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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239936/the-cancer-care-experiences-of-gay-lesbian-and-bisexual-patients-a-secondary-analysis-of-data-from-the-uk-cancer-patient-experience-survey
#1
N J Hulbert-Williams, C O Plumpton, P Flowers, R McHugh, R D Neal, J Semlyen, L Storey
Understanding the effects of population diversity on cancer-related experiences is a priority in oncology care. Previous research demonstrates inequalities arising from variation in age, gender and ethnicity. Inequalities and sexual orientation remain underexplored. Here, we report, for the first time in the UK, a quantitative secondary analysis of the 2013 UK National Cancer Patient Experience Survey which contains 70 questions on specific aspects of care, and six on overall care experiences. 68,737 individuals responded, of whom 0...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239907/effects-of-oral-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-administration-on-body-weight-in-overweight-or-obese-subjects-a-crossover-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Nong Li, Weili Yan, Xiaojuan Hu, Yongdi Huang, Fugang Wang, Weiguo Zhang, Qian Wang, Xiaoling Wang, Kehong Sun
OBJECTIVE: Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has shown beneficial properties on diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral ALA on body weight in subjects with overweight or obese. DESIGN: Single-centre, randomized, double-blind, crossover controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 166 subjects of Chinese Han ethnicity with a BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) were screened and 103 subjects fulfilled the study requirements, in terms of informed consent and participation to the study...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239743/sleep-depressive-anxiety-disorders-and-obesity-in-puerto-rican-youth
#3
Daphne Koinis-Mitchell, Nicolás Rosario-Matos, Rafael R Ramírez, Pedro García, Glorisa J Canino, Alexander N Ortega
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents from Puerto Rican backgrounds are found to have higher rates of obesity than adolescents from other ethnic groups in the US. The objective of this study is to examine whether sleeping the recommended number of hours and depression or anxiety disorder are independently related to risk for obesity in a sample of Island Puerto Rican adolescents, and whether the association between sleep and obesity is moderated by depression or anxiety disorder. METHODS: Data from the study were derived from the third wave of an island wide probability sample of Puerto Rican youth residing on the Island, 10-25 years of age (N = 825), with a response rate of 79...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239512/exploring-the-continuum-of-vaccine-hesitancy-between-african-american-and-white-adults-results-of-a-qualitative-study
#4
Sandra Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Donald Musa, Karen Hilyard, Vicki Freimuth
Vaccine delay and refusal present very real threats to public health. Since even a slight reduction in vaccination rates could produce major consequences as herd immunity is eroded, it is imperative to understand the factors that contribute to decision-making about vaccines. Recent scholarship on the concept of "vaccine hesitancy" emphasizes that vaccine behaviors and beliefs tend to fall along a continuum from refusal to acceptance. Most research on hesitancy has focused on parental decision-making about childhood vaccines, but could be extended to explore decision-making related to adult immunization against seasonal influenza...
December 29, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239457/covariate-selection-for-multilevel-models-with-missing-data
#5
Miguel Marino, Orfeu M Buxton, Yi Li
Missing covariate data hampers variable selection in multilevel regression settings. Current variable selection techniques for multiply-imputed data commonly address missingness in the predictors through list-wise deletion and stepwise-selection methods which are problematic. Moreover, most variable selection methods are developed for independent linear regression models and do not accommodate multilevel mixed effects regression models with incomplete covariate data. We develop a novel methodology that is able to perform covariate selection across multiply-imputed data for multilevel random effects models when missing data is present...
2017: Stat: the ISI's Journal for Rapid Dissemination of Statistics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239395/patterns-of-sociodemographic-and-clinicopathologic-characteristics-of-stages-ii-and-iii-colorectal-cancer-patients-by-age-examining-potential-mechanisms-of-young-onset-disease
#6
Caitlin C Murphy, Hanna K Sanoff, Karyn B Stitzenberg, John A Baron, Jennifer L Lund, Robert S Sandler
Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age < 50) populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n = 6, 862). Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification...
2017: Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239245/a-decade-of-change-measuring-the-extent-depth-and-severity-of-food-insecurity
#7
Kelly Stamper Balistreri
Rates of food insecurity in the US have been rising since 2000 spiking with the onset of the Great Recession in 2008, and have remained essentially unchanged since then despite improvements in the economy. The present study employed a series of indices adapted from the poverty literature to examine the depth and severity of food insecurity across the decade by race and ethnicity among low-income households with and without children. The most rapid increases in the depth and severity of food insecurity were found among low-income households without children...
September 2016: Journal of Family and Economic Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239218/coping-mediates-the-association-between-gender-and-depressive-symptomatology-in-adolescence
#8
Ashley M Malooly, Kaitlin M Flannery, Christine McCauley Ohannessian
Previous studies have found evidence for gender and racial/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms in adolescence; however, the mechanisms driving this relationship are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the role of individual differences in dispositional coping in the relationships between gender and depressive symptomatology, and race/ethnicity and depressive symptomatology. Surveys were administered to 905 15-17 year old adolescents (mean age 16.10, SD = .67; 54% girls, n = 485) in the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009...
March 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239010/antiretroviral-therapy-racial-disparities-among-publicly-insured-californians-with-hiv
#9
Raphael J Landovitz, Katherine A Desmond, Arleen A Leibowitz
Only 43% of Americans with HIV are virally suppressed; the rate is lower for African Americans, even among insured populations. This study uses 2010 Medicare and Medicaid data for HIV-positive Californians to examine how antiretroviral treatment (ART) relates to patient and provider characteristics. Logistic regressions isolated the effect of race/ethnicity on receipt of ART. Over 90% of the full sample received any ART. Nearly 80% of ART users received a recommended combination for at least half the year; half had a recommended combination for 90% of the year...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238992/characteristics-of-effective-colorectal-cancer-screening-navigation-programs-in-federally-qualified-health-centers-a-systematic-review
#10
Jermy-Leigh B Domingo, Kathryn L Braun
In the U.S., colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality have declined due to screening and improvements in early detection; however, racial/ethnic disparities in screening and mortality persist. Patient navigation has been shown to be effective in increasing CRC screening prevalence. This systematic review answered three questions about navigation in federally qualified community health centers (FQHCs): 1) Which navigation activities increased CRC screening prevalence? 2) What were the challenges to implementing these programs in FQHCs? 3) Which clinic protocols supported screening completion? Findings suggest that navigation services must be tailored to the specific screening test provided...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238771/lower-prevalence-of-celiac-disease-and-gluten-related-disorders-in-persons-living-in-southern-vs-northern-latitudes-of-the-united-states
#11
Aynur Unalp-Arida, Constance E Ruhl, Rok Seon Choung, Tricia L Brantner, Joseph A Murray
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between prevalence of celiac disease and geographic region is incompletely understood, but the occurrence of several autoimmune disorders has been found to vary along a North-South gradient. We examined geographic, demographic, and clinical factors associated with prevalence of celiac disease and gluten-free diet (GFD) in the United States (US). METHODS: In a population-based study, we analyzed data on gluten-related conditions from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2009 through 2014, on 22,277 participants 6 years and older...
February 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238731/cerebrospinal-fluid-neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-levels-and-their-correlation-with-clinical-variables-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Shinsuke Hidese, Kotaro Hattori, Daimei Sasayama, Tomoko Miyakawa, Ryo Matsumura, Yuuki Yokota, Ikki Ishida, Junko Matsuo, Takamasa Noda, Sumiko Yoshida, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Miho Ota, Hiroshi Kunugi
PURPOSE: Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in neural plasticity, and its altered function has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. However, previous studies have yielded inconsistent results on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NCAM levels in psychiatric disorders. The aim of our study was to examine CSF NCAM levels in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), and their possible relationship with clinical variables...
February 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238696/upper-body-subcutaneous-fat-is-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#13
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Kate E Therkelsen, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, Daniel Levy, Michelle T Long
BACKGROUND: Upper body subcutaneous fat is a distinct fat depot that may confer increased cardiometabolic risk. We examined the cross-sectional associations between upper body subcutaneous fat volume and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Participants were from the Framingham Heart Study who underwent multi-detector computed tomography between 2008-2011. Sex-specific multivariable-adjusted regression analyses were conducted. Covariates included age, ethnicity, smoking status, alcohol intake, postmenopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238670/association-of-pregnancy-with-stone-formation-among-us-women-a-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-analysis-2007-2012
#14
Lael Reinstatler, Sari Khaleel, Vernon M Pais
PURPOSE: Lithogenic urinary changes occur during pregnancy. Such changes may increase stone proclivity in working and child rearing aged women thereafter. However, such an association has not been previously identified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative data from 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the association between pregnancy and nephrolithiasis. RESULTS: The weighted national prevalence of nephrolithiasis among women ≤50 was 6...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238636/-kawasaki-disease-is-more-prevalent-in-rural-areas-of-catalonia-spain
#15
Judith Sánchez-Manubens, Jordi Antón, Rosa Bou, Estibaliz Iglesias, Joan Calzada-Hernandez, Xavier Rodó, Josep-Antón Morguí
INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limited systemic vasculitis relatively common in childhood. The etiology of KD is still unknown, although clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features suggest an infectious origin or trigger. Differences on incidence between countries have been related to specific genetic factors, ethnicity, country of birth and some other sociocultural and environmental factors. We present a population-based study on incidence of KD in Catalonia (Spain), focusing on differences between patients in rural and non-rural areas of the region...
February 23, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238446/ctns-molecular-genetics-profile-in-a-persian-nephropathic-cystinosis-population
#16
Farideh Ghazi, Rozita Hosseini, Mansoureh Akouchekian, Shahram Teimourian, Zohreh Ataei Kachoei, Hassan Otukesh, William A Gahl, Babak Behnam
PURPOSE: In this report, we document the CTNS gene mutations of 28 Iranian patients with nephropathic cystinosis age 1-17 years. All presented initially with severe failure to thrive, polyuria, and polydipsia. METHODS: Cystinosis was primarily diagnosed by a pediatric nephrologist and then referred to the Iran University of Medical Sciences genetics clinic for consultation and molecular analysis, which involved polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to determine the presence or absence of the 57-kb founder deletion in CTNS, followed by direct sequencing of the coding exons of CTNS...
February 23, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238225/direct-modeling-of-regression-effects-for-transition-probabilities-in-the-progressive-illness-death-model
#17
Leyla Azarang, Thomas Scheike, Jacobo de Uña-Álvarez
In this work, we present direct regression analysis for the transition probabilities in the possibly non-Markov progressive illness-death model. The method is based on binomial regression, where the response is the indicator of the occupancy for the given state along time. Randomly weighted score equations that are able to remove the bias due to censoring are introduced. By solving these equations, one can estimate the possibly time-varying regression coefficients, which have an immediate interpretation as covariate effects on the transition probabilities...
February 26, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238119/use-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-in-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-is-associated-with-race-sexual-risk-behavior-and-peer-network-size
#18
Lisa M Kuhns, Anna L Hotton, John Schneider, Robert Garofalo, Kayo Fujimoto
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious to prevent HIV infection, however, uptake among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is relatively low. The purpose of this study was to describe PrEP use and related factors in a representative sample of YMSM in two cities, Chicago and Houston. YMSM, ages 16-29, were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2014 to 2016. Correlates of PrEP uptake were assessed in weighted multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 12.2% of participants (of 394) reported ever taking PrEP; Black YMSM had the lowest rates of uptake (4...
February 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238032/information-seeking-and-satisfaction-with-information-sources-among-spouses-of-men-with-newly-diagnosed-local-stage-prostate-cancer
#19
Aasthaa Bansal, Lisel M Koepl, Catherine R Fedorenko, Chunyu Li, Judith Lee Smith, Ingrid J Hall, David F Penson, Scott D Ramsey
Information sources about prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are typically designed for patients. Little is known about the availability and utility of information for partners. The objectives of our study were to evaluate information sources used by partners to understand prostate cancer management options, their perceived usefulness, and the relationship between sources used and satisfaction with treatment experience. A longitudinal survey of female partners of men newly diagnosed with local-stage prostate cancer was conducted in three different geographic regions...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237909/the-relationship-between-smoking-intensity-and-subclinical-cardiovascular-injury-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#20
Mahmoud Al Rifai, Andrew P DeFillippis, John W McEvoy, Michael E Hall, Ana Navas Acien, Miranda R Jones, Rachel Keith, Hoda S Magid, Carlos J Rodriguez, Graham R Barr, Emelia J Benjamin, Rose Marie Robertson, Aruni Bhatnagar, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modern tobacco regulatory science requires an understanding of which biomarkers of cardiovascular injury are most sensitive to cigarette smoking exposure. METHODS: We studied self-reported current smokers from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Smoking intensity was defined by number of cigarettes/day and urinary cotinine levels. Subclinical cardiovascular injury was assessed using markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 & 2 (IL-2 & IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)], thrombosis (fibrinogen, D-dimer, homocysteine), myocardial injury (troponin T; TnT), endothelial damage (albumin: creatinine ratio), and vascular function [aortic & carotid distensibility, flow-mediated dilation (FMD)]...
January 19, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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