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Epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#1
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
May 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#2
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530839/meeting-report-of-the-fifth-international-cancer-epigenetics-conference-in-beijing-china-october-2016
#3
Dan Gao, James G Herman, Hengmi Cui, Jin Jen, Francois Fuks, Malcolm V Brock, Toshikazu Ushijima, Carlo Croce, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, Mingzhou Guo
Fifth International Cancer Epigenetics Conference, Beijing, China, 21-23 October 2016 This meeting reported many new findings in the field of cancer epigenetics, including basic science, translational and clinical studies. In this report, we summarize some of the main advancements and prospects in cancer epigenetics presented at this meeting.
May 22, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530797/unexpected-biotransformation-of-the-hdac-inhibitor-vorinostat-yields-aniline-containing-fungal-metabolites
#4
Donovon A Adpressa, Kayla J Stalheim, Philip Jerome Proteau, Sandra Loesgen
The diversity of genetically encoded small molecules produced by filamentous fungi remains largely unexplored, which makes these fungi an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. However, accessing their full chemical repertoire under common laboratory culture conditions is a challenge. Epigenetic manipulation of gene expression has become a well-established tool for overcoming this obstacle. Here we report that perturbation of the endophytic ascomycete Chalara sp. 6661, producer of the isofusidienol class of antibiotics, with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat resulted in the production of four new modified xanthones...
May 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530795/modelling-living-cells-response-to-surface-tension-and-chemical-patterns
#5
Marco Macis, Francesca Lugli, Francesco Zerbetto
Mechanobiology is an important epigenetic factor. It influences cell functioning and bears on gene induction, protein synthesis, cell growth and differentiation. In the presence of patterned chemical cues, living cells can take shapes that are far from that of a drop of fluid. These shapes are characterized by inward curvatures that are pinned at the points of location of the cues. The mechano-chemical interactions that orchestrate cell behavior is simulated and controlled by modeling the cells as made by parcels of fluid...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529938/senescence-inflammatory-regulation-of-reparative-cellular-reprogramming-in-aging-and-cancer
#6
Javier A Menendez, Tomás Alarcón
The inability of adult tissues to transitorily generate cells with functional stem cell-like properties is a major obstacle to tissue self-repair. Nuclear reprogramming-like phenomena that induce a transient acquisition of epigenetic plasticity and phenotype malleability may constitute a reparative route through which human tissues respond to injury, stress, and disease. However, tissue rejuvenation should involve not only the transient epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated cells, but also the committed re-acquisition of the original or alternative committed cell fate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529571/epigenetic-modulation-associated-with-carcinogenesis-and-prognosis-of-human-gastric-cancer
#7
Fuminori Sonohara, Yoshikuni Inokawa, Masamichi Hayashi, Yasuhiro Kodera, Shuji Nomoto
Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, particularly in Asia. Epidemiological and other clinical studies have identified an association between a number of risk factors, including Helicobacter pylori, and GC. A number of studies have also examined genetic changes associated with the development and progression of GC. When considering the clinical significance of the expression of a specific gene, its epigenetic modulation should be considered. Epigenetic modulation appears to be a primary driver of changes in gastric tissue that promotes carcinogenesis and progression of GC and other neoplasms...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529570/the-meaning-of-piwi-proteins-in-cancer-development
#8
Monika Litwin, Anna Szczepańska-Buda, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Piotr Dzięgiel, Wojciech Witkiewicz
Cancer is a histologically and genetically heterogeneous population of tumor cells that exhibits distinct molecular profiles determined by epigenetic alterations. P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) proteins in complex with PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) have been previously demonstrated to be involved in epigenetic regulation in germline cells. Recently, reactivation of PIWI expression, primarily PIWI-like protein 1 and 2, through aberrant DNA methylation resulting in genomic silencing has been identified in various types of tumors...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529527/skeletal-muscle-cell-induction-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Yusaku Kodaka, Gemachu Rabu, Atsushi Asakura
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529475/fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome-from-molecular-pathogenesis-to-development-of-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Ha Eun Kong, Juan Zhao, Shunliang Xu, Peng Jin, Yan Jin
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a premutation CGG repeat expansion (55-200 repeats) within the 5' UTR of the fragile X gene (FMR1). FXTAS is characterized by intension tremor, cerebellar ataxia, progressive neurodegeneration, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. The development of transgenic mouse and Drosophila melanogaster models carrying an expanded CGG repeat has yielded valuable insight into the pathophysiology of FXTAS. To date, we know of two main molecular mechanisms of this disorder: (1) a toxic gain of function of the expanded CGG-repeat FMR1 mRNA, which results in the binding/sequestration of the CGG-binding proteins; and (2) CGG repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated (RAN) translation, which generates a polyglycine peptide toxic to cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529454/characterization-of-cytosine-methylation-and-the-dna-methyltransferases-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#11
Haixia Wei, Shichen Jiang, Longfei Chen, Cheng He, Shuizhen Wu, Hongjuan Peng
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification which confers phenotypic plasticity and adaptation. Cyst-forming strains of Toxoplasma gondii undergo tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion after initial acute infection of a host, and the reverse conversion may occur in immune-suppressed hosts. The formation of m(5)C is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). We identified two functional DNA methyltransferases, TgDNMTa and TgDNMTb, in T. gondii that may mediate DNA methylation. The recombinant proteins showed intrinsic methyltransferase activity; both have higher transcription levels in bradyzoites than that in tachyzoites...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529451/role-of-epigenetics-in-uveal-melanoma
#12
REVIEW
Yongyun Li, Renbing Jia, Shengfang Ge
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a severe human malignancy with a high mortality rate that demands continued research into new and alternative forms of prevention and treatment. The emerging field of epigenetics is beginning to unfold an era of contemporary approaches to reducing the risk and improving the clinical treatment of UM. Epigenetic changes have a high prevalence rate in cancer, are reversible in nature, and can lead to cancer characteristics even in mutation-free cells. The information contained in this review highlights and expands on the main mechanisms of epigenetic dysregulation in UM tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis, including microRNA expression, hypermethylation of genes and histone modification...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529146/multiple-endpoints-to-evaluate-pristine-and-remediated-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-genotoxicity-in-lung-epithelial-a549-cells
#13
Andrea Stoccoro, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Fabio Coppedè, Jessica Ponti, Chiara Uboldi, Magda Blosi, Camilla Delpivo, Simona Ortelli, Anna Luisa Costa, Lucia Migliore
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) are broadly used in a wide range of applications. Several studies have reported that TiO2 NP possess cytotoxic and genotoxic properties that could induce adverse health effects in humans. The FP7 Sanowork project was aimed to minimize occupational hazard and exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM), including TiO2 NP, through the surface modification in order to avoid possible adverse toxic effects for humans. In this study we investigated cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic properties of TiO2 NP uncoated and coated with silica or citrate, as well as of the benchmark material P25...
May 18, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529134/direct-reprogramming-epigenetics-and-cardiac-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Shota Kurotsu, Takeshi Suzuki, Masaki Ieda
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized regenerative medicine. Autologous iPSCs can be generated by introducing 4 stem cell-specific factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) into fibroblasts. iPSCs can propagate indefinitely and differentiate into clinically important cell types including cardiomyocytes, in vitro. The iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes represent a promising source of cells for cell-based therapeutic approaches for cardiac regeneration. However, there are several challenges in the clinical application of iPSCs: tumorigenicity of immature cells, poor survival of the transplanted myocardial cells, and cost and efficacy of this therapeutic approach...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528960/prenatal-stress-and-epigenetics
#15
REVIEW
L Cao-Lei, S R De Rooij, S King, S G Matthews, G A S Metz, T J Roseboom, M Szyf
In utero exposure to environmental stress in both animals and humans could result in long-term epigenome alterations and which further lead to consequences for adaptation and development in the offspring. Epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, is considered one of the most widely studied and well-characterized mechanisms involved in the long-lasting effects of in utero stress exposure. In this review, we outlined evidence from animal and human prenatal research supporting the view that prenatal stress could lead to lasting, broad and functionally organized signatures in DNA methylation which, in turn, could mediate exposure-phenotype associations...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528689/human-papillomaviruses-in-epigenetic-regulations
#16
REVIEW
Julia Durzynska, Krzysztof Lesniewicz, Elzbieta Poreba
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses, that infect epithelial cells and are etiologically involved in the development of human cancer. Today, over 200 types of human papillomaviruses are known. They are divided into low-risk and high-risk HPVs depending on their potential to induce carcinogenesis, driven by two major viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7. By interacting with cellular partners, these proteins are involved in interdependent viral and cell cycles in stratified differentiating epithelium, and concomitantly induce epigenetic changes in infected cells and those undergoing malignant transformation...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#17
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527972/genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-in-meningiomas
#18
REVIEW
Vasiliki Galani, Evangeli Lampri, Anna Varouktsi, George Alexiou, Antigoni Mitselou, Athanasios P Kyritsis
Meningiomas originate from the arachnoid layer of the meninges and divided histologically into three grades: benign (grade I), atypical (grade II), and malignant meningiomas (grade III). Genetic alterations in grade I meningiomas include frequent deletions of chromosomal locus 22q12 and NF2 gene mutations and uncommon somatic SMARCB1 and SMARCE1gene mutations; In grade II meningiomas, chromosomal losses occur on 1p, 22q, 14q, 18q, 10, and 6q, and gains on 20q, 12q, 15q, 1q, 9q, and 17q; In grade III meningiomas, losses have been recognized on 6q, 10, and 14q and alterations of PTEN, CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527906/fluorescent-probes-for-imaging-formaldehyde-in-biological-systems
#19
REVIEW
Kevin J Bruemmer, Thomas F Brewer, Christopher J Chang
Formaldehyde (FA) is a common environmental toxin but is also endogenously produced through a diverse array of essential biological processes, including mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism, metabolite oxidation, and nuclear epigenetic modifications. Its high electrophilicity enables reactivity with a wide variety of biological nucleophiles, which can be beneficial or detrimental to cellular function depending on the context. New methods that enable detection of FA in living systems can help disentangle the signal/stress dichotomy of this simplest reactive carbonyl species (RCS), and fluorescent probes for FA with high selectivity and sensitivity have emerged as promising chemical tools in this regard...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527696/essential-roles-of-g9a-in-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-tooth-development
#20
Taichi Kamiunten, Hisashi Ideno, Akemi Shimada, Yoshinori Arai, Tatsuo Terashima, Yasuhiro Tomooka, Yoshiki Nakamura, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Hiroshi Kimura, Yoichi Shinkai, Makoto Tachibana, Akira Nifuji
Teeth develop through interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues mediated by a signaling network comprised of growth factors and transcription factors However, little is known about how epigenetic modifiers affect signaling pathways and thereby regulate tooth formation. We previously reported that the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase (MTase) G9a is specifically enriched in the tooth mesenchyme during mouse development. In this study, we investigated the functions of G9a in tooth development using G9a conditional knockout (KO) mice...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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