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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197381/immunological-mechanisms-of-intravesical-chitosan-interleukin-12-immunotherapy-against-murine-bladder-cancer
#1
Sean G Smith, John L Baltz, Bhanu Prasanth Koppolu, Sruthi Ravindranathan, Khue Nguyen, David A Zaharoff
There is a critical unmet clinical need for bladder cancer immunotherapies capable of inducing durable antitumor immunity. We have shown that four intravesical treatments with a simple co-formulation of interleukin-12 and the biopolymer chitosan not only destroy orthotopic bladder tumors, but also promote a potent long-lasting systemic immune response as evidenced through tumor-specific in vitro killing assays, complete protection from rechallenge, and abscopal antitumor responses at distant non-treated tumors...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134800/immune-modulation-by-androgen-deprivation-and-radiation-therapy-implications-for-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer L Kalina, David S Neilson, Alexandra P Comber, Jennifer M Rauw, Abraham S Alexander, Joanna Vergidis, Julian J Lum
Prostate cancer patients often receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with radiation therapy (RT). Recent evidence suggests that both ADT and RT have immune modulatory properties. First, ADT can cause infiltration of lymphocytes into the prostate, although it remains unclear whether the influx of lymphocytes is beneficial, particularly with the advent of new classes of androgen blockers. Second, in rare cases, radiation can elicit immune responses that mediate regression of metastatic lesions lying outside the field of radiation, a phenomenon known as the abscopal response...
January 27, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116088/radiotherapy-and-mva-muc1-il-2-vaccine-act-synergistically-for-inducing-specific-immunity-to-muc-1-tumor-antigen
#3
Gilda G Hillman, Lyndsey A Reich, Shoshana E Rothstein, Lisa M Abernathy, Matthew D Fountain, Kali Hankerd, Christopher K Yunker, Joseph T Rakowski, Eric Quemeneur, Philippe Slos
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that tumor irradiation potentiates cancer vaccines using genetic modification of tumor cells in murine tumor models. To investigate whether tumor irradiation augments the immune response to MUC1 tumor antigen, we have tested the efficacy of tumor irradiation combined with an MVA-MUC1-IL2 cancer vaccine (Transgene TG4010) for murine renal adenocarcinoma (Renca) cells transfected with MUC1. METHODS: Established subcutaneous Renca-MUC1 tumors were treated with 8 Gy radiation on day 11 and peritumoral injections of MVA-MUC1-IL2 vector on day 12 and 17, or using a reverse sequence of vaccine followed by radiation...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109401/melanoma-last-call-for-radiotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Sophie Espenel, Alexis Vallard, Chloé Rancoule, Max-Adrien Garcia, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch, Nicolas Magné
Melanoma is traditionally considered to be a radioresistant tumor. However, radiotherapy and immunotherapy latest developments might upset this radiobiological dogma. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows high dose per fraction delivery, with high dose rate. More DNA lethal damages, less sublethal damages reparation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and finally clonogenic cell dysfunction are produced, resulting in improved local control. Radiotherapy can also enhance immune responses, inducing neoantigens formation, tumor antigen presentation, and cytokines release...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094262/radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-a-beneficial-liaison
#5
REVIEW
Ralph R Weichselbaum, Hua Liang, Liufu Deng, Yang-Xin Fu
Investigations into the interaction between radiotherapy and the host immune system have uncovered new mechanisms that can potentially be exploited to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. Radiation promotes the release of danger signals and chemokines that recruit inflammatory cells into the tumour microenvironment, including antigen-presenting cells that activate cytotoxic T-cell function. By contrast, radiation can attract immunosuppressive cells into the tumour microenvironment. In rare circumstances, the antitumour effect of radiotherapy has been observed outside of the radiation field, known as the abscopal effect...
January 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072716/pneumonitis-in-cancer-patients-receiving-anti-pd-1-and-radiotherapies-three-case-reports
#6
Chieh-Sheng Lu, Jin-Hwang Liu
INTRODUCTION: In development of novel therapies for the treatment of patient with cancer, the use of radiotherapy (RT) can produce significant local control and, in recent studies, has also been shown to mediate anti-tumor responses at distant sites by triggering and enhancing the endogenous cellular immune responses. Although RT induces an abscopal effect in some patients due to enhanced immune response to the tumor, immune-escape mechanisms, including up-regulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells, limit this benefit in other patients...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976881/photodynamic-therapy-mediated-by-nontoxic-core-shell-nanoparticles-synergizes-with-immune-checkpoint-blockade-to-elicit-antitumor-immunity-and-antimetastatic-effect-on-breast-cancer
#7
Xiaopin Duan, Christina Chan, Nining Guo, Wenbo Han, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Wenbin Lin
An effective, nontoxic, tumor-specific immunotherapy is the ultimate goal in the battle against cancer, especially the metastatic disease. Checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapies have been shown to be extraordinarily effective but benefit only the minority of patients whose tumors have been pre-infiltrated by T cells. Here, we show that Zn-pyrophosphate (ZnP) nanoparticles loaded with the photosensitizer pyrolipid (ZnP@pyro) can kill tumor cells upon irradiation with light directly by inducing apoptosis and/or necrosis and indirectly by disrupting tumor vasculature and increasing tumor immunogenicity...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931845/immuno-oncology-allying-forces-of-radio-and-immuno-therapy-to-enhance-cancer-cell-killing
#8
REVIEW
Jacques Bernier
Besides the local effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular and molecular levels in tumor tissues, the interactions of radiotherapy with the host's immune system are nowadays at the center of many investigations. In some cases, these interactions can be strong enough to immunize the patient against the tumor, leading to a rejection by the host of both the irradiated tumor and distant metastases. In this latter case, the rejection mechanism is called "abscopal effect". Over the last two decades, increasing attention has also been paid to the combination of various forms of immunotherapies with radiation, as an attempt to boost cancer cell killing mechanisms...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922336/abscopal-regression-following-sabr-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#9
Yang Cong, Ge Shen, Shikai Wu, Ruimin Hao
Out-of-field tumor response, which is also called abscopal effect, bystander effect, or non-target effect, can be regarded as localized irradiation induced systemic antitumorigenic effects, indicating shrinkage of a tumor distant from the irradiated site. Although abscopal effect has been documented in several tumor types, it is a very rare phenomenon which is clinically reported in non-small-cell-lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Herein, we present a rare case of patient with NSCLC with 2 lesions in the upper lobe of left lung who, after receiving stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to one of the tumors, had an apparent spontaneous regression of the other mass in the lung, suggestive of a radiation-induced abscopal effect...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910826/enhancing-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer-using-immunoadjuvants-delivered-in-situ-from-new-design-radiotherapy-biomaterials-a-preclinical-study
#10
Yao Hao, Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Michele Moreau, Neeharika Sinha, Erno Sajo, Wilfred Ngwa
Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905824/improved-survival-and-complete-response-rates-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-treated-with-concurrent-ipilimumab-and-radiotherapy-versus-ipilimumab-alone
#11
Kristian M Koller, Heath B Mackley, Jason Liu, Henry Wagner, Giampaolo Talamo, Todd D Schell, Colette Pameijer, Rogerio I Neves, Bryan Anderson, Kathleen M Kokolus, Carol A Mallon, Joseph J Drabick
There is a growing body of evidence supporting the synergistic roles of radiotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of malignancy. Published case studies of the abscopal effect have been reported with the use of ipilimumab and radiotherapy in metastatic melanoma, but evidence supporting the routine use of this combination of therapy is limited. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate patients treated with ipilimumab for advanced melanoma at a single institution from May 2011 to June 2015. Patients were grouped into those who had received concurrent radiotherapy while on ipilimumab (Ipi-RT), and those who did not...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898612/rationale-for-harnessing-the-abscopal-effect-as-potential-treatment-for-metastatic-uveal-melanoma
#12
Sean A Batson, Mark P Breazzano, Ronald W Milam, Eric Shinohara, Douglas B Johnson, Anthony B Daniels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Ophthalmology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843739/a-case-of-complete-abscopal-response-in-high-grade-pleiomorphic-sarcoma-treated-with-radiotherapy-alone
#13
Andrew Orton, Jennifer Wright, Luke Buchmann, Lor Randall, Ying J Hitchcock
BACKGROUND: "Abscopal response" refers to the spontaneous involution of untreated metastatic disease following local primary tumor-directed therapy. We report a case of an abscopal response of untreated lung metastasis in a man with pleomorphic sarcoma of the head and neck treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. METHODS: An inoperable pleomorphic sarcoma of the postauricular soft tissue was treated with 40 Gy of radiation in eight fractions. Untreated disease in the lungs was followed with CT scans...
October 7, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821498/established-t-cell-inflamed-tumors-rejected-after-adaptive-resistance-was-reversed-by-combination-sting-activation-and-pd-1-pathway-blockade
#14
Ellen Moore, Paul E Clavijo, Ruth Davis, Harrison Cash, Carter Van Waes, Young Kim, Clint Allen
Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma harbor T cell-inflamed and non-T cell-inflamed tumors. Despite this, only 20% of patients respond to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy. Lack of induction of innate immunity through pattern-recognition receptors, such as the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) receptor, may represent a significant barrier to the development of effective antitumor immunity. Here, we demonstrate robust control of a T cell-inflamed (MOC1), but not non-T cell-inflamed (MOC2), model of head and neck cancer by activation of the STING pathway with the synthetic cyclic dinucleotide RP,RP dithio-c-di-GMP...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820978/abscopal-effect-of-radiotherapy-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-diffuse-type-giant-cell-tumor
#15
Ingrid M E Desar, Pètra M Braam, Suzanne E J Kaal, Winald R Gerritsen, Wim J G Oyen, Winette T A van der Graaf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764686/concurrent-irradiation-with-the-anti-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-immune-checkpoint-blocker-durvalumab-single-centre-subset-analysis-from-a-phase-1-2-trial
#16
Antonin Levy, Christophe Massard, Jean-Charles Soria, Eric Deutsch
PURPOSE: To assess preliminary safety and efficacy results of the anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (anti-PD-L1) durvalumab in combination with radiotherapy (RT) in an expansion cohort of patients included in a phase 1/2 trial at our institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from patients who received concurrent palliative RT with durvalumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks via intravenous infusion) were analysed in terms of safety (CTCAE v4.0) and efficacy (RECIST v1.1 and tumour growth rate [TGR])...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743027/rationale-and-evidence-to-combine-radiation-therapy-and-immunotherapy-for-cancer-treatment
#17
Dan Ishihara, Laurentiu Pop, Tsuguhide Takeshima, Puneeth Iyengar, Raquibul Hannan
Cancer immunotherapy exploits the immune system's ability to differentiate between tumor target cells and host cells. Except for limited success against a few tumor types, most immunotherapies have not achieved the desired clinical efficacy until recently. The field of cancer immunotherapy has flourished with a variety of new agents for clinical use, and remarkable progress has been made in the design of effective immunotherapeutic regimens. Furthermore, the therapeutic outcome of these novel agents is enhanced when combined with conventional cancer treatment modalities including radiotherapy (RT)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741091/analysis-of-the-abscopal-effect-with-anti-pd1-therapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-solid-tumors
#18
Jéssica Ribeiro Gomes, Rafael A Schmerling, Carolina K Haddad, Douglas J Racy, Robson Ferrigno, Erlon Gil, Pedro Zanuncio, Antônio C Buzaid
Abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon characterized by tumor regression of untreated metastatic lesions after a local therapy (eg, radiotherapy). We studied the probability of abscopal effect with radiotherapy associated with anti-programmed death cell 1 (PD1) therapy after progression on anti-PD1. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cancer at Antônio Ermírio de Moraes Oncology Center, Brazil. To be eligible for this analysis, patients must have had unequivocal evidence of disease progression on anti-PD1 therapy and subsequent radiotherapy for any tumor site while still receiving anti-PD1...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676040/abscopal-effect-in-congenital-fibrosarcoma-with-novel-eml4-ntrk3-fusion
#19
S M Barton, J S Sims, A Kadenhe-Chiweshe, F S Dela Cruz, A T Turk, C F Mazzeo, A L Kung, D Yamashiro, E P Connolly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27675669/abscopal-effect-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma-treated-with-checkpoint-inhibitors-anti-ctla-4-and-anti-pd1-a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-single-institution
#20
R F Carvalho, R Ferrigno, R C Marotta, M P F Amarantes, R A Schmerling, C K Haddad, E Gil, P L Moraes, P H Zanuncio, A C Buzaid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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