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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679904/tanshinone-iia-protects-murine-chondrogenic-atdc5-cells-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-injury-by-down-regulating-microrna-203a
#1
Luan Luan, Zhiyuan Liang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is the most common bone-joint disease in middle and older people all over the world. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is the main lipophilic diterpenoid isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae). This study analyzed the protective effects of Tan IIA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell inflammatory injury model. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679779/biomimetic-3d-in-vitro-model-of-biofilm-triggered-osteomyelitis-for-investigating-hematopoiesis-during-bone-marrow-infections
#2
Annamarija Raic, Sophie Riedel, Elena Kemmling, Karen Bieback, Joerg Overhage, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
In this work, we define the requirements for a human-based osteomyelitis model which overcomes the limitations of state of the art animal models. Osteomyelitis is a severe and difficult to treat infection of the bone that develops rapidly, making it difficult to study in humans. We have developed a 3D in vitro model of the bone marrow, comprising a macroporous material, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Inclusion of biofilms grown on an implant into the model system allowed us to study the effects of postoperative osteomyelitis-inducing bacteria on the bone marrow...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679717/stat-3-regulation-of-cxcr4-is-necessary-for-the-prenylflavonoid-icaritin-to-enhance-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation-migration-and-osteogenic-differentiation
#3
R Z L Lim, L Li, E L Yong, N Chew
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. MSCs derived from osteoporotic subjects demonstrate significant impairment in proliferation, adhesion and chemotaxis, and osteogenic differentiation, leading to reduced functional bone-forming osteoblasts and ultimately nett bone loss and osteoporosis. Epimedium herbs and its active compound Icaritin (ICT) have been used in Chinese ethnopharmacology for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Using an in-vitro cell culture model, we investigated the benefits of ICT treatment in enhancing MSC proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation, and provide novel data to describe its mechanism of action...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679380/a-non-myeloablative-chimeric-mouse-model-accurately-defines-microglia-and-macrophage-contribution-in-glioma
#4
Kenny Yu, A Saam Youshani, Fiona L Wilkinson, Claire O'Leary, Peter Cook, Liisi Laaniste, Aiyin Liao, Dominic Mosses, Christopher Waugh, Hannah Shorrock, Omar Pathmanaban, Andrew Macdonald, Ian Kamaly-Asl, Federico Roncaroli, Brian W Bigger
AIMS: Resident and peripherally-derived glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMM) play a key role in driving tumour progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and attenuating host immune responses. Differentiating these cells' origins is challenging and current pre-clinical models such as irradiation-based adoptive transfer, parabiosis and transgenic mice have limitations. We aimed to develop a novel non-myeloablative transplantation (NMT) mouse model that permits high levels of peripheral chimerism without blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage or brain infiltration prior to tumour implantation...
April 20, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679282/burosumab-first-global-approval
#5
Yvette N Lamb
Burosumab (Crysvita® ; Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd. and Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc.) is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed at fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Excessive FGF23 production has been implicated in various hypophosphataemic diseases. Inhibition of FGF23 by burosumab results in increased renal phosphate reabsorption and increased serum levels of phosphorus and active vitamin D. In February 2018, the EMA granted subcutaneous burosumab conditional marketing authorization for the treatment of X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) with radiographic evidence of bone disease in children one year of age and older and adolescents with growing skeletons...
April 20, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679229/compromised-alveolar-bone-cells-in-a-patient-with-dentinogenesis-imperfecta-caused-by-dspp-mutation
#6
Thantrira Porntaveetus, Nunthawan Nowwarote, Thanaphum Osathanon, Thanakorn Theerapanon, Prasit Pavasant, Lawan Boonprakong, Kittisak Sanon, Sirivimol Srisawasdi, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
OBJECTIVES: Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) plays an important role in the mineralization of both dentin and bones. The Dspp null mice developed periodontal diseases. Patients with DSPP mutations have dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI), but very little is known about their bone characteristics. This study aims to characterize alveolar bone cells of a DGI patient with DSPP mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathogenic variants were identified by whole exome and sanger sequencing...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679227/cypd-mptp-axis-regulates-mitochondrial-functions-contributing-to-osteogenic-dysfunction-of-mc3t3-e1-cells-in-inflammation
#7
Xueqi Gan, Ling Zhang, Beilei Liu, Zhuoli Zhu, Yuting He, Junsheng Chen, Junfei Zhu, Haiyang Yu
Bone is a dynamic organ, the bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts form the physiological basis of bone remodeling process. During pathological process of numerous inflammatory diseases, these two aspects are uncoupled and the balance is usually tipped in favor of bone destruction. Evidence suggests that the inflammatory destruction of bone is mainly attributed to oxidative stress and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying osteogenic dysfunction in inflammation still need further investigation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678925/role-of-the-novel-endoribonuclease-slfn14-and-its-disease-causing-mutations-in-ribosomal-degradation
#8
Sarah J Fletcher, Vera P Pisareva, Abdullah Khan, Andrew Tcherepanov, Neil V Morgan, Andrey V Pisarev
Platelets are anucleate and mostly ribosome-free cells within the bloodstream, derived from megakaryocytes within bone marrow and crucial for cessation of bleeding at sites of injury. Inherited thrombocytopenias are a group of disorders characterized by a low platelet count and are frequently associated with excessive bleeding. SLFN14 is one of the most recently discovered genes linked to inherited thrombocytopenia where several heterozygous missense mutations in SLFN14 were identified to cause defective megakaryocyte maturation and platelet dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678696/sarcopenic-obesity-revisited-insights-from-the-mr-and-ms-os-cohort
#9
Jean Woo, Jason Leung
OBJECTIVES: Following the concept of a metabolic load-capacity model, we propose the use of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) to total body fat (TBF) ratio in predicting 4-year physical limitations, physical performance measures, 6-year incident diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and 12-year mortality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 4000 men and women aged 65 years and older living in the community...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678638/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-activation-and-proliferation-kinetics-and-effector-functions-of-human-lymphocytes-and-antigen-presentation-capacity-of-antigen-presenting-cells-in-xenogeneic-graft-versus-host-disease
#10
Yasufumi Kawasaki, Kazuya Sato, Hiroko Hayakawa, Norihito Takayama, Hirofumi Nakano, Ryoji Ito, Kiyomi Mashima, Iekuni Oh, Daisuke Minakata, Ryoko Yamasaki, Kaoru Morita, Masahiro Ashizawa, Chihiro Yamamoto, Kaoru Hatano, Shin-Ichiro Fujiwara, Ken Ohmine, Kazuo Muroi, Yoshinobu Kanda
Xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models in highly immunodeficient mice are currently being used worldwide to investigate human immune responses against foreign antigens in vivo. However, the individual roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and donor/host hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the induction and development of GVHD have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the immune responses of human T-cells and the antigen presentation capacity of donor/host hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic APCs in xenogeneic GVHD models using NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rgnull (NOG) mice...
April 17, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678628/poria-cocos-polysaccharide-attenuates-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-by-suppressing-nfatc1-activity-and-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-stat3
#11
Dezhi Song, Zhen Cao, Jennifer Tickner, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Kai Chen, Ziyi Wang, Chunyu Guo, Shiwu Dong, Jiake Xu
Pathological fractures caused by osteolytic lesions seriously threaten the health of patients. Osteoclasts play important roles in bone resorption whose hyperfunction are closely related to osteolytic lesions. Studies on osteoclast differentiation and function assist in the prevention of excessive bone loss associated diseases. We screened a variety of natural compounds with anti-inflammatory effect and found that poria cocos polysaccharide (PCP) inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption via TRAcP staining, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and western blot...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678489/impact-of-bone-volume-upon-condylar-activity-in-patients-with-unilateral-condylar-hyperplasia
#12
Luc H E Karssemakers, Jitske W Nolte, D Bram Tuinzing, Geerling E J Langenbach, Alfred G Becking, Pieter G Raijmakers
PURPOSE: Unilateral condylar hyperplasia or hyperactivity (UCH) is a bone overgrowth disorder affecting the mandible. The purpose of this study was to determine the relations among age, condylar bone structure, condylar bone volume, and condylar bone activity on single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scans in patients with UCH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 20 patients with a clinical presentation of progressive mandibular asymmetry and a positive bone SPECT scan...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678430/osseous-rosai-dorfman-disease-presenting-as-a-solitary-lesion-of-the-distal-radius
#13
Amit Parekh, Feroz Osmani, Nathan Aardsma, John Groth, Mark Gonzalez
Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare entity in which bone involvement occurs in less than 5% to 10% of patients and skeletal cases are usually multifocal. Extranodal solitary lesions of bone without nodal involvement or additional clinical manifestations are exceedingly rare. We present the clinical course and management of a 34-year-old African American woman who presented with the disease as a solitary lesion of the distal radius.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678371/tethering-technique-using-bone-screws-and-wire-for-chronic-mandibular-dislocation-a-preliminary-study-of-refractory-cases
#14
N Segami, T Nishimura, K Miyaki, H Adachi
A retrospective study was performed to determine the efficacy of a tethering procedure developed to achieve a more rigid fixation and more reliable outcome in patients with refractory dislocation of the temporomandibular joint. The cases of eight patients with dementia and systemic diseases who underwent this technique were reviewed. In these eight patients, the condyles of 13 joints were ligated using wire between screws placed in the eminence and condylar head. Additional screw-wire ligations were applied to reinforce the restraint of movement in five of the 13 joints with suspected uncontrolled dislocation...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678192/engineering-in-vitro-stem-cell-based-vascularized-bone-models-for-drug-screening-and-predictive-toxicology
#15
REVIEW
Alessandro Pirosa, Riccardo Gottardi, Peter G Alexander, Rocky S Tuan
The production of veritable in-vitro models of bone tissue is essential to understand the biology of bone and its surrounding environment, to analyze the pathogenesis of bone diseases (e.g., osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, etc.), to develop effective therapeutic drug screening, and to test potential therapeutic strategies. Dysregulated interactions between vasculature and bone cells are often related to the aforementioned pathologies, underscoring the need for a bone model that contains engineered vasculature...
April 20, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676872/-osteoarticular-tuberculosis-nosology-and-diagnostic-pitfalls
#16
C Kabore, M Poncin, B Hurtgen, F Moerman, M Moonen
Osteoarticular or skeletal tuberculosis is a clinical manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, occurring during the lympho-hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a pulmonary primary infection or reactivation of latent infection, years or even decades after the initial infection. Bone and joint tuberculosis is a rare disease with non-specific symptoms and radiological characteristics, often delaying diagnosis for more than a year after clinical onset. First-line hospital departments should develop a clinical suspicion when confronted with a subacute inflammatory bone or joint pathology in patients with underlying comorbidities, especially when coming from tuberculosis-endemic countries...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676678/spontaneous-epidural-hematoma-secondary-to-bone-infarction-in-sickle-cell-anemia-case-report
#17
Rohini Komarla, Bruno P Soares, Joshua J Chern, Sarah S Milla
Spontaneous epidural hematoma (EDH) is a rare occurrence in patients with sickle cell disease, with a small number of cases reported. Appropriate diagnosis is critical, because rapid neurosurgical intervention may be required. This unique case illustrates clinical and MRI features of an 18-year-old woman presenting with a headache and subsequent progression to severe focal neurological symptoms. Imaging demonstrated a large EDH of mixed signal characteristics and underlying calvarial infarction, requiring emergency decompression and evacuation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676375/bone-marrow-oxalosis-an-unusual-cause-of-cytopenia-in-end-stage-renal-disease-report-of-two-cases
#18
Seema Sharma, Ram Nawal Rao, Krushna Chandra Pani, Paramita Paul
Systemic oxalosis can be either primary or secondary hyperoxaluria. Oxalosis is a phenomenon in which calcium oxalate crystals deposit in various visceral organs leading to bone marrow (BM) failure and recurrent renal stones. We describe two rare cases of BM oxalosis. Hyperoxaluria is strongly associated with nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Both the patients presented with recurrent renal stones and a variable degree of BM failure. BM oxalosis should be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients in recurrent nephrolithiasis and cytopenia...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676289/natural-history-and-outcome-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-children-in-saudi-arabia-a-single-center-experience
#19
Khalid M Alreheili, Khalid A Alsaleem, Ali I Almehaidib
Background/Aim: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder which includes ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), and indeterminate colitis (IC). The natural history of pediatric IBDs is poorly understood and generally unpredictable. We aim to study the natural history of IBD in Saudi children including the extraintestinal manifestations, changes in diagnosis, disease behavior, medical management, and surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of all the charts of children less than 14 years of age who were diagnosed as IBD and followed up in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) from January 2001 to December 2011 was performed...
April 18, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675663/origins-of-metaplasia-in-barrett-s-esophagus-is-this-an-esophageal-stem-or-progenitor-cell-disease
#20
REVIEW
Wei Zhang, David H Wang
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing in Western countries over the past several decades. Though Barrett's esophagus, in which the normal esophageal squamous epithelium is replaced with metaplastic intestinalized columnar cells due to chronic damage from gastroesophageal reflux, is accepted as the requisite precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma, the Barrett's esophagus cell of origin and the molecular mechanism underlying esophageal epithelial metaplasia remain controversial...
April 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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