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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921087/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-gold-nanoparticles-on-sperm-parameters-and-chromatin-structure-in-mice
#1
Mahsa Nazar, Ali Reza Talebi, Mohammad Hosseini Sharifabad, Abolghasem Abbasi, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Amir Hossein Danafar
BACKGROUND: The particles in the range of 1-100 nm are called nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle is one of the most important metal nanoparticles with wide usage. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of gold nanoparticles on sperm parameters and chromatin structure in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 72 male bulb-c mice were divided into 9 groups including: 4 Sham groups (Sc 1-4), 4 experimental groups (Au 1-4), and 1 control group (C)...
October 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890671/target-based-approaches-for-the-discovery-of-new-antimycobacterial-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Chiara Borsari, Stefania Ferrari, A Venturelli, Maria Paola Costi
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and control of the disease is hampered by the increasing emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Novel drugs are urgently needed to overcome this drug resistance. Among the most relevant targets of the past 3 years, here we consider nine enzymes that have been studied in a target-based approach. These targets are involved mainly in the biosynthesis of the cell wall, α-glucan, coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein precursor, and in energy production, DNA metabolism, and pyrimidine synthesis...
November 23, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865402/some-proteins-of-m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-that-localise-to-the-nucleus-of-thp-1-derived-macrophages
#3
Atul Kumar Agrawal, Rajeev Ranjan, Sharat Chandra, Tofan Kumar Rout, Amit Misra, Thota Jagadeshwar Reddy
Host-pathogen dialectics in tuberculosis (TB) via DNA-protein interactions are emerging. We investigated whether proteins produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) could translocate to the host nucleus. Using lysates of nuclei purified from Mtb-infected THP-1-derived macrophages, we identified at least 15 proteins of Mtb-origin by electrophoretic and chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry. Western blotting confirmed time-dependent accumulation of Mtb EF-Tu, GroEL, GroES and MtrA in the host nucleus...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864515/discovery-of-cofactor-specific-bactericidal-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-inha-inhibitors-using-dna-encoded-library-technology
#4
Holly H Soutter, Paolo Centrella, Matthew A Clark, John W Cuozzo, Christoph E Dumelin, Marie-Aude Guie, Sevan Habeshian, Anthony D Keefe, Kaitlyn M Kennedy, Eric A Sigel, Dawn M Troast, Ying Zhang, Andrew D Ferguson, Gareth Davies, Eleanor R Stead, Jason Breed, Prashanti Madhavapeddi, Jon A Read
Millions of individuals are infected with and die from tuberculosis (TB) each year, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of TB are increasingly prevalent. As such, there is an urgent need to identify novel drugs to treat TB infections. Current frontline therapies include the drug isoniazid, which inhibits the essential NADH-dependent enoyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) reductase, InhA. To inhibit InhA, isoniazid must be activated by the catalase-peroxidase KatG. Isoniazid resistance is linked primarily to mutations in the katG gene...
November 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856347/dna-topoisomerase-i-and-dna-gyrase-as-targets-for-tb-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Valakunja Nagaraja, Adwait A Godbole, Sara R Henderson, Anthony Maxwell
Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest bacterial disease in the world. New therapeutic agents are urgently needed to replace existing drugs for which resistance is a significant problem. DNA topoisomerases are well-validated targets for antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapies. Although bacterial topoisomerase I has yet to be exploited as a target for clinical antibiotics, DNA gyrase has been extensively targeted, including the highly clinically successful fluoroquinolones, which have been utilized in TB therapy...
November 14, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847017/laparoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-chronic-pelvic-pain
#6
Shalini Rajaram, Priyanka Gupta, Bindiya Gupta, Iqbal R Kaur, Neerja Goel
BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis in women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain on laparoscopy, correlate laparoscopic findings with microbiological and histological diagnosis of tuberculosis and assess the response to anti tubercular treatment (ATT) in these cases. METHOD: In a prospective cohort study, fifty women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain were enrolled. Diagnostic laparoscopy was done in all women and fluid from pouch of Douglas and/or saline washings were sent for acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear, conventional and rapid culture and DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for diagnosis of genital TB...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829633/a-label-free-time-resolved-luminescent-platform-for-sensitive-endonuclease-v-detection-based-on-exonuclease-iii-regulated-dna-tb-3-luminescence
#7
Huaijun Nie, Huifen Huang, Wang Li, Tao Yang
Endonuclease V (EndoV) plays the important role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in the maintenance of genomic stability. Highly sensitive detection of EndoV was achieved through an oligonucleotides sensitizing Tb(3+) luminescent technique. We found that although both guanine-rich (G-rich) single-stranded DNA and dGMP could enhance the time-resolved luminescence of Tb(3+), their efficiencies of enhancement were considerably different. Employing such interesting phenomenon, a label-free and time-resolved luminescent strategy for the sensitive detection of EndoV activity was developed based on DNA-enhanced time-resolved luminescence (TRL) of Tb(3+)...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823900/gene-based-neonatal-immune-priming-potentiates-a-mucosal-adenoviral-vaccine-encoding-mycobacterial-ag85b
#8
Guixiang Dai, Hamada F Rady, Weitao Huang, Judd E Shellito, Carol Mason, Alistair J Ramsay
Tuberculosis remains a major public health hazard worldwide, with neonates and young infants potentially more susceptible to infection than adults. BCG, the only vaccine currently available, provides some protection against tuberculous meningitis in children but variable efficacy in adults, and is not safe to use in immune compromised individuals. A safe and effective vaccine that could be given early in life, and that could also potentiate subsequent booster immunization, would represent a significant advance...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813605/association-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-gene-polymorphism-with-osteoarticular-tuberculosis-prognosis-in-a-hebei-population
#9
Y J Lv, S J Liu, W N Hu, G P Zhang, Q Y Ren, L D Zheng, Y C Zhang, R Q Li, Z K Zhang
This study investigated the association of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308, -238, and -863 polymorphisms with osteoarticular tuberculosis (OA-TB) prognosis in a Hebei population. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood samples of 120 OA-TB patients and 100 healthy volunteers. TNF-α-308, -238, and -863 were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism; genotype and allele frequencies were calculated. Serum TNF-α level was significantly higher in OA-TB patients (283.16 ± 51.68 ng/L) than in control (122...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812036/association-of-mannose-binding-lectin-polymorphisms-with-tuberculosis-susceptibility-among-chinese
#10
Cheng Liu, Tao He, Yanxiao Rong, Fengjiao Du, Dongxing Ma, Yujie Wei, Zhiqin Mei, Yuling Wang, Haibin Wang, Yuehua Zhu, Zongde Zhang, Li Zheng, Xueqiong Wu, Huiliang Liu, Wenjun Ding
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Host genetic variability is an important determinant of the risk of developing TB in humans. Although the association between MBL2 polymorphisms and TB has been studied in various populations, the results are controversial. In this study four functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, H/L, X/Y, P/Q and A/B) across the MBL2 gene were genotyped by direct DNA sequencing of PCR products in a case-control population of Chinese Han origin, consisting of 1,020 patients with pulmonary TB and 1,020 controls...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809753/immunogenicity-and-therapeutic-effects-of-pvax1-rv1419-dna-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Yan Liang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Li Xiao, Xuejuan Bai, Xiaomei Wang, Yourong Yang, Junxian Zhang, Jinying Song, Yinping Liu, Ning Li, Xueqiong Wu
Background The situation of tuberculosis (TB) is very severe in China. New therapeutic agents and regimens to treat TB are urgently needed. Objective In this study, a DNA vaccine expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Rv1419 antigen was constructed and its immunogenicity and therapeutic effects were evaluated. Method Normal mice and TB model mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at two-week intervals with saline, plasmid vector pVAX1, M. vaccae vaccine, pVAX1- ag85a (rv3804c) DNA or pVAX1-rv1419 DNA, respectively...
November 2, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798774/detection-of-transrenal-dna-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-treatment-monitoring
#12
Ines Labugger, Jan Heyckendorf, Stefan Dees, Emilia Häussinger, Christian Herzmann, Thomas A Kohl, Elvira Richter, Eric Rivera-Milla, Christoph Lange
PURPOSE: Molecular diagnostics of patients with MTB tuberculosis from urine samples. METHODS: We developed a new molecular assay based on the detection of M. tuberculosis-specific transrenal DNA (trDNA) and tested it for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis at the initiation of anti-tuberculosis therapy and during treatment follow-up. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of trDNA was 96 and 100% when smear-microscopy and trDNA was combined. In a subset of TB treatment naïve patients (n = 11) sensitivity and specificity of trDNA was 64 and 100%, respectively...
October 31, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793104/n-acetyl-cysteine-exhibits-potent-anti-mycobacterial-activity-in-addition-to-its-known-anti-oxidative-functions
#13
Eduardo P Amaral, Elisabete L Conceição, Diego L Costa, Michael S Rocha, Jamocyr M Marinho, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Maria Regina D'Império-Lima, Theolis Barbosa, Alan Sher, Bruno B Andrade
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is thought to induce oxidative stress. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is widely used in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis due to its mucolytic and anti-oxidant activities. Here, we tested whether NAC exerts a direct antibiotic activity against mycobacteria. METHODS: Oxidative stress status in plasma was compared between pulmonary TB (PTB) patients and those with latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or healthy uninfected individuals...
October 28, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780787/polymorphisms-in-the-prostaglandin-receptor-ep2-gene-confers-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#14
Li Liang, Qing Zhang, Liu-Lin Luo, Jun Yue, Yan-Lin Zhao, Min Han, Li-Rong Liu, He-Ping Xiao
OBJECTIVES: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important lipid mediator of the inflammatory immune response during acute and chronic infections. PGE2 modulates a variety of immune functions via four receptors (EP1-EP4), which mediate distinct PGE2 effects. Mice lacking EP2 are more susceptible to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), have a higher bacterial load, and increase size and number of granulomatous lesions. Our aim was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EP2 increase the risk of tuberculosis...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776593/epidemiological-study-of-hepatitis-b-virus-among-prisoners-with-active-tuberculosis-in-central-brazil
#15
L M M Iglecias, M A M Puga, M A Pompílio, S A Teles, J Croda, L A Lima, B V Lago, R M B Martins, A R C Motta-Castro
BACKGROUND: Due to environmental and social conditions inherent to incarceration, tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are major diseases among prison inmates. OBJECTIVE: To determine overall and occult HBV infection (OBI) prevalence rates, risk factors and genotype distribution among inmates with active TB. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 216 inmates with active TB recruited at the largest prisons in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775192/dual-sensitized-luminescent-europium-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-terbium-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-complexes-as-bioimaging-and-light-responsive-therapeutic-agents
#16
Srikanth Dasari, Swati Singh, Sri Sivakumar, Ashis K Patra
Dual-photosensitized stable Eu(ΙΙΙ) and Tb(ΙΙΙ) complexes, namely [Eu(dpq)(tfnb)3 ] (1) and [Tb(dpq)(tfnb)3 ] (2), in which dpq=dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and Htfnb=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-napthyl)-1,3-butanedione, were designed as bioimaging and light-responsive therapeutic agents. Their X-ray structures, photophysical properties, biological interactions, photoinduced DNA damage, photocytotoxicity, and cellular uptake properties were studied. Discrete mononuclear complexes adopt an eight-coordinated {LnN2 O6 } distorted square antiprism geometry with bidentate N,N-donor dpq and O,O-donor tfnb ligands...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764573/mir144-inhibits-antimicrobial-responses-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-human-monocytes-and-macrophages-by-targeting-the-autophagy-protein-dram2
#17
Jin Kyung Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Ki-Sun Park, Dong-Min Shin, Tae Sung Kim, Yi Sak Kim, Hyun-Woo Suh, Soo Yeon Kim, In Soo Kim, Jin-Man Kim, Ji-Woong Son, Kyung Mok Sohn, Sung Soo Jung, Chaeuk Chung, Sang-Bae Han, Chul-Su Yang, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Autophagy is an important antimicrobial effector process that defends against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the human pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous noncoding RNAs, are involved in various biological functions and act as post-transcriptional regulators to target mRNAs. The process by which miRNAs affect antibacterial autophagy and host defense mechanisms against Mtb infections in human monocytes and macrophages is largely uncharacterized. In this study, we show that Mtb significantly induces the expression of MIR144*/hsa-miR-144-5p, which targets the 3'-untranslated region of DRAM2 (DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 2) in human monocytes and macrophages...
October 20, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748178/a-high-throughput-assay-for-developing-inhibitors-of-phop-a-virulence-factor-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Liqin Wang, Miao Xu, Noel Southall, Wei Zheng, Shuishu Wang
Tuberculosis (TB) still kills over 1.5 million people per year despite available anti-TB drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant TB poses a major threat to public health and prompts for an urgent need for new and more effective drugs. The long duration needed to treat TB by the current TB drugs, which target the essential cellular activities, inevitably leads to the emergence of drug-resistance. PhoP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an essential virulence factor, is a novel target for drug development. Guided by the crystal structure of the PhoP-DNA complex, we designed and developed a robust high-throughput screening assay for identification of PhoP inhibitors that disrupt the PhoP-DNA binding...
October 10, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733634/xpert-mtb-rif-assay-shows-faster-clearance-of-m-tuberculosis-dna-with-higher-rifapentine-exposure
#19
A Jayakumar, R M Savic, C K Everett, D Benator, D Alland, C M Heilig, M Weiner, S O Friedrich, N A Martinson, A Kerrigan, C Zamudio, S V Goldberg, W C Whitworth, J L Davis, P Nahid
The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle thresholds (Ct), which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert Ct trajectory and drug exposure during TB treatment to evaluate the potential utility of Xpert Ct for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB consecutively enrolled at ten international clinical trial sites participating in Study 29X, a CDC-sponsored TB Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses up to 20 mg/kg...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731310/wire-and-extended-ladder-model-predict-thz-oscillations-in-dna-monomers-dimers-and-trimers
#20
K Lambropoulos, K Kaklamanis, A Morphis, M Tassi, R Lopp, G Georgiadis, M Theodorakou, M Chatzieleftheriou, C Simserides
We call monomer a B-DNA base pair and study, analytically and numerically, electron or hole oscillations in monomers, dimers and trimers. We employ two tight binding (TB) approaches: (I) at the base-pair level, using the on-site energies of the base pairs and the hopping parameters between successive base pairs i.e. a wire model, and (II) at the single-base level, using the on-site energies of the bases and the hopping parameters between neighbouring bases, specifically between (a) two successive bases in the same strand, (b) complementary bases that define a base pair, and (c) diagonally located bases of successive base pairs, i...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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