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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667256/procalcitonin-and-c-reactive-protein-as-biomarkers-for-neonatal-bacterial-infection
#1
Ashfaque F Quadir, Philip N Britton
AIM: Neonates are predisposed to bacterial infection which are an important cause of early childhood morbidity and mortality globally. It has been proposed that procalcitonin has significant utility as a diagnostic marker for bacterial infection in febrile neonates when compared to C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study is to conduct a literature search to find the best available evidence to answer the clinical question of the utility of procalcitonin when compared to CRP as a predictor of bacterial infection in febrile neonates...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666163/neurodevelopmental-impairment-among-extremely-preterm-infants-in-the-neonatal-research-network
#2
Ira Adams-Chapman, Roy J Heyne, Sara B DeMauro, Andrea F Duncan, Susan R Hintz, Athina Pappas, Betty R Vohr, Scott A McDonald, Abhik Das, Jamie E Newman, Rosemary D Higgins
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the spectrum of neurodevelopmental outcome in a contemporary cohort of extremely preterm infants. We hypothesize that the rate of severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) decreases over time. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants ≤27 weeks' gestational age (GA) from a Neonatal Research Network center that completed neurodevelopmental follow-up assessments between April 1, 2011, and January 1, 2015...
April 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666161/implementation-of-the-sepsis-risk-calculator-at-an-academic-birth-hospital
#3
Miren B Dhudasia, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Karen M Puopolo
BACKGROUND: Multivariate predictive models for estimating the risk of neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) are available as a Web-based sepsis risk calculator (SRC) and may reduce the proportion of newborns empirically treated with antibiotics after birth. EOS risk assessment based on such models would require workflow changes at most birth hospitals. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team of obstetric, neonatal, and information technology staff at a large, academic, birth hospital collaborated to implement the SRC...
April 17, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644420/soluble-trem-1-as-a-predictive-factor-of-neonatal-sepsis-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Ioannis Bellos, Georgia Fitrou, Georgios Daskalakis, Nikolaos Thomakos, Nikolaos Papantoniou, Vasilios Pergialiotis
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1) in detecting sepsis in adults has already been proven. To date, however, consensus in the field of neonatal sepsis is lacking. The purpose of the present systematic review is to accumulate current evidence in this field. SEARCH STRATEGY: We systematically searched Medline (1966-2017), Scopus (2004-2017), Clinicaltrials.gov (2008-2017), EMBASE (1980-2017), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL (1999-2017) and Google Scholar (2004-2017) along with reference lists from included studies...
April 11, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643892/association-of-in-hospital-outcome-of-acute-kidney-injury-aki-with-etiology-among-newborns-at-a-tertiary-care-unit
#5
Muhammad Asghar Ali, Abdur Rehman, Ejaz Ahmed
Objective: To determine association of in-hospital outcome of AKI with etiology in newborns at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Pediatric Neonatology, The Children's Hospital and Institute of the Child Health, Multan by using non-probability purposive sampling technique from June 2016 to June 2017. A total of 101 newborns diagnosed with acute kidney injury were registered. Etiological factors were assessed and these patients were followed till discharge to monitor in-hospital outcomes...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642754/daily-gentamicin-using-ideal-body-weight-demonstrates-lower-risk-of-postpartum-endometritis-and-increased-chance-of-successful-outcome-compared-with-traditional-8-hour-dosing-for-the-treatment-of-intrapartum-chorioamnionitis
#6
Daniel Martingano, Audrey Renson, Sharon Rogoff, Shailini Singh, Meera Kesavan Nasir, Juliette Kim, Jeanne Carey
BACKGROUND: Clinical chorioamnionitis complicates approximately 1-4% of pregnancies overall. Although universal agreement does not exist regarding the antibiotic regimen of choice, most studies have evaluated intravenous ampicillin dosed at 2 g every 6 hours plus gentamicin dosed every 8 hours. Only three studies have examined daily gentamicin for the treatment of intrapartum chorioamnionitis and thus is insufficiently investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to determine whether daily dosing of gentamicin using ideal body weight for the treatment of intrapartum chorioamnionitis is more or equivalently efficacious when compared to traditional 8-hour dosing regimens...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626210/the-life-cycle-of-non-polio-enteroviruses-and-how-to-target-it
#7
REVIEW
Jim Baggen, Hendrik Jan Thibaut, Jeroen R P M Strating, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
The genus Enterovirus (EV) of the family Picornaviridae includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, numbered enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. These diverse viruses cause a variety of diseases, including non-specific febrile illness, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, neonatal sepsis-like disease, encephalitis, paralysis and respiratory diseases. In recent years, several non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have emerged as serious public health concerns. These include EV-A71, which has caused epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Southeast Asia, and EV-D68, which recently caused a large outbreak of severe lower respiratory tract disease in North America...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621858/common-neonatal-presentations-to-the-primary-care-physician
#8
Alicia Quach
BACKGROUND: Newborn babies are very vulnerable in their first weeks of life. Timely and appropriate management of neonatal conditions is paramount for health and developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of common neonatal presentations to general practice, and highlight significant conditions that may require referral to the emergency department and/or other specialist. DISCUSSION: Clinical history and examination are the most important tools in neonatal assessment...
April 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618272/does-fortification-of-pasteurized-donor-human-milk-increase-the-incidence-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-among-preterm-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Bethou Adhisivam, Dilesh Kohat, Vasanthan Tanigasalam, Vishnu Bhat, Nishad Plakkal, C Palanivel
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of fortified pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) versus unfortified PDHM on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and immediate outcome among preterm neonates. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 80 healthy preterm neonates randomized to two groups (Group A and B). Neonates in Group A and B were fed with fortified PDHM and unfortified PDHM respectively...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615159/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-neonates-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Christopher McPherson, Caren Liviskie, Brandy Zeller, Miranda P Nelson, Jason G Newland
Neonatal infections result in significant morbidity and mortality. Antibiotics are vital for the treatment of infections but disrupt the neonatal microbiome, put the infant at risk for an adverse drug reaction, and may lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. Immediately after birth, clinicians must determine which infants require empiric antibiotics. Online risk stratification tools may provide a superior approach to decision trees. In infants who require empiric therapy for early-onset sepsis, ampicillin and an aminoglycoside with dosing based on recent pharmacokinetic studies represents the most appropriate first-line agents; third-generation cephalosporins should be reserved for patients with a high likelihood of Gram-negative meningitis...
March 1, 2018: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615158/reduction-in-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-nicu-practical-lessons-for-its-achievement-and-sustainability
#11
Judith A Hawes, Kyong-Soon Lee
Central venous catheters are commonly used for the provision of parenteral nutrition and medications for critically ill neonates in the NICU. However, central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a major complication associated with their use and remain an important cause of nosocomial sepsis in NICUs. Central line-associated bloodstream infection has shifted from being an expected routine complication of central line use to an adverse event now evaluated as a critical event with the goal of identifying root causes so future CLABSI events are prevented...
March 1, 2018: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613975/antibiotic-overuse-in-premature-low-birth-weight-infants-in-a-developing-country
#12
Maria S Rueda, Renzo Calderon-Anyosa, Jorge Gonzales, Christie G Turin, Alonso Zea-Vera, Jaime Zegarra, Sicilia Bellomo, Luis Cam, Anne Castaneda, Theresa J Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality, especially in premature and low-birth-weight (LBW) infants. Prompt antibiotic therapy is warranted, but its inappropriate use leads to bacterial resistance and adverse outcomes. Our objective is to describe the antibiotic use for late onset sepsis (LOS) in Peruvian premature infants. METHODS: Prospective study as a secondary analysis of a clinical trial in three Neonatal Care Units in Peru...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613973/genetic-relatedness-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-in-gut-and-skin-of-preterm-neonates-and-breast-milk-of-their-mothers
#13
Hiie Soeorg, Hanna Kadri Metsvaht, Evamaria Elisabet Keränen, Imbi Eelmäe, Mirjam Merila, Mari-Liis Ilmoja, Tuuli Metsvaht, Irja Lutsar
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a common colonizer and cause of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates. By describing genetic relatedness, we aimed to determine whether mother's breast milk (BM) is a source of S. haemolyticus colonizing neonatal gut and skin and/or causing LOS. METHODS: S. haemolyticus was isolated from stool and skin swabs of 49 BM-fed preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit, 20 healthy BM-fed term neonates and BM of mothers once a week and typed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608958/point-prevalence-surveys-of-antimicrobial-use-among-eight-neonatal-intensive
#14
Sumanth Gandra, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Srinivas Murki, Sanjeev K Singh, Ravishankar Kanithi, Dasaratha R Jinka, Ashok K Chikkappa, Sreeram Subramanian, Anita Sharma, Dhanya Dharmapalan, Hemasree Kandraju, Anil Kumar Vasudevan, Onkaraiah Tunga, Akhila Akula, Yingfen Hsia, Mike Sharland, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND: Information about antimicrobial use is scarce and poorly understood among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in India. In this study, we describe antimicrobial use in eight NICUs using four point prevalence surveys (PPSs). METHODS: As part of the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy in Neonates and Children (GARPEC) study, one-day, cross-sectional, hospital-based PPSs were conducted four times between 1 February 2016 and 28 February 2017 in eight NICUs...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606026/strategies-for-preventing-early-onset-sepsis-and-for-managing-neonates-at-risk-wide-variability-across-six-western-countries
#15
Alberto Berardi, Cecilia Rossi, Caterina Spada, Giulia Vellani, Isotta Guidotti, Angela Lanzoni, Milena Azzalli, Irene Papa, Chiara Giugno, Laura Lucaccioni
OBJECTIVE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) early-onset sepsis (EOS) has declined after widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. However, strategies for preventing EOS may differ across countries. The analysis of their strategies allows to compare the effectiveness of prevention in different countries and suggests opportunities for improvement. METHODS: We compared six western countries. Prevention strategies, incidence rates of EOS and approaches for managing neonates at-risk were analysed...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605824/utility-of-serum-resistin-in-the-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis-and-prediction-of-disease-severity-in-term-and-late-preterm-infants
#16
Ahmed Anwar Khattab, Muhammad Said El-Mekkawy, Mohamed Ahmed Helwa, Ehab Seif Omar
INTRODUCTION: Resistin is a proinflammatory hormone recently proposed as a sepsis biomarker. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values of this marker in neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study that includes 60 term and late preterm neonates with proven and possible sepsis besides 30 healthy controls. Resistin and other biomarkers, like C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured within 2 h of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603353/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-neonatal-unit-reduces-antibiotic-exposure
#17
K N McCarthy, A Hawke, E M Dempsey
AIM: Antimicrobial stewardship plays an important role in ensuring that the appropriate drug, dose, route and duration are employed to provide adequate treatment while minimizing the risks of unnecessary antibiotic use. Surveillance of antibiotic use with prescriber feedback is recommended as a high impact stewardship intervention. The aim of this study was to reduce unnecessary antimicrobial use in a neonatal unit. METHODS: A prospective audit was performed to assess compliance with antimicrobial guidelines...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602260/c-reactive-protein-and-immature-to-total-neutrophil-ratio-have-no-utility-in-guiding-lumbar-puncture-in-suspected-neonatal-sepsis
#18
Christopher D Goldfinch, Tony Korman, Despina Kotsanas, David P Burgner, Kenneth Tan
AIM: Meningitis may complicate neonatal sepsis, but there is scant evidence to inform the decision to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) and considerable variation in practice. We investigated whether inflammatory markers - C-reactive protein (CRP) and immature-to-total neutrophil ratio (ITR) - were predictive of meningitis or significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and useful in guiding the decision to perform a LP. METHODS: We studied all inpatients in a single tertiary neonatal unit who were <6 months of age who had a LP performed between March 2011 and October 2014...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599516/enterobacter-bugandensis-a-novel-enterobacterial-species-associated-with-severe-clinical-infection
#19
Niladri Bhusan Pati, Swapnil Prakash Doijad, Tilman Schultze, Gopala Krishna Mannala, Yancheng Yao, Sangeeta Jaiswal, Daniel Ryan, Mrutyunjay Suar, Konrad Gwozdzinski, Boyke Bunk, Mobarak Abu Mraheil, Mohamed A Marahiel, Julian D Hegemann, Cathrin Spröer, Alexander Goesmann, Linda Falgenhauer, Torsten Hain, Can Imirzalioglu, Stephen E Mshana, Jörg Overmann, Trinad Chakraborty
Nosocomial pathogens can cause life-threatening infections in neonates and immunocompromised patients. E. bugandensis (EB-247) is a recently described species of Enterobacter, associated with neonatal sepsis. Here we demonstrate that the extended spectrum ß-lactam (ESBL) producing isolate EB-247 is highly virulent in both Galleria mellonella and mouse models of infection. Infection studies in a streptomycin-treated mouse model showed that EB-247 is as efficient as Salmonella Typhimurium in inducing systemic infection and release of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594085/stress-signals-during-sucking-activity-are-associated-with-longer-transition-time-to-full-oral-feeding-in-premature-infants
#20
You Gyoung Yi, Byung-Mo Oh, Seung Han Shin, Jin Yong Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Hyung-Ik Shin
Several treatments have been proposed to shorten the time to the attainment of full oral feeding (FOF) for premature infants, but there are only a few evaluation methods useful in estimating predictors of this period. We investigated whether specific items within the disorganized sucking patterns described by the Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) could estimate the time to FOF in preterm infants with feeding difficulty. Preterm infants diagnosed with a disorganized sucking pattern in the NOMAS evaluation before 50 weeks of postmenstrual age were included...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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