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Sciatic block

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239940/prolonged-duration-local-anesthesia-using-liposomal-bupivacaine-combined-with-liposomal-dexamethasone-and-dexmedetomidine
#1
Alina Y Rwei, Robert T Sherburne, David Zurakowski, Bruce Wang, Daniel S Kohane
BACKGROUND: The relatively short duration of effect of local anesthetics has been addressed by encapsulation in drug delivery systems. Codelivery with a single compound that produces an adjuvant effect on nerve block but without intrinsic local anesthetic properties can further prolong the nerve block effect. Here, we investigated whether codelivery of more than 1 encapsulated adjuvant compound can further enhance nerve blockade. METHODS: Liposomes loaded with bupivacaine (Bup), dexamethasone phosphate (DexP), or dexmedetomidine (DMED) were synthesized and its in vitro drug release profiles were determined...
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229558/enhanced-activities-of-%C3%AE-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptors-blocked-spinal-long-term-potentiation-and-attenuated-formalin-induced-spontaneous-pain
#2
Jiang-Ping Liu, Yong-Tao He, Xing-Lian Duan, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
The δ subunit-containing γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAARs) are located at extrasynaptic sites and persistently active in the control of neuronal excitability. Here we recorded primary afferent C fiber-evoked field potentials in the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cords in vivo, and investigated the possible influence of δ-GABAARs activities on nociceptive synaptic transmission. We found that δ-GABAARs-preferring agonist THIP, when topically applied onto spinal cord dorsum, inhibited the basal synaptic responses in a dose-dependent manner...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227106/hollow-silica-nanoparticles-penetrate-the-peripheral-nerve-and-enhance-the-nerve-blockade-from-tetrodotoxin
#3
Qian Liu, Claudia M Santamaria, Tuo Wei, Chao Zhao, Tianjiao Ji, Tianshe Yang, Andre Shomorony, Bruce Y Wang, Daniel S Kohane
The efficacy of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a very potent local anesthetic, is limited by its poor penetration through barriers to axonal surfaces. To address this issue, we encapsulated TTX in hollow silica nanoparticles (TTX-HSN) and injected them at the sciatic nerve in rats. TTX-HSN achieved an increased frequency of successful blocks, prolonged the duration of the block, and decreased the toxicity compared to free TTX. In animals injected with fluorescently labeled HSN, the imaging of frozen sections of nerve demonstrated that HSN could penetrate into nerve and that the penetrating ability of silica nanoparticles was highly size-dependent...
December 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223350/%C3%AE-6-and-%C3%AE-1-integrin-heterodimer-mediates-schwann-cell-interactions-with-axons-and-facilitates-axonal-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
In Ae Chang, Ki Joong Kim, Uk Namgung
Several isoforms of integrin subunits are expressed in Schwann cells and mediate Schwann cell interactions with axons. Here, we identify α6 and β1 integrins as heterodimeric proteins expressed in Schwann cells and define their functions in axonal regeneration. α6 and β1 integrins are induced in Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve after a crush injury, and the blocking of integrin activity by siRNA expression and by treatment with anti-integrin antibodies attenuates Schwann cell contact with cultured neurons and decreases neurite outgrowth...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213283/lateral-supratrochanteric-approach-to-sciatic-and-femoral-nerve-blocks-in-children-a-feasibility-study
#5
Andrew A Albokrinov, Ulbolhan A Fesenko, Taras B Huz, Valentyna M Perova-Sharonova
Background: Sciatic and femoral nerve blocks (SNB and FNB) result in effective lower limb analgesia. Classical SNB and FNB require patient repositioning which can cause pain and discomfort. Alternative approaches to sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in supine patients can be useful. Materials and Methods: Neurostimulator-guided SNB and FNB from the lateral supratrochanteric approach were performed. Local anesthetic spread in SNB and FNB after radiographic opacification was analyzed...
2017: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196315/phosphorylated-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-contributes-to-rat-hiv-related-neuropathic-pain-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#6
Hyun Yi, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Daigo Ikegami, Wan Huang, Hirotsugu Kanda, Takafumi Iida, Ching-Hang Liu, Keiya Takahashi, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system. C/EBPβ, one of C/EBPs is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192190/schwann-cell-trpa1-mediates-neuroinflammation-that-sustains-macrophage-dependent-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#7
Francesco De Logu, Romina Nassini, Serena Materazzi, Muryel Carvalho Gonçalves, Daniele Nosi, Duccio Rossi Degl'Innocenti, Ilaria M Marone, Juliano Ferreira, Simone Li Puma, Silvia Benemei, Gabriela Trevisan, Daniel Souza Monteiro de Araújo, Riccardo Patacchini, Nigel W Bunnett, Pierangelo Geppetti
It is known that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels, expressed by nociceptors, contribute to neuropathic pain. Here we show that TRPA1 is also expressed in Schwann cells. We found that in mice with partial sciatic nerve ligation, TRPA1 silencing in nociceptors attenuated mechanical allodynia, without affecting macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress, whereas TRPA1 silencing in Schwann cells reduced both allodynia and neuroinflammation. Activation of Schwann cell TRPA1 evoked NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-dependent H2O2 release, and silencing or blocking Schwann cell NOX1 attenuated nerve injury-induced macrophage infiltration, oxidative stress and allodynia...
December 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190367/early-experience-with-bilateral-continuous-femoral-nerve-block-and-single-injection-spinal-anesthesia-for-bilateral-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-case-series
#8
Matthew R Patrick, Hari K Parvataneni, Donald S Bohannon, André P Boezaart
Objective: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly performed surgery in the United States, with demand for unilateral and simultaneous bilateral TKAs (BTKAs) expected to increase significantly over the coming decades. This study reports the authors' early experience in a consecutive series of simultaneous BTKAs performed under regional anesthesia and mild sedation. Methods: In this retrospective case series, the authors examined all simultaneous BTKAs performed over two years by a single surgeon...
November 28, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174424/hemi-arthroplasty-performed-in-a-109-year-old-patient-with-intertrochanteric-fracture-a-case-report
#9
Peng-Fei Yang, Hao Chen, Xiao-Jun Duan, Guang-Xing Chen, Lin Guo, Hua-Quan Fan, Liu Yang
The mortality of conservative treatment and the risk resulting from operation for elderly patients with femoral intertrochanteric fractures are high. Safety in the perioperative period and quicker recovery should be placed at the top priority for elderly patients with hip fractures. We reported a case of 109-year-old female patient with intertrochanteric fracture who has undergone the hemiarthroplasty in our center recently. With sciatic nerve and lateral cutaneous nerve block anesthesia, she was offered the artificial femoral head replacement in the lumbar plexus block after sufficient preoperative preparation...
November 4, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172388/does-combination-therapy-of-popliteal-sciatic-nerve-block-and-adductor-canal-block-effectively-control-early-postoperative-pain-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#10
Jin-Hyeok Seo, Seung-Suk Seo, Do-Hun Kim, Byung-Yoon Park, Chan-Ho Park, Ok-Gul Kim
Purpose: We compared adductor canal block (ACB) alone and a combination of ACB and sciatic nerve block (SNB) to control early postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients received continuous ACB alone (group A), and another 100 patients received continuous ACB and single popliteal SNB (group B). Pain was evaluated at rest and 45° knee flexion using the numeric rating scale (NRS). The number of times the patient pressed the intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) button, total PCA volume infused, and the total dosage of additional analgesics were evaluated...
December 1, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#11
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147171/recent-progress-of-bypass-surgery-to-the-dialysis-dependent-patients-with-critical-limb-ischemia
#12
Nobuyoshi Azuma, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Hiroko Okuda, Keisuke Miyake, Atsuhiro Koya
According to expansion of dialysis-dependent population, more than half of patients with critical ischemic limbs are dialysis-dependent in Japan. Although patients with end-staged renal disease are well-known as poor life prognosis, well-managed dialysis patients in Japan can survive much longer compared to dialysis patients in the United States and Europe. Therefore, some dialysis patients can enjoy the long-term benefits of bypass surgery. To decide the indication of bypass surgery, patient's general condition, nutrition status, and vein availability are more important rather than arterial disease anatomy...
September 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095385/ultrasound-guided-popliteal-sciatic-nerve-block-for-an-ankle-laceration-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#13
Takaaki Mori, Yusuke Hagiwara
Although ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block has recently been introduced into pediatric emergency departments, knowledge of its use is limited. We present here a case demonstrating the safety and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block for a pediatric spoke injury in a pediatric emergency department setting.
December 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074363/ultrasound-guided-femoral-and-obturator-nerves-block-in-the-psoas-compartment-in-dogs-anatomical-and-randomized-clinical-study
#14
Hamaseh Tayari, Giulio Tazioli, Gloria Breghi, Angela Briganti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraoperative and postoperative efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided femoral (FN) and obturator (ON) nerves block, in the iliopsoas muscle compartment (IPM), using an in-plane technique. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomical research and randomized, prospective, 'blinded' clinical study. ANIMALS: Six dog cadavers and 20 client-owned dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) surgery. METHODS: In phase 1, anatomical dissections and US imaging of the IPM were performed to design an US-guided nerve block involving the FN and ON simultaneously...
April 29, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055733/qx-oh-levobupivacaine-fixed-dose-combination-to-provide-a-long-acting-postoperative-pain-of-knee-surgery-in-rodents
#15
WenLing Zhao, Jun Yang, YuJun Zhang, Jin Liu, WenSheng Zhang
Although total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly performed procedure, anesthetic efficacy in post-surgical pain remains an issue. Exparel (45mM liposome bupivacaine), a relatively long-acting local anesthetic, has shown efficacy in blocking peripheral nerve or periarticular infiltration to achieve better post-TKA analgesia. In the present work, we tested whether a fixed-dose combination of QX-OH (35mM) and levobupivacaine (10mM) (QX-OH/LB) could confer longer-lasting pain relief and reduce periarticular tissue toxicity compared to liposome bupivacaine (45mM) after TKA operation...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055716/attenuation-of-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-by-treatment-with-peptide5-a-connexin-43-mimetic-peptide-involves-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-nerve-injured-mice
#16
Ryan S Tonkin, Callum Bowles, Chamini J Perera, Brooke A Keating, Preet G S Makker, Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Collin Tran, Anthony S Don, Thomas Fath, Lu Liu, Simon J O'Carroll, Louise F B Nicholson, Colin R Green, Catherine Gorrie, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels in spinal cord astrocytes are implicated in the maintenance of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Peptide5 is a Cx43 mimetic peptide that blocks hemichannels. In this study, we investigated the effects of spinal delivery of Peptide5 on mechanical pain hypersensitivity in two mouse models of neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve injury and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). We demonstrated that 10days following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, Cx43 expression, co-localised predominantly with astrocytes, was increased in the ipsilateral L3-L5 lumbar spinal cord...
October 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054488/the-histone-demethylase-jmjd2a-regulates-the-expression-of-bdnf-and-mediates-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#17
Junfei Zhou, Fang Wang, Chang Xu, Zipeng Zhou, Wei Zhang
JMJD2A is a JmjC histone demethylase that catalyzes the demethylation of di- and trimethylated Lys9 and Lys36 in histone H3 (H3K9me2/3 and H3K36me2/3). The role of spinal JMJD2A-dependent histone demethylation in nociception hypersensitivity development remains elusive. Here we reported that the JMJD2A responded to neuropathic pain and participated in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. The mRNA and protein levels of Jmjd2a were significantly increased in the neurons of mouse undergoing neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve chronic constrictive injury (CCI) or unilateral spared nerve injury (SNI)...
October 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053076/protective-effect-of-biodegradable-nerve-conduit-against-peripheral-nerve-adhesion-after-neurolysis
#18
Kosuke Shintani, Takuya Uemura, Kiyohito Takamatsu, Takuya Yokoi, Ema Onode, Mitsuhiro Okada, Hiroaki Nakamura
OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve adhesion caused by extraneural and intraneural scar formation after neurolysis leads to nerve dysfunction. The authors previously developed a novel very flexible biodegradable nerve conduit composed of poly(L-lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone) for use in peripheral nerve regeneration. In the present study, they investigated the effect of protective nerve wrapping on preventing adhesion in a rat sciatic nerve adhesion model. METHODS Rat sciatic nerves were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: a no-adhesion group, which involved neurolysis alone without an adhesion procedure; an adhesion group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis, but no treatment was subsequently administered; a nerve wrap group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and protective nerve wrapping was then performed with the nerve conduit; and a hyaluronic acid (HA) group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and nerve wrapping was then performed with a 1% sodium HA viscous solution...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051083/lysophosphatidic-acid-propagates-post-injury-schwann-cell-dedifferentiation-through-lpa1-signaling
#19
Fabian Szepanowski, Leon-Phillip Szepanowski, Anne K Mausberg, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Bernd C Kieseier, Mark Stettner
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic signaling lipid that acts as ligand for at least six specific G-protein coupled receptors. Schwann cells (SC) are known to mainly express the LPA1 receptor subtype. An emerging body of evidence has linked LPA with injury-induced peripheral nerve demyelination as well as neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its demyelinating effect have not been conclusively elucidated. We aimed to decipher the demyelinating effect in vitro as well as in vivo by studying markers of SC differentiation and dedifferentiation: Myelinated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures were treated either with LPA, LPA plus AM095 (LPA1 antagonist) or vehicle...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038874/ultrasound-guided-popliteal-sciatic-block-provides-adequate-analgesia-during-urgent-endovascular-treatment-of-critical-limb-ischemia-with-resting-pain
#20
Derya Tureli, Sinan Deniz, Aytekin Unlukaplan, Levent Oguzkurt
PURPOSE: To demonstrate feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block for providing analgesia during urgent endovascular treatment of critical limb ischemia with resting pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic blocks were performed by an interventional radiologist in angiography suite immediately prior to commencement of urgent endovascular treatment of 30 critical limb ischemia patients. Subjective pain levels prior to and following sciatic block were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS)...
October 16, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
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