Read by QxMD icon Read


Liqin Wang, Miao Xu, Noel Southall, Wei Zheng, Shuishu Wang
Tuberculosis (TB) still kills over 1.5 million people per year despite available anti-TB drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant TB poses a major threat to public health and prompts for an urgent need for new and more effective drugs. The long duration needed to treat TB by the current TB drugs, which target the essential cellular activities, inevitably leads to the emergence of drug-resistance. PhoP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an essential virulence factor, is a novel target for drug development. Guided by the crystal structure of the PhoP-DNA complex, we designed and developed a robust high-throughput screening assay for identification of PhoP inhibitors that disrupt the PhoP-DNA binding...
October 10, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
A Jayakumar, R M Savic, C K Everett, D Benator, D Alland, C M Heilig, M Weiner, S O Friedrich, N A Martinson, A Kerrigan, C Zamudio, S V Goldberg, W C Whitworth, J L Davis, P Nahid
The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle thresholds (Ct), which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert Ct trajectory and drug exposure during TB treatment to evaluate the potential utility of Xpert Ct for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB consecutively enrolled at ten international clinical trial sites participating in Study 29X, a CDC-sponsored TB Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses up to 20 mg/kg...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
K Lambropoulos, K Kaklamanis, A Morphis, M Tassi, R Lopp, G Georgiadis, M Theodorakou, M Chatzieleftheriou, C Simserides
We call monomer a B-DNA base pair and study, analytically and numerically, electron or hole oscillations in monomers, dimers and trimers. We employ two tight binding (TB) approaches: (I) at the base-pair level, using the on-site energies of the base pairs and the hopping parameters between successive base pairs i.e. a wire model, and (II) at the single-base level, using the on-site energies of the bases and the hopping parameters between neighbouring bases, specifically between (a) two successive bases in the same strand, (b) complementary bases that define a base pair, and (c) diagonally located bases of successive base pairs, i...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
Xuzhou Wang, Feilai Xie, Qiaoling Zheng, Xingfeng Qi, Min Li, Xiaoling Zhou, Zhiyong Zheng
AIMS: This study aimed to use EDTA to retrieve paraffin-embedded tissue sections of inflammatory granulomatous lesions and increase the detection rate of tuberculosis (TB)/non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Due to the influence of chemical reagents during the fixation process, the amplification of fluorescent quantitative PCR was blocked after DNA extraction, and the results were not ideal. METHODS: Special staining technologies (acid-fast and Auramine O) and fluorescent quantitative PCR were used to detect TB/non-tuberculous mycobacteria in 125 cases of inflammatory granulomatous lesions in paraffin-embedded tissue sections with and without EDTA retrieval...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
El Mehdi Bentaleb, Mohammed Abid, My Driss El Messaoudi, Brahim Lakssir, El Mostafa Ressami, Saaïd Amzazi, Hassan Sefrioui, Hassan Ait Benhassou
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Routinely used TB diagnostic methods, in most endemic areas, are time-consuming, often less-sensitive, expensive and inaccessible to most patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of early, easy to use and effective diagnosis tools of TB, which can be effectively integrated into resource limited settings, to anticipate the early treatment and limit further spread of the disease...
September 27, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Monika Kozińska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć
INTRODUCTION: The risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection is correlated with the concentration of infectious particles and exposure time. In closed populations, healthy people staying in very frequent, close and prolonged contact with a smear-positive person, become infected and represent another link in the chain of transmission of the disease. Therefore, in the fight against tuberculosis, an important element is quick identification of the patient and potentially infected people from his environment...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
J F C Loo, H C Kwok, C C H Leung, S Y Wu, I L G Law, Y K Cheung, Y Y Cheung, M L Chin, P Kwan, M Hui, S K Kong, H P Ho
Sepsis by bacterial infection causes high mortality in patients in intensive care unit (ICU). Rapid identification of bacterial infection is essential to ensure early appropriate administration of antibiotics to save lives of patients, yet the present benchtop molecular diagnosis is time-consuming and labor-intensive, which limits the treatment efficiency especially when the number of samples to be tested is extensive. Therefore, we hereby report a microfluidic platform lab-on-a-disc (LOAD) to provide a sample-to-answer solution...
September 2, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Helen K Buteme, Rebecca Axelsson-Robertson, Lina Benson, Moses L Joloba, W Henry Boom, Gunilla Kallenius, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: To determine the distribution of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genotypes in a Ugandan population of persons with tuberculosis (TB) and establish the relationship between class I HLA types and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) disease. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn from HIV negative individuals with active TB and HIV negative household controls. DNA was extracted from blood samples and HLA typed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kgothatso E Machaba, Favorite N Cele, Ndumiso N Mhlongo, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis -sliding clamp is a protein essential for many important DNA transactions including replication and DNA repair proteins, thus, a potential drug target for tuberculosis. Further investigation is needed in understanding DNA polymerase sliding clamp structure, especially from a computational perspective. In this study, we employ a wide-range of comparative molecular dynamic analyses on two systems: Mycobacterium tuberculosis - sliding clamp enzyme in its apo and bound form...
September 20, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hyunjung Kim, Jehoon Lee, Hi Jeong Kwon, Kwan Hyoung Kim, Chang Dong Yeo, Jin Woo Kim, Hae Kyung Lee
BACKGROUND: This study compared the diagnostic power of isothermal target and probe amplification (iTPA) with the existing real-time PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). METHOD: The two molecular methods were performed using DNA extracted directly from lower respiratory tract samples, not from the culture broth. A total of 174 non-consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled in this study. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain and liquid culture with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic, USA) were performed...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Hairui Lei, Jing Liu, Junlin Yan, Jingmiao Quan, Yu Fang
Compared to pure organic amphiphiles, metalloamphiphiles display distinctive features, including luminescence, magnetism and catalytic properties. However, the self-organization of metalloamphiphiles is commonly driven by solvophobic effects. Alkyl chains and oligomeric ethylene glycol moieties are thus the most frequently used aggregation units to drive the self-assembly of metalloamphiphiles. We expect novel metallo-supramolecular structures with exciting functions to be created if additional noncovalent interaction modes are incorporated...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
D Kienzl-Palma, H Prosch
CLINICAL ISSUE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and transmission is via an airborne route by droplet infection. In the majority of cases patients have thoracic TB, which most frequently presents with hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary manifestation. Due to the rise in incidence of TB in central Europe to be expected over the coming years, it is essential to be acquainted with the radiological manifestations of pulmonary TB, particularly to be able to discriminate active from inactive TB...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
C Trigo, P E A A do Brasil, M J M Costa, L de Castro
Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is characterized by the absence of HBsAg and persistence of the virus genome (HBV-DNA) in liver tissue and/or blood. OBI has been reported in several clinical contexts. However, the clinical significance of OBI in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is unknown. We investigated the OBI prevalence and its impact on the risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) during TB treatment. This was a prospective cohort study with one hundred patients who were treated for TB from 2008 to 2015...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Sanaul Mustafa, V Kusum Devi, Roopa S Pai
Moxifloxacin (MOX) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase inhibitor. Due to its intense hydrophilicity, MOX is cleared from the body within 24 h and required for repetitive doses which may then result in hepatotoxicity and acquisition of MOX resistant-TB, related with its use. To overcome the aforementioned limitations, the current study aimed to develop PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), to act as an efficient carrier for controlled delivery of MOX. To achieve a substantial extension in blood circulation, a combined design, affixation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to MOX-PLGA NPs and adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) (cationic deacetylated chitin) to particle surface, was rose for surface modification of NPs...
August 30, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Krupa Naran, Atica Moosa, Clifton E Barry, Helena I M Boshoff, Valerie Mizrahi, Digby F Warner
The tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery pipeline is fuelled by compounds identified in whole-cell screens against the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phenotypic screening enables selection of molecules that inhibit essential cellular functions in live, intact bacilli grown under a chosen in vitro condition. However, deducing the mechanism of action (MOA), which is important to avoid promiscuous targets, often requires significant biological resources in a lengthy process that risks decoupling medicinal chemistry and biology efforts...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kimberly Kleinke, Runjhun Saran, Juewen Liu
In this work, the effect of Ag⁺ on DNA sensitized Tb(3+) luminescence was studied initially using the Ag⁺-specific RNA-cleaving DNAzyme, Ag10c. While we expected to observe luminescence quenching by Ag⁺, a significant enhancement was produced. Based on this observation, simple DNA oligonucleotide homopolymers were used with systematically varied sequence and length. We discovered that both poly-G and poly-T DNA have a significant emission enhancement by Ag⁺, while the absolute intensity is stronger with the poly-G DNA, indicating that a G-quadruplex DNA is not required for this enhancement...
2016: Sensors
Kavita Chaudhari, Sanjay Surana, Pritam Jain, Harun M Patel
New classes of drugs are needed to treat tuberculosis (TB) in order to combat the emergence of resistance (MDR and XDR) to existing agents and shorten the duration of therapy. Mycobacterial DNA gyrase B subunit has been identified to be one of the potentially under exploited drug targets in the field of antitubercular drug discovery. In the present review, we discussed the synthesis, structural optimization and docking study of effective potent DNA gyrase inhibitor against M. tuberculosis, with improved properties such as enhanced activity against MDR strains, reduced toxicity...
August 20, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Noraini Philip, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues, Timothy William, Daisy Vanitha John
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes millions of death every year. We have sequenced the genome of M. tuberculosis isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The isolated strain was referred as M. tuberculosis SB24. Genomic DNA of the M. tuberculosis SB24 was extracted and subjected to whole genome sequencing using PacBio platform. The draft genome size of M. tuberculosis SB24 was determined to be 4,452,489 bp with a G + C content of 65...
September 2016: Genomics Data
Jianmin Zhao, Pei Jing, Shuyan Xue, Wenju Xu
In this work, a sensitive electrochemical biosensing to Pb(2+) was proposed based on the high specificity of DNAzymes to Pb(2+). The response signal was efficiently amplified by the catalytic hairpin assembly induced by strand replacement reaction and the formation of dendritic structure DNA (DSDNA) by layer-by-layer assembly. Firstly, in the presence of Pb(2+), the substrate strand (S1) of the Pb(2+)-specific DNAzymes was specifically cleaved by Pb(2+). Secondly, one of the two fragments (rS1) introduced into the electrode surface was hybridized with a hairpin DNA (H1) and further replaced by another hairpin DNA (H2) by the hybridization reaction of H1 with H2...
August 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"