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Elisabeth M Weiss, Walther Parson, Harald Niederstätter, Josef Marksteiner, Astrid Lampe
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder following a severe traumatic experience and is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with related psychiatric disorders. However, even for individuals experiencing the same trauma, there is considerable inter-individual variability in the risk of PTSD, and this is largely thought to be determined by biological processes, such as genetic predisposition and epigenetic mechanism. In this review we will summarize recent research on genetics of PTSD, primarily focusing on candidate gene-association studies, targeting on functional genetic variants in the monoaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Sangkyu Kim, S Michal Jazwinski
The gut microbiota shows a wide inter-individual variation, but its within-individual variation is relatively stable over time. A functional core microbiome, provided by abundant bacterial taxa, seems to be common to various human hosts regardless of their gender, geographic location, and age. With advancing chronological age, the gut microbiota becomes more diverse and variable. However, when measures of biological age are used with adjustment for chronological age, overall richness decreases, while a certain group of bacteria associated with frailty increases...
July 19, 2018: Gerontology
Dominique Belpomme, Lennart Hardell, Igor Belyaev, Ernesto Burgio, David O Carpenter
Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Elina V García, María E Oliva, Jean G LeBlanc, Antonio D Barrera
Recent studies have demonstrated that the oviductal environment plays an active role in modulating the epigenetic marks of the preimplantation embryo genome, but the molecular factors that mediate this epigenetic effect are unknown. Folate is a well-known epi-nutrient that can impact on cell epigenetic machinery during embryonic and fetal development. However, the study of this epi-nutrient in the oviduct is still limited. The present study was conducted to confirm the presence and physiological concentration of folate in bovine oviductal fluid (OF) and to determine if bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) are able to regulate the uptake of this micronutrient...
July 10, 2018: Theriogenology
Ryan J Good, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Ayed Allawzi, Joanne K Maltzahn, Christine U Vohwinkel, Arun K Upadhyay, Uday Kompella, Konstantin G Birukov, Todd C Carpenter, Carmen C Sucharov, Eva Nozik-Grayck
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in many diseases, though the contribution of miRNAs to the pathophysiology of lung injury remains obscure. We hypothesized that dysregulation of miRNA expression drives the changes in key genes implicated in the development of lung injury. To test our hypothesis, we utilized a model of lung injury induced early after administration of intratracheal bleomycin (0.1 U). Wild-type mice were treated with bleomycin or PBS and lungs were collected at 4 or 7 days...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Donchan Choi
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a supreme hormone regulating reproductive activity in most animals. The sequences of amino acid and nucleic acid of GnRH reported up to now are examined from the evolutionary framework of Chordata. All identified GnRH are classified into GnRH1, GnRH2, or GnRH3. In all three forms of GnRH both N-terminal and C-terminal are conserved, which allows for effective binding to their receptors. The three amino acids in the middle of GnRH1 sequence have altered diversely from the primitive Chordata, which is indicative of the adaptation process to the ambient environment...
June 2018: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Mónica Suárez Korsnes, Reinert Korsnes
Long-term video-based tracking of single A549 lung cancer cells exposed to three different concentrations of the marine toxin yessotoxin (YTX) reveals significant variation in cytotoxicity, and it confirms the potential genotoxic effects of this toxin. Tracking of single cells subject to various toxic exposure, constitutes a conceptually simple approach to elucidate lineage correlations and sub-populations which are masked in cell bulk analyses. The toxic exposure can here be considered as probing a cell population for properties and change which may include long-term adaptation to treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Lang Hu, Peng Xiao, Yongguang Jiang, Mingjie Dong, Zixi Chen, Hui Li, Zhangli Hu, Anping Lei, Jiangxin Wang
Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are well known as connected with many important biological processes. Rapid accumulating evidence shows environmental stress can generate particular defense epigenetic changes across generations in eukaryotes. This transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in animals and plants has gained interest over the last years. Cyanobacteria play very crucial role in the earth, and as the primary producer they can adapt to nearly all diverse environments. However, few knowledge about the genome wide epigenetic information such as methylome information in cyanobacteria, especially under any environment stress, was reported so far...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chamutal Bornstein, Shir Nevo, Amir Giladi, Noam Kadouri, Marie Pouzolles, François Gerbe, Eyal David, Alice Machado, Anna Chuprin, Beáta Tóth, Ori Goldberg, Shalev Itzkovitz, Naomi Taylor, Philippe Jay, Valérie S Zimmermann, Jakub Abramson, Ido Amit
T cell development and selection are coordinated in the thymus by a specialized niche of diverse stromal populations1-3 . Although much progress has been made over the years in identifying the functions of the different cell types of the thymic stromal compartment, there is no comprehensive characterization of their diversity and heterogeneity. Here we combined massively parallel single-cell RNA-sequencing4,5 , spatial mapping, chromatin profiling and gene targeting to characterize de novo the entire stromal compartment of the mouse thymus...
July 18, 2018: Nature
Di Wu, Di Hu, Hao Chen, Guoming Shi, Irfete S Fetahu, Feizhen Wu, Kimberlie Rabidou, Rui Fang, Li Tan, Shuyun Xu, Hang Liu, Christian Argueta, Lei Zhang, Fei Mao, Guoquan Yan, Jiajia Chen, Zhaoru Dong, Ruitu Lv, Yufei Xu, Mei Wang, Yong Ye, Shike Zhang, Danielle Duquette, Songmei Geng, Clark Yin, Christine Guo Lian, George F Murphy, Gail K Adler, Rajesh Garg, Lydia Lynch, Pengyuan Yang, Yiming Li, Fei Lan, Jia Fan, Yang Shi, Yujiang Geno Shi
Diabetes is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by prolonged high blood glucose levels and frequently associated with life-threatening complications1,2 . Epidemiological studies have suggested that diabetes is also linked to an increased risk of cancer3-5 . High glucose levels may be a prevailing factor that contributes to the link between diabetes and cancer, but little is known about the molecular basis of this link and how the high glucose state may drive genetic and/or epigenetic alterations that result in a cancer phenotype...
July 18, 2018: Nature
Wilfried Ellmeier, Christian Seiser
The differentiation of T helper cell subsets and their acquisition of effector functions are accompanied by changes in gene expression programmes, which in part are regulated and maintained by epigenetic processes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are key epigenetic regulators that function by mediating dynamic changes in the acetylation of histones at lysine residues. In addition, many non-histone proteins are also acetylated, and reversible acetylation affects their functional properties, demonstrating that HDACs mediate effects beyond the epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
July 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Saqib S Sachani, Lauren S Landschoot, Liyue Zhang, Carlee R White, William A MacDonald, Michael C Golding, Mellissa R W Mann
Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon that restricts transcription to predominantly one parental allele. How this transcriptional duality is regulated is poorly understood. Here we perform an RNA interference screen for epigenetic factors involved in paternal allelic silencing at the Kcnq1ot1 imprinted domain in mouse extraembryonic endoderm stem cells. Multiple factors are identified, including nucleoporin 107 (NUP107). To determine NUP107's role and specificity in Kcnq1ot1 imprinted domain regulation, we deplete Nup107, as well as Nup62, Nup98/96 and Nup153...
July 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Lili Li, Brigette B Y Ma, Anthony T C Chan, Francis K L Chan, Paul Murray, Qian Tao
: Cancer genome studies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors, including lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas (LELC) of nasopharyngeal (NPC), gastric (EBVaGC) and lung tissues, and natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), reveal a unique feature of genomic alterations with fewer gene mutations detected than other common cancers. It is known now that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated tumors. As an oncogenic virus, EBV establishes its latent and lytic infections in B-lymphoid and epithelial cells, utilizing hijacked cellular epigenetic machinery...
July 18, 2018: Pathogens
Chia-Feng Liu, Marco Angelozzi, Abdul Haseeb, Véronique Lefebvre
SOX9 controls cell lineage fate and differentiation in major biological processes. It is known as a potent transcriptional activator of differentiation-specific genes, but its earliest targets and its contribution to priming chromatin for gene activation remain unknown. Here, we address this knowledge gap using chondrogenesis as a model system. By profiling the whole transcriptome and the whole epigenome of wild-type and Sox9 -deficient mouse embryo limb buds, we uncover multiple structural and regulatory genes, including Fam101a , Myh14 , Sema3c and Sema3d , as specific markers of precartilaginous condensation, and we provide evidence of their direct transactivation by SOX9...
July 18, 2018: Development
Ruud H Wijdeven, Marvin M van Luijn, Annet F Wierenga-Wolf, Jimmy J Akkermans, Peter J van den Elsen, Rogier Q Hintzen, Jacques Neefjes
The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ) can induce expression of MHC class II (MHCII) on many different cell types, leading to antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells and immune activation. This has also been linked to anti-tumour immunity and graft-versus-host disease. The extent of MHCII upregulation by IFNγ is cell type-dependent and under extensive control of epigenetic regulators and signalling pathways. Here, we identify novel genetic and chemical factors that control this form of MHCII expression. Loss of the oxidative stress sensor Keap1, autophagy adaptor p62/SQSTM1, ubiquitin E3-ligase Cullin-3 and chromatin remodeller BPTF impair IFNγ-mediated MHCII expression...
July 18, 2018: EMBO Reports
Cristina Migliore, Elena Morando, Elena Ghiso, Sergio Anastasi, Vera P Leoni, Maria Apicella, Davide Cora', Anna Sapino, Filippo Pietrantonio, Filippo De Braud, Amedeo Columbano, Oreste Segatto, Silvia Giordano
The onset of secondary resistance represents a major limitation to long-term efficacy of target therapies in cancer patients. Thus, the identification of mechanisms mediating secondary resistance is the key to the rational design of therapeutic strategies for resistant patients. MiRNA profiling combined with RNA-Seq in MET-addicted cancer cell lines led us to identify the miR-205/ERRFI1 (ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor-1) axis as a novel mediator of resistance to MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In cells resistant to MET-TKIs, epigenetically induced miR-205 expression determined the downregulation of ERRFI1 which, in turn, caused EGFR activation, sustaining resistance to MET-TKIs...
July 18, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Hua Wei Zhang, Xing Yu Meng, An Feng Li, Yu Ying Yang, Hua Ji Qiu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are designated as the transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides without protein-coding capacity. As a category of important gene regulatory factors, lncRNAs regulate the expression of target genes at epigenetic, transcription and post-transcriptional levels by various mechanisms, such as chromatin remodeling, DNA modification, transcription inhibition and RNA-RNA interactions, etc. In recent years, studies have shown that many lncRNAs can be induced by viruses or interferon (IFN) and to regulate the expression of related antiviral genes in IFN-mediated antiviral innate immune responses...
July 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Anna Suarez, Jari Lahti, Darina Czamara, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Polina Girchenko, Sture Andersson, Timo E Strandberg, Rebecca M Reynolds, Eero Kajantie, Elisabeth B Binder, Katri Raikkonen
BACKGROUND: Molecular aging biomarkers, such as epigenetic age predictors, predict risk factors of premature aging, and morbidity/mortality more accurately than chronological age in middle-aged and elderly populations. Yet, it remains elusive if such biomarkers are associated with aging-related outcomes earlier in life when individuals begin to diverge in aging trajectories. We tested if the Horvath epigenetic age predictor is associated with pubertal, neuroendocrine, psychiatric, and cognitive aging-related outcomes in a sample of 239 adolescents, 11...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Feifei Peng, Xiaoli Shi, Yin Meng, Bo Dong, Guangchi Xu, Tingting Hou, Yang Shi, Tao Liu
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with increasing incidence worldwide and is characterized by dismal prognosis owing to a lack of early detection and prognostic biomarkers for this fatal disease. Accumulating studies demonstrated that abnormally expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and progression. Specifically, HOTTIP is upregulated and exerts oncogenic properties in some cancers. However, its clinical significance, biological functions and molecular mechanisms in RCC have not been studied...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Annarosaria De Vito, Massimo Lazzaro, Ilaria Palmisano, Davide Cittaro, Michela Riba, Dejan Lazarevic, Makoto Bannai, Davide Gabellini, Maria Vittoria Schiaffino
In a variety of species, reduced food intake, and in particular protein or amino acid (AA) restriction, extends lifespan and healthspan. However, the underlying epigenetic and/or transcriptional mechanisms are largely unknown, and dissection of specific pathways in cultured cells may contribute to filling this gap. We have previously shown that, in mammalian cells, deprivation of essential AAs (methionine/cysteine or tyrosine) leads to the transcriptional reactivation of integrated silenced transgenes, including plasmid and retroviral vectors and latent HIV-1 provirus, by a process involving epigenetic chromatic remodeling and histone acetylation...
2018: PloS One
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