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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820498/interference-of-apoptosis-by-hepatitis-b-virus
#1
REVIEW
Shaoli Lin, Yan-Jin Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver diseases that have been a consistent problem for human health, leading to more than one million deaths every year worldwide. A large proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases across the world are closely associated with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and is frequently altered in cancer development. HBV infection interferes with the apoptosis signaling to promote HCC progression and viral proliferation. The HBV-mediated alteration of apoptosis is achieved via interference with cellular signaling pathways and regulation of epigenetics...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820292/p53-binding-sites-in-normal-and-cancer-cells-are-characterized-by-distinct-chromatin-context
#2
Feifei Bao, Peter R LoVerso, Jeffrey N Fisk, Victor B Zhurkin, Feng Cui
The tumor suppressor protein p53 interacts with DNA in a sequence-dependent manner. Thousands of p53 binding sites have been mapped genome-wide in normal and cancer cells. However, the way p53 selectively binds its cognate sites in different types of cells is not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 25 published p53 cistromes and identified 3,551 and 6,039 'high-confidence' binding sites in normal and cancer cells, respectively. Our analysis revealed two distinct epigenetic features underlying p53-DNA interactions in vivo...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820176/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-signatures-in-cell-free-dna-provide-information-about-tumor-types-and-stages
#3
Chun-Xiao Song, Senlin Yin, Li Ma, Amanda Wheeler, Yu Chen, Yan Zhang, Bin Liu, Junjie Xiong, Weihan Zhang, Jiankun Hu, Zongguang Zhou, Biao Dong, Zhiqi Tian, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Mei-Sze Chua, Samuel So, Weimin Li, Yuquan Wei, Jiajie Diao, Dan Xie, Stephen R Quake
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is an important mammalian DNA epigenetic modification that has been linked to gene regulation and cancer pathogenesis. Here we explored the diagnostic potential of 5hmC in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) using a sensitive chemical labeling-based low-input shotgun sequencing approach. We sequenced cell-free 5hmC from 49 patients of seven different cancer types and found distinct features that could be used to predict cancer types and stages with high accuracy. Specifically, we discovered that lung cancer leads to a progressive global loss of 5hmC in cfDNA, whereas hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer lead to disease-specific changes in the cell-free hydroxymethylome...
August 18, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820062/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-and-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-its-regulation-in-cancer
#4
Juan Francisco Santibanez
Urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a 53-kDa serine protease initially synthesized as a catalytically inactive single chain polypeptide. Inactive-uPA is subject to proteolytic cleavage which results in the two-chain active protein. uPA plays key roles in the enhancement of cell malignancy during tumor progression. uPA is finely regulated in normal cells, but dysregulated in tumor cells, which results in increased cellular invasion capacities reflecting changes in uPA activity and expression during tumor progression...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820059/histone-modifications-in-aging%C3%AF-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-implications
#5
Yuan Wang, Quan Yuan, Liang Xie
Aging is characterized by time-dependent functional decline, which results in the reduced ability to cope with physiological challenges. The aging process can be affected by genetic factors, environment factors, epigenetic factors, and several stochastic factors. Epigenetic marker alteration during aging has been widely monitored and studied recently, since these epigenetic alterations are theoretically reversible. Histone post-translational modifications have been found to play a crucial role in epigenetic alteration during aging, among which histone methylation and histone acetylation are emerging as two well-documented modification methods...
August 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819832/protective-role-of-humic-acids-against-picloram-induced-genomic-instability-and-dna-methylation-in-phaseolus-vulgaris
#6
Mahmut Sinan Taspinar, Murat Aydin, Burcu Sigmaz, Nalan Yildirim, Guleray Agar
Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) is a liquid auxinic herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Picloram is representing a possible hazard to ecosystems and human health. Therefore, in this study, DNA methylation changes and DNA damage levels in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to picloram, as well as whether humic acid (HA) has preventive effects on these changes were investigated. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques were used for identification of DNA damage and coupled restriction enzyme digestion-random amplification (CRED-RA) techniques were used to detect the changed pattern of DNA methylation...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819700/sporadic-endometrial-adenocarcinoma-with-mmr-deficiency-due-to-biallelic-msh2-somatic-mutations
#7
Bruno Buecher, Antoine De Pauw, Louis Bazire, Claude Houdayer, Alice Fievet, Virginie Moncoutier, Fereshteh Farkhondeh, Samia Melaabi, Dominique Stoppa Lyonnet, Lisa Golmard
The invalidation of the Mismatch Repair (MMR) system is responsible for a so-called "deficient MMR" phenotype (dMMR) characterized by microsatellite instability and abnormal pattern of expression of MMR proteins in tumor tissue. This phenotype occurs in at least 20% of sporadic endometrial adenocarcinomas by epigenetic silencing of MLH1 gene. It is also observed in virtually all tumors occurring in patients with Lynch syndrome by monoallelic germline mutation in one of the MMR genes. The determination of this phenotype (dMMR vs...
August 17, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819251/g9a-regulates-breast-cancer-growth-by-modulating-iron-homeostasis-through-the-repression-of-ferroxidase-hephaestin
#8
Ya-Fang Wang, Jie Zhang, Yi Su, Yan-Yan Shen, Dong-Xian Jiang, Ying-Yong Hou, Mei-Yu Geng, Jian Ding, Yi Chen
G9a, a H3K9 methyltransferase, shows elevated expression in many types of human cancers, particularly breast cancer. However, the tumorigenic mechanism of G9a is still far from clear. Here we report that G9a exerts its oncogenic function in breast cancer by repressing hephaestin and destruction cellular iron homeostasis. In the case of pharmacological inhibition or short hairpin RNA interference-mediated suppression of G9a, the expression and activity of hephaestin increases, leading to the observed decrease of intracellular labile iron content and the disturbance of breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819152/dissecting-the-genomic-activity-of-a-transcriptional-regulator-by-the-integrative-analysis-of-omics-data
#9
Giulio Ferrero, Valentina Miano, Marco Beccuti, Gianfranco Balbo, Michele De Bortoli, Francesca Cordero
In the study of genomic regulation, strategies to integrate the data produced by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based technologies in a meaningful ensemble are eagerly awaited and must continuously evolve. Here, we describe an integrative strategy for the analysis of data generated by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by NGS which combines algorithms for data overlap, normalization and epigenetic state analysis. The performance of our strategy is illustrated by presenting the analysis of data relative to the transcriptional regulator Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) in A549 lung cancer cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819115/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-profiling-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-auditory-and-vestibular-systems
#10
Kathy Ushakov, Tal Koffler-Brill, Aviv Rom, Kobi Perl, Igor Ulitsky, Karen B Avraham
Mammalian genomes encode multiple layers of regulation, including a class of RNA molecules known as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). These are >200 nucleotides in length and similar to mRNAs, they are capped, polyadenylated, and spliced. In contrast to mRNAs, lncRNAs are less abundant and have higher tissue specificity, and have been linked to development, epigenetic processes, and disease. However, little is known about lncRNA function in the auditory and vestibular systems, or how they play a role in deafness and vestibular dysfunction...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819001/epigenomics-and-human-adaptation-to-high-altitude
#11
Colleen Glyde Julian
Over the past decade, major technological and analytical advancements have propelled efforts towards identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern human adaptation to high altitude. Despite remarkable progress with respect to the identification of adaptive genomic signals that are strongly associated with the 'hypoxia-tolerant' physiological characteristics of high-altitude populations, many questions regarding the fundamental biological processes underlying human adaptation remain unanswered. Vital to address these enduring questions will be to determine the role of epigenetic processes, or non-sequence based features of the genome, that are not only critical for the regulation of transcriptional responses to hypoxia but heritable across generations...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818970/dna-replication-coupled-histone-modification-maintains-polycomb-gene-silencing-in-plants
#12
Danhua Jiang, Frédéric Berger
Propagation of patterns of gene expression through the cell cycle requires prompt restoration of epigenetic marks after the twofold dilution caused by DNA replication. Here, we show that the transcriptional repressive mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) is restored in replicating plant cells through DNA replication-coupled modification of histone variant H3.1. Plants evolved a mechanism for efficient K27 trimethylation on H3.1, which is essential for inheritance of the silencing memory from mother to daughter cells...
August 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818969/distinct-phases-of-polycomb-silencing-to-hold-epigenetic-memory-of-cold-in-arabidopsis
#13
Hongchun Yang, Scott Berry, Tjelvar S G Olsson, Matthew Hartley, Martin Howard, Caroline Dean
Gene silencing by Polycomb complexes is central to eukaryotic development. Cold-induced epigenetic repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the plant Arabidopsis provides an opportunity to study initiation and maintenance of Polycomb silencing. Here, we show that a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 factors nucleate silencing in a small region within FLC, locally increasing H3K27me3 levels. This nucleation confers a silenced state that is metastably inherited, with memory held in the local chromatin. Metastable memory is then converted to stable epigenetic silencing through separate Polycomb factors, which spread across the locus after cold to enlarge the domain containing H3K27me3...
August 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818737/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-of-articular-cartilage-reveals-significant-epigenetic-alterations-in-kashin-beck-disease-and-osteoarthritis
#14
Wenyu Wang, Yan Yu, Jingcan Hao, Yan Wen, Jing Han, Weikun Hou, Ruiyu Liu, Bo Zhao, Awen He, Ping Li, Qianrui Fan, Cuiyan Wu, Sen Wang, Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Xiong Guo, Feng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To determine genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of knee cartilage from patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: Knee cartilage was collected from 14 grade III KBD patients, 5 primary OA patients and 13 healthy subjects. The genome-wide methylation profiles of 5 KBD cartilage, 5 OA cartilage and 5 normal cartilage were determined by Illumina HumanMethylation450 array. Illumina Methylation Analyzer package was employed for identifying differentially methylated CpG sites...
August 14, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818709/blood-global-dna-methylation-is-decreased-in-non-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients
#15
Angelo Zinellu, Elisabetta Sotgiu, Alessandro G Fois, Elisabetta Zinellu, Salvatore Sotgia, Sara Ena, Arduino A Mangoni, Ciriaco Carru, Pietro Pirina
BACKGROUND: Alterations in global DNA methylation have been associated with oxidative stress (OS). Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by increased oxidative stress we aimed to evaluate the levels of global DNA methylation in this patient group. METHODS: We assessed methylcytosine (mCyt) levels in DNA from blood collected in 43 COPD patients (29 with mild and 14 with moderate disease) and 43 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: DNA methylation was significantly lower in COPD patients vs...
August 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818477/human-imprinting-disorders-principles-practice-problems-and-progress
#16
REVIEW
Deborah J G Mackay
Epigenetic regulation orchestrates gene expression with exquisite precision, over a huge dynamic range and across developmental space and time, permitting genomically-homogeneous humans to develop and adapt to their surroundings. Every generation, these epigenetic marks are re-set twice: in the germline, to enable differentiation of sperm and eggs, and at fertilisation, to create the totipotent zygote that then begins growth and differentiation into a new human. A small group of genes evades the second, zygotic wave of epigenetic reprogramming, and these genes retain an epigenetic 'imprint' of the parent from whom they were inherited...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818454/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-intravesical-administration-of-normal-urothelial-cells-on-bladder-cancer
#17
Chi-Ping Huang, Chi-Cheng Chen, Chih-Rong Shyr
BACKGROUND AIMS: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary tract and for advanced forms of the disease it has a high mortality rate. There are no approved new molecularly targeted agents or chemotherapeutics for advanced UBC beyond cisplatin-based chemotherapy except the recently approved anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) antibody. With complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumors, despite several druggable targets identified, to cure UBC is still a challenging unmet medical need...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818387/plant-response-to-biotic-stress-is-there-a-common-epigenetic-response-during-plant-pathogenic-and-symbiotic-interactions
#18
REVIEW
Prince Zogli, Marc Libault
Plants constantly interact with pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. Recent studies have revealed several regulatory mechanisms controlling these interactions. Among them, the plant defense system is activated not only in response to pathogenic, but also in response to symbiotic microbes. Interestingly, shortly after symbiotic microbial recognition, the plant defense system is suppressed to promote plant infection by symbionts. Research studies have demonstrated the influence of the plant epigenome in modulating both pathogenic and symbiotic plant-microbe interactions, thereby influencing plant survival, adaptation and evolution of the plant response to microbial infections...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818371/assessment-of-molecular-and-epigenetic-changes-in-the-albinism-of-agave-angustifolia-haw
#19
Rosa Us-Camas, Eduardo Castillo-Castro, Margarita Aguilar-Espinosa, Verónica Limones-Briones, Renata Rivera-Madrid, Manuel L Robert-Díaz, Clelia De-la-Peña
Albinism in plants is a rare phenomenon that occurs in nature and is characterized by the total or partial loss of photosynthetic pigments. Although progress has been made in understanding the nature of this phenomenon, the precise causes and biological basis are still unexplored. Here, we study the genetic and epigenetic differences between green (G), variegated (V) and albino (A) A. angustifolia Haw. plantlets obtained by in vitro propagation in order to present new insights into albinism from a plant system that offers a unique set of biological phenotypic characteristics...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818332/antimicrobial-activity-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-by-extracts-from-chromatin-modulated-fungi
#20
Matheus Thomaz Nogueira Silva Lima, Larissa Batista Dos Santos, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Jacques Robert Nicoli, Jacqueline Aparecida Takahashi
Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum) were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid)...
August 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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