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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335856/abscopal-effects-of-radiotherapy-and-combined-mrna-based-immunotherapy-in-a-syngeneic-ova-expressing-thymoma-mouse-model
#1
Lucas Basler, Aleksandra Kowalczyk, Regina Heidenreich, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Savas Tsitsekidis, Daniel Zips, Franziska Eckert, Stephan M Huber
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis and immune evasion present major challenges of cancer treatment. Radiotherapy can overcome immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. Anecdotal reports suggest abscopal anti-tumor immune responses. This study assesses abscopal effects of radiotherapy in combination with mRNA-based cancer vaccination (RNActive®). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were injected with ovalbumin-expressing thymoma cells into the right hind leg (primary tumor) and left flank (secondary tumor) with a delay of 4 days...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299375/radiation-generates-an-abscopal-response-and-complete-resolution-of-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-anal-canal-a-case-report
#2
Moss Bruton Joe, Julian J Lum, Peter H Watson, R Petter Tonseth, John Paul McGhie, Pauline T Truong
The abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon in the setting of radiation therapy (RT) for metastatic cancer where tumor regression occurs distant from the site of treatment. A proposed mechanism of the abscopal effect is the activation of a systemic antitumor immune response by localized RT. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of the abscopal effect in squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with metastases to pelvic lymph nodes, liver and bone. After palliative RT to the pelvis with sensitizing chemotherapy, complete response was observed not only in the primary tumor but also in bone and multiple liver metastases at 4 months after treatment, an effect that remained durable at 4-year follow-up...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298413/a-recombinant-antibody-expressing-influenza-virus-delays-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Jennifer R Hamilton, Gayathri Vijayakumar, Peter Palese
Influenza A virus (IAV) has shown promise as an oncolytic agent. To improve IAV as an oncolytic virus, we sought to design a transgenic virus expressing an immune checkpoint-inhibiting antibody during the viral life cycle. To test whether it was possible to express an antibody during infection, an influenza virus was constructed encoding the heavy chain of an antibody on the PB1 segment and the light chain of an antibody on the PA segment. This antibody-expressing IAV grows to high titers, and the antibodies secreted from infected cells exhibit comparable functionality with hybridoma-produced antibodies...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287248/generating-the-abscopal-effect-by-combining-proapoptotic-peptides-with-il-12-based-immunotherapy
#4
Filipe Martins, Grégoire Stalder, Michel Obeid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281479/abscopal-effect-of-radiation-on-bone-metastases-of-breast-cancer-a-case-report
#5
Henry Wc Leung, Shyh-Yau Wang, Huang Jin-Jhih, Agnes Lf Chan
The abscopal effect is defined as the clearance of distant tumors after applying localized irradiation to a particular tumor site. It has been proposed that a mechanism for the abscopal effect might be the activation of the immune system, which leads to immunogenic tumor cell death. Here, we describe a woman with advanced breast cancer that received modified ablative radiation therapy that targeted her primary breast tumor. She experienced an apparent regression of metastatic mass in the thoracic spine. This case supported the hypothesis that the abscopal effect might be attributable to an activation of the systemic immune response...
December 27, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280462/optimizing-dose-per-fraction-a-new-chapter-in-the-story-of-the-abscopal-effect
#6
EDITORIAL
Silvia C Formenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248428/irradiation-enhances-abscopal-anti-tumor-effects-of-antigen-specific-immunotherapy-through-regulating-tumor-microenvironment
#7
Ming-Cheng Chang, Yu-Li Chen, Han-Wei Lin, Ying-Cheng Chiang, Chi-Fang Chang, Shu-Feng Hsieh, Chi-An Chen, Wei-Zen Sun, Wen-Fang Cheng
Ionizing radiation therapy is a well-established method of eradicating locally advanced tumors. Here, we examined whether local RT enhanced the potency of an antigen-specific DNA vaccine, and we investigated the possible underlying mechanism. Using the HPV16 E6/E7+ syngeneic TC-1 tumor, we evaluated the combination of CTGF/E7 vaccination with local irradiation with regard to synergistic antigen-specific immunity and anti-tumor effects. Tumor-bearing mice treated with local RT (6 Gy twice weekly) and CTGF/E7 DNA vaccination exhibited dramatically increased numbers of E7-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cell precursors, higher titers of anti-E7 Abs, and significantly reduced tumor size...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239192/-combined-regimens-in-immunotherapy
#8
B Melichar, M Spisarová
The advent of immunotherapy has changed our concept of how to manage metastatic disease. With the exception of relatively rare tumors, the treatment of metastatic cancer is still considered as palliative, and in systemic treatment immunotherapy is often selected, considering better tolerance. Immunotherapy opens the perspective of a long-term, possibly durable, response, and, in contrast to other approaches to targeted therapy, is active across a spectrum of tumors. Combined regimens that increase the efficacy, given the context, are thus of importance...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204520/comprehensive-assessment-of-circulating-immune-cell-populations-in-response-to-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-liver-cancer
#9
Michael P Gustafson, Svetlana Bornschlegl, Sean S Park, Dennis A Gastineau, Lewis R Roberts, Allan B Dietz, Christopher L Hallemeier
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can positively influence an antitumor immune response by inducing necrotic cell death. SBRT also been shown to eliminate tumors outside the radiation therapy field through an immune-mediated process known as the abscopal effect. Recent advances in immunotherapy may provide new therapeutic approaches for patients with liver cancer. Therefore, understanding the immune status of patients with cancer will likely guide how immunotherapy might be used in combination with SBRT...
October 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203952/effect-of-intra-tumoral-magnetic-nanoparticle-hyperthermia-and-viral-nanoparticle-immunogenicity-on-primary-and-metastatic-cancer
#10
P Jack Hoopes, Courtney M Mazur, Bjorn Osterberg, Ailin Song, David J Gladstone, Nicole F Steinmetz, Frank A Veliz, Alicea A Bursey, Robert J Wagner, Steven N Fiering
Although there is long association of medical hyperthermia and immune stimulation, the relative lack of a quantifiable and reproducible effect has limited the utility and advancement of this relationship in preclinical/clinical cancer and non-cancer settings. Recent cancer-based immune findings (immune checkpoint modulators etc.) including improved mechanistic understanding and biological tools now make it possible to modify and exploit the immune system to benefit conventional cancer treatments such as radiation and hyperthermia...
January 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203951/hypo-fractionated-radiation-magnetic-nanoparticle-hyperthermia-and-a-viral-immunotherapy-treatment-of-spontaneous-canine-cancer
#11
P Jack Hoopes, Karen L Moodie, Alicia A Petryk, James D Petryk, Shawntel Sechrist, David J Gladstone, Nicole F Steinmetz, Frank A Veliz, Alicea A Bursey, Robert J Wagner, Ashish Rajan, Danielle Dugat, Margaret Crary-Burney, Steven N Fiering
It has recently been shown that cancer treatments such as radiation and hyperthermia, which have conventionally been viewed to have modest immune based anti-cancer effects, may, if used appropriately stimulate a significant and potentially effective local and systemic anti-cancer immune effect (abscopal effect) and improved prognosis. Using eight spontaneous canine cancers (2 oral melanoma, 3 oral amelioblastomas and 1 carcinomas), we have shown that hypofractionated radiation (6 x 6 Gy) and/or magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (2 X 43°C / 45 minutes) and/or an immunogenic virus-like nanoparticle (VLP, 2 x 200 μg) are capable of delivering a highly effective cancer treatment that includes an immunogenic component...
January 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198327/critical-features-and-challenges-associated-with-imaging-in-patients-undergoing-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Michele Porcu, Zuzana Hlavata, Pushpamali De Silva, Marco Puzzoni, Karen Willard-Gallo, Mario Scartozzi, Luca Saba
Manipulating an individual's immune system through immune checkpoint blockade is revolutionizing the paradigms of cancer treatment. Peculiar patterns and kinetics of response have been observed with these new drugs, rendering the assessment of tumor burden particularly challenging in cancer immunotherapy. The mechanisms of action for immune checkpoint blockade, based upon engagement of the adaptive immune system, can generate unusual response patterns, including pseudoprogression, hyperprogression, atypical and delayed responses...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174433/novel-chimeric-parapoxvirus-cf189-as-an-oncolytic-immunotherapy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#13
Audrey H Choi, Michael P O'Leary, Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Jianming Lu, Sang-In Kim, Yuman Fong, Nanhai G Chen
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. Here we describe a novel, genetically engineered parapoxvirus that efficiently kills triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: A novel chimeric parapoxvirus (CF189) was generated via homologous recombination and identified through high-throughput screening. Cytotoxicity was assayed in vitro in 4 triple-negative breast cancer cell lines...
November 22, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138841/enhanced-activated-t%C3%A2-cell-subsets-in-prostate-cancer-patients-receiving-iodine-125-low-dose-rate-prostate-brachytherapy
#14
Makoto Kubo, Takefumi Satoh, Hiromichi Ishiyama, Ken-Ichi Tabata, Hideyasu Tsumura, Shoko Komori, Masatsugu Iwamura, Shiro Baba, Kazushige Hayakawa, Toshihiko Kawamura, Fumiya Obata
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the most important treatments for prostate cancer. Although RT can kill cancer cells through direct and indirect effects of radiation, it occasionally induces an abscopal effect whereby localized radiation treatment is associated with elimination of metastatic cancer at a distance from the irradiated area. Thus, RT may induce an effective antitumor immune response, although the mechanism involved has remained unclear. The present was designed to evaluate this effect of RT in 36 patients with prostate cancer who provided informed consent prior to enrollment in this clinical trial...
November 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114600/abscopal-effect-in-recurrent-colorectal-cancer-treated-with-carbon-ion-radiation-therapy-2-case-reports
#15
Daniel K Ebner, Tadashi Kamada, Shigeru Yamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100279/radiotherapy-prolongs-the-survival-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-undergone-to-an-immune-modulating-treatment-with-dose-fractioned-cisplatin-and-metronomic-etoposide-and-bevacizumab-mpebev
#16
Pierpaolo Pastina, Valerio Nardone, Cirino Botta, Stefania Croci, Paolo Tini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Veronica Ricci, Maria Grazia Cusi, Claudia Gandolfo, Gabriella Misso, Silvia Zappavigna, Michele Caraglia, Antonio Giordano, Donatella Aldinucci, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale
Radiotherapy (RT), together with a direct cytolytic effect on tumor tissue, also elicits systemic immunological events, which sometimes result in the regression of distant metastases (abscopal effect). We have shown the safety and anti-tumor activity of a novel metronomic chemotherapy (mCH) regimen with dose-fractioned cisplatin, oral etoposide and bevacizumab, a mAb against the vasculo-endothelial-growth-factor (mPEBev regimen), in metastatic non-small-cell-lung cancer (mNSCLC). This regimen, designed on the results of translational studies, showed immune-modulating effects that could trigger and empower the immunological effects associated with tumor irradiation...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095061/history-of-bystander-effects-research-1905-present-what-s-in-a-name
#17
Carmel Mothersill, Andrej Rusin, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Colin Seymour
PURPOSE: This review, which arose from a Radiation Research Society History symposium, traces the history of "bystander effects" or "indirect effects" (also known as "abscopal effects", "clastogenic effects" and more recently "the secretosome"). In 1905, Murphy first drew attention to effects caused by the injection of irradiated cells into animals. In the present day, bystander effects are seen as part of the secretosome, where they coordinate responses to stressors at the tissue, organism, and population level...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027221/abscopal-immunological-effects-of-radiotherapy-narrowing-the-gap-between-clinical-and-preclinical-experiences
#18
REVIEW
Nikko Brix, Anna Tiefenthaller, Heike Anders, Claus Belka, Kirsten Lauber
Radiotherapy-despite being a local therapy that meanwhile is characterized by an impressively high degree of spatial accuracy-can stimulate systemic phenomena which occasionally lead to regression and rejection of non-irradiated, distant tumor lesions. These abscopal effects of local irradiation have been observed in sporadic clinical case reports since the beginning of the 20th century, and extensive preclinical work has contributed to identify systemic anti-tumor immune responses as the underlying driving forces...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977985/improving-radiotherapy-in-cancer-treatment-promises-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Helen H W Chen, Macus Tien Kuo
Effective radiotherapy for cancer has relied on the promise of maximally eradicating tumor cells while minimally killing normal cells. Technological advancement has provided state-of-the-art instrumentation that enables delivery of radiotherapy with great precision to tumor lesions with substantial reduced injury to normal tissues. Moreover, better understanding of radiobiology, particularly the mechanisms of radiation sensitivity and resistance in tumor lesions and toxicity in normal tissues, has improved the treatment efficacy of radiotherapy...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937261/radiation-induced-bystander-effects-in-the-spleen-of-cranially-irradiated-rats
#20
Amal A Mohye El-Din, Abdelrazek B Abdelrazzak, Moustafa T Ahmed, Mohamed A El-Missiry
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the radiation-induced abscopal effect in terms of oxidative stress, apoptosis and DNA damage in the spleen cells following cranial X-rays irradiation of rats. METHODS: Rats were cranially irradiated using 2 Gy X-rays. Another group was whole-body irradiated with 2 Gy X-rays and a third group was exposed to scattered radiation (measured to be 3 mGy). 24 hours following irradiation, sections from the spleen of the rats were dissected as well as plasma samples...
December 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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