huang, Juwei Su, Mengyan Wang, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an opportunistic infectious pathogen that is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy, mainly in transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients. However, molecular characterization studies of BKPyV in China are rare. This study was designed to elucidate the prevalence and to determine the main subtypes of BKPyV among HIV-1-infected patients in southeastern China. In addition, the increased incidences for BKPyV reactivation were analyzed...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433302/dna-encountering-terbium-iii-a-smart-chemical-nose-tongue-for-largescale-time-gated-luminescent-and-lifetime-based-sensing
#5
Shi-Fan Xue, Zi-Han Chen, Xin-Yue Han, Zi-Yang Lin, Qi-Xian Wang, Min Zhang, Guoyue Shi
Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of pattern-based sensors due to their potential to detect and differentiate a wealth of analytes with only few probes. However, no one has found or used the combination of DNA and terbium(III) (Tb) as a pattern recognition system for largescale mix-and-measure assays. Here we report for the first time that DNA-sensitized Tb (DNA/Tb), as a label-free and versatile "chemical nose/tongue", can be employed for widescale time-gated luminescent (TGL) monitoring metal ions covering nearly the entire periodic table in a cost-effective fashion...
February 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405982/simultaneous-detections-of-genetic-fragment-and-single-nucleotide-mutation-with-a-three-tiered-output-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#6
Shih-Ying Huang, Jia-Ru Chang, Yu-Chieh Liao, Horng-Yunn Dou, Min-Chieh Chuang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the major infectious diseases worldwide. The pathogenic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), continuously evolves strains carrying drug-resistance genes, thus posing a growing challenge to TB prevention and treatment. We report a diagnostic system that uses a molecular beacon probe and an assistant strand as the core to simultaneously interact with an M.tb-specific fragment (in IS6110) and a single nucleotide substitution (SNS)-encoded segment (in rpoB) associated with drug resistance...
May 12, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397050/bronchoalveolar-lavage-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-infection-in-elephants
#7
R Hermes, J Saragusty, I Moser, S Holtze, J Nieter, K Sachse, T Voracek, A Bernhard, T Bouts, F Göritz, T B Hildebrandt
Tuberculosis (TB) has been known to affect elephants for thousands of years. It was put into spotlight when few circus elephants were diagnosed carrying Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis. Because of the zoonotic risk and high susceptibility to M. tuberculosis, periodic testing was enacted since, in captive breeding programmes. Presently, trunk wash is the recommended diagnostic procedure for TB. Trunk wash, however, puts the operator at risk, has low sensitivity, and is prone to contamination. Here, bronchoalveolar lavage is described for the first time for TB diagnosis in elephants...
February 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396866/genetic-and-phenotypic-characterizations-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-cheonan-korea
#8
Jae-Sik Jeon, Jae Kyung Kim, Qute Choi, Jong Wan Kim
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causes tuberculosis (TB), which is a fatal disease. Cases of drug-resistant MTB have increased in recent years. In this study, we analyzed 7 sites of MTB DNA sequences, including the rpoB and inhA gene, to investigate the relationship between gene mutations and drug resistance in MTB. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis liquid culture samples (197 specimens from 74 cases) were collected between June 2015 and May 2016 and sequenced...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378893/regulation-of-the-crispr-associated-genes-by-rv2837c-cnpb-via-an-orn-like-activity-in-tb-complex-mycobacteria
#9
Yang Zhang, Jun Yang, Guangchun Bai
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) provide an adaptive immunity to bacteria and archaea against specific DNA invaders. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes a Type III CRISPR-Cas system, which has not been experimentally explored. In this study, we found that the CRISPR-Cas systems of both Mtb and M. bovis BCG were highly upregulated by deletion of Rv2837c (cnpB), which encodes a multifunctional protein that hydrolyzes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and nanoRNAs (short oligonucleotides of five residues or shorter in length)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369209/bone-marrow-granulomas-in-a-high-tuberculosis-prevalence-setting-a-clinicopathological-study-of-110-cases
#10
Yu Wang, Xiao-Yan Tang, Ji Yuan, Shou-Quan Wu, Guo Chen, Miao-Miao Zhang, Ming-Gui Wang, Wen-Yan Zhang, Jian-Qing He
Granulomas were reported in 0.3% to 3% of bone marrow biopsies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and etiology of bone marrow granulomas (BMGs) in the West China Hospital, which located at a high tuberculosis (TB) prevalence area in China.A retrospective case review was performed on 11,339 bone marrow biopsies at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2011 and December 2015. Cases with BMGs were retrieved and their clinical data and histopathological features were collected, examined, and analyzed...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348166/clinical-evaluation-of-a-blood-assay-to-diagnose-paucibacillary-tuberculosis-via-bacterial-antigens
#11
Chang Liu, Christopher J Lyon, Yang Bu, Zaian Deng, Elisabetta Walters, Yan Li, Liqun Zhang, Anneke C Hesseling, Edward A Graviss, Ye Hu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB)10 cases primarily relies on methods that detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli or their DNA in patient samples (e.g., mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assays), but these tests have low clinical sensitivity for patients with paucibacillary TB disease. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical performance of a newly developed assay that can rapidly diagnose active TB cases by direct detection of Mtb-derived antigens in patients' blood samples...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341430/tuberculosis-vaccines-opportunities-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Bingdong Zhu, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas G Evans, Ying Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease around the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine licensed for use in human beings, and is effective in protecting infants and children against severe miliary and meningeal TB. However, BCG's protective efficacy is variable in adults. Novel TB vaccine candidates being developed include whole-cell vaccines (recombinant BCG (rBCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, killed M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium vaccae), adjuvanted protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-delivered subunit vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, RNA-based vaccines etc...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334998/examining-human-paragonimiasis-as-a-differential-diagnosis-to-tuberculosis-in-the-gambia
#13
Richard Morter, Ifedayo Adetifa, Martin Antonio, Fatima Touray, Bouke C de Jong, Charlotte M Gower, Florian Gehre
OBJECTIVE: Paragonimiasis is a foodborne trematode infection of the lungs caused by Paragonimus spp., presenting clinically with similar symptoms to active tuberculosis (TB). Worldwide, an estimated 20.7 million people are infected with paragonimiasis, but relatively little epidemiological data exists for Africa. Given a recently reported case, we sought to establish whether paragonimiasis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for human TB in The Gambia, West Africa...
January 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333103/interleukin-35-level-is-elevated-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#14
Sheng-Tao Cheng, Ding Yuan, Yi Liu, Ying Huang, Xiang Chen, Hai-Bo Yu, Lin He, Hui Jiang, Ji-Hua Ren, Juan Chen
Backgrounds: As one of the major public health problems, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection would activate the immune system. The outcome of HBV infection was affect significantly by the interactions between HBV and host immune response. Interleukins play important role in anti-viral immunity. Here we investigated the role of interleukin-35 (IL-35) in chronic HBV infection patients. Methods/Results: Serum IL-35 in 72 chronic hepatitis B virus infection patients and 41 healthy control subjects were analyzed by ELISA assay...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330384/detection-of-apparent-cell-free-m-tuberculosis-dna-from-plasma
#15
E S Click, W Murithi, G S Ouma, K McCarthy, M Willby, S Musau, H Alexander, E Pevzner, J Posey, K P Cain
New diagnostics are needed to improve clinicians' ability to detect tuberculosis (TB) disease in key populations such as children and persons living with HIV and to rapidly detect drug resistance. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in plasma is a diagnostic target in new obstetric and oncologic applications, but its utility for diagnosing TB is not known. Here we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA can be detected in plasma of persons with sputum smear-positive TB, even in the absence of mycobacteremia...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322275/outcome-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-pcr-analysis-in-100-suspected-cases-of-infectious-uveitis
#16
Ranju Kharel Sitaula, M K Janani, H N Madhavan, Jyotirmay Biswas
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is an important tool in the diagnosis of infectious uveitis. A retrospective, interventional study of PCR analysis of ocular fluid in suspected infectious uveitis cases between January 2014 to July 2016 was done. Nested, real-time and broad range PCR was performed for detection of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus family, Chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, fungus, eubacterium and propionibacterium acne. RESULTS: Total of 100 cases included, mean age was 39...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318113/application-values-of-t-spot-tb-in-clinical-rapid-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis
#17
Feng Zhu, Qinfang Ou, Jian Zheng
Background: This paper aims to explore the application value of tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T-SPOT.TB) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Methods: Fifty one patients with tuberculosis (TB) admitted to Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Wuxi, China from June 2015 to June 2017 were selected as the TB group, and 40 patients without tuberculosis admitted in the same period were randomly selected as the non-TB group. Patients in the two groups received T-SPOT...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305543/genotyping-multi-drug-resistant-m-tuberculosis-from-primary-sputum-and-decontaminated-sediment-with-an-integrated-microfluidic-amplification-microarray
#18
Yvonne Linger, Christopher Knickerbocker, David Sipes, Julia Golova, Molly Franke, Roger Calderon, Leonid Lecca, Nitu Thakore, Rebecca Holmberg, Peter Qu, Alexander Kukhtin, Megan B Murray, Christopher G Cooney, Darrell P Chandler
There is a growing awareness that molecular diagnostics for detect-to-treat applications will soon need a highly multiplexed mutation detection and identification capability. In this study, we converted an open-amplicon MDR-TB microarray hybridization test into an entirely closed-amplicon consumable (an amplification microarray) and evaluated its performance on matched sputum and sediment extracts. Reproducible genotyping (LoD) was achieved with ∼25 MTB genomes (100 fg of MTB DNA) per reaction; the estimated shelf life of the test was least 18 months when stored at 4°C...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305538/false-positive-xpert-mtb-rif-results-in-re-tested-patients-with-previous-tuberculosis-frequency-profile-and-prospective-clinical-outcomes
#19
Grant Theron, Rouxjeane Venter, Liezel Smith, Aliasgar Esmail, Philippa Randall, Vishesh Sood, Suzette Oelfese, Greg Calligaro, Robin Warren, Keertan Dheda
Introduction: Globally, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the most widely-used PCR test for tuberculosis (TB). Positive results in previously-treated patients, which are due to old DNA or active disease, are a diagnostic dilemma.Materials and methods: We prospectively re-tested sputum from 238 patients, irrespective of current symptoms, who were previously-diagnosed as Xpert-positive and treated successfully. Patients who re-tested as Xpert-positive, culture-negative were exhaustively investigated (repeated culture, chest radiography, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, long-term clinical follow-up)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305096/automated-real-time-detection-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-a-lab-on-a-disc-by-recombinase-polymerase-amplification
#20
I L G Law, J F C Loo, H C Kwok, H Y Yeung, C C H Leung, M Hui, S Y Wu, H S Chan, Y W Kwan, H P Ho, S K Kong
With the emergence of multi- and extensive-drug (MDR/XDR) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), tuberculosis (TB) persists as one of the world's leading causes of death. Recently, isothermal DNA amplification methods received much attention due to their ease of translation onto portable point-of-care (POC) devices for TB diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to devise a simple yet robust detection method for M. tb. Amongst the numerous up-and-coming isothermal techniques, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) was chosen for a real-time detection of TB with or without MDR...
January 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
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