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Isabel M Vincent, Rónán Daly, Bertrand Courtioux, Amy M Cattanach, Sylvain Biéler, Joseph M Ndung'u, Sylvie Bisser, Michael P Barrett
Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is dependent on the species of trypanosome causing the disease and the stage of the disease (stage 1 defined by parasites being present in blood and lymphatics whilst for stage 2, parasites are found beyond the blood-brain barrier in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)). Currently, staging relies upon detecting the very low number of parasites or elevated white blood cell numbers in CSF. Improved staging is desirable, as is the elimination of the need for lumbar puncture...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lina Carlbom, José Caballero-Corbalán, Dan Granberg, Jens Sörensen, Barbro Eriksson, Håkan Ahlström
AIM: We wanted to explore if whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW) and liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging could be valuable in lesion detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). [11C]-5-Hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography/computed tomography (5-HTP PET/CT) was used for comparison. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with NET were investigated with whole-body MRI, including DW imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging of the liver, and whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT...
November 29, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Li-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Yun Wang, Nan Zhao, Yu-Lu Wang, Xiao-Xu Hu, Yu-Hua Ran, Yan-Qin Liu, You-Zhi Zhang, Ri-Fang Yang, Yun-Feng Li
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pharmacology of hypidone hydrochloride (YL-0919), a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor agonist with high affinity for serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A receptors. YL-0919 promoted [(35) S]GTPγ S binding at 85% of the magnitude of the full 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), suggesting that YL-0919 is a high-efficacy partial agonist of 5-HT1A receptors...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Iwona Adamska, Bogdan Lewczuk, Magdalena Markowska, Pawel M Majewski
The aim of the present study was to characterize the daily profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles in the pineal glands of male Hy-Line chickens hatched in the winter and reared under controlled light (L:D 12:12) conditions. The pineal glands were isolated from 16-day-old birds immediately after decapitation every 2h over a 24-h period. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection. According to the obtained data, in chicken pineal glands tryptophan occurred at the highest level among the investigated compounds, showing rhythmical, daily changes with decreased levels during the scotophase...
November 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jian Jiao, Yaner Ma, Sha Chen, Chonghuai Liu, Yuyang Song, Yi Qin, Chunlong Yuan, Yanlin Liu
Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with plants and constitute an important source of phytohormones and bioactive secondary metabolites for their hosts. To date, most studies of endophytes have focused on the influence of these microorganisms on plant growth and physiology and their role in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stressors; however, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of endophytes to produce melatonin has not been reported. In the present study, we isolated and identified root-dwelling bacteria from three grapevine varieties and found that, when cultured under laboratory conditions, some of the bacteria strains secreted melatonin and tryptophan-ethyl ester...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
David M Schuster, Cristina Nanni, Stefano Fanti
Conventional imaging of prostate cancer has limitations related to the frequently indolent biology of the disease. PET is a functional imaging method that can exploit various aspects of tumor biology to enable greater detection of prostate cancer than can be provided by morphologic imaging alone. Radiotracers that are in use or under investigation for targeting salient features of prostate cancer include those directed to glucose, choline, acetate, prostate-specific membrane antigen, bombesin, and amino acids...
October 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jacob P R Jacobsen, Andrew D Krystal, K Ranga R Krishnan, Marc G Caron
Serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors treat depression by elevating brain extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTExt). However, only one-third of patients respond adequately. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a major unmet need. Interestingly, elevating 5-HTExt beyond what is achieved by a SERT inhibitor appears to treat TRD. Adjunctive administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) safely elevates 5-HTExt beyond the SERT inhibitor effect in humans; however, 5-HTP cannot be a clinically viable drug because of its poor pharmacokinetics...
September 28, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Andreas Frick, Fredrik Åhs, Lieuwe Appel, My Jonasson, Kurt Wahlstedt, Massimo Bani, Emilio Merlo Pich, Paolo Bettica, Bengt Långström, Mark Lubberink, Mats Fredrikson, Tomas Furmark
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with increased fear-related neural activity in the amygdala and we recently found enhanced serotonin synthesis rate in the same region. Anxiolytic agents like selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists reduce amygdala activity and may attenuate serotonin formation according to animal studies. Here, we examined the effects of SSRI pharmacotherapy, NK1R antagonism, and placebo on serotonin synthesis rate in relation to neural activity, measured as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and symptom improvement in SAD...
November 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Camille Lagard, Lucie Chevillard, Isabelle Malissin, Patricia Risède, Jacques Callebert, Laurence Labat, Jean-Marie Launay, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Bruno Mégarbane
Poisoning with opioid analgesics including tramadol represents a challenge. Tramadol may induce respiratory depression, seizures and serotonin syndrome, possibly worsened when in combination to benzodiazepines. Our objectives were to investigate tramadol-related neurotoxicity, consequences of diazepam/tramadol combination, and mechanisms of drug-drug interactions in rats. Median lethal-doses were determined using Dixon-Bruce's up-and-down method. Sedation, seizures, electroencephalography and plethysmography parameters were studied...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Olle Eriksson, Anders Wall, Ulf Olsson, Ina Marteinsdottir, Maria Holstad, Hans Ågren, Per Hartvig, Bengt Långström, Tord Naessén
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD) and asymptomatic controls. BACKGROUND: Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women...
2016: PloS One
Elias Patetsos, Emilia Horjales-Araujo
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a major role in both nociception and mood regulation. Alterations in the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HT) system have been reported in chronic pain patients. In recent years, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been suggested as an alternative treatment for chronic pain due to the fact that they are better tolerated presenting less secondary effects than other antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants. Although several clinical trials have been published, the effectiveness of SSRI as treatment for pain conditions is inconclusive...
2016: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Rashmi Srivastava, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
In order to study the effect of specific phase relation of neural oscillations on reproductive regulation and the response of AVT (the avian homologue of mammalian AVP) the expression of AVT in the shell gland was monitored in sexually immature quail. In this study 3-week-old female Japanese quail were administered with serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan followed by the dopamine precursor, l-dihydroxyphenylalanine at interval of 8h and 12h daily over a period of 13days. At thirty two days post treatment, a significant decrease in gonadal activity was seen in 8h quail although 12h quail exhibited an increase as compared to controls...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Xiaoxuan Yang, Qingsheng Xue, Joseph F Cotten, Hua-Jun Feng
OBJECTIVE: The DBA/1 mouse is a relevant animal model of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), as it exhibits seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) evoked by acoustic stimulation, followed by cardiac arrhythmia and death. Defects in serotonergic neurotransmission may contribute to S-IRA. The tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) enzyme converts L-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor for central nervous system (CNS) serotonin (5-HT) synthesis; and DBA/1 mice have a polymorphism that decreases TPH2 activity...
August 2016: Epilepsia
Amanda Eskelund, David P Budac, Connie Sanchez, Betina Elfving, Gregers Wegener
Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Ouissame Mnie-Filali, Thorsten Lau, Friederike Matthaeus, Erika Abrial, Sarah Delcourte, Mostafa El Mansari, Alan Pershon, Patrick Schloss, Connie Sánchez, Nasser Haddjeri
AIM: Studies using S- and R-enantiomers of the SSRI citalopram have shown that R-citalopram exerts an antagonistic effect on the efficacy of the antidepressant S-citalopram (escitalopram) through an interaction at an allosteric modulator site on the serotonin transporter (SERT). Here, we show that protein kinase signaling systems are involved in the allosteric modulation of the SERT in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: We assessed the effects of nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine in the action of escitalopram and/or R-citalopram using electrophysiological and behavioral assays in rats and cell surface SERT expression measures in serotoninergic cells...
August 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Mark Flint, John T Than
The enhanced ability to direct sexual reproduction may lead to improved restoration outcomes for Acropora cervicornis. Gravid fragments of A. cervicornis were maintained in a laboratory for two sequential trials in the seven days prior to natural spawning in the Florida Keys. Ten replicates of five chemicals known to affect spawning in various invertebrate taxa were tested. Hydrogen peroxide at 2 mM (70%) and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) at 5 (40%) and 20 µM (30%) induced spawning within 15.4 h, 38.8 h and 26...
2016: PeerJ
Ki-Bae Hong, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep-promoting effect of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on sleep quality and quantity in vertebrate models. Pentobarbital-induced sleep test and electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis were applied to investigate sleep latency, duration, total sleeping time and sleep quality of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture. In addition, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. The GABA/5-HTP mixture significantly regulated the sleep latency, duration (p<0...
September 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Rebeca Tudela, Albert Ribas-Agustí, Susana Buxaderas, Montserrat Riu-Aumatell, Massimo Castellari, Elvira López-Tamames
An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine target indoles in sparkling wines. The proposed method requires minimal sample pretreatment, and its performance parameters (accuracy, repeatability, LOD, and matrix effect) indicate that it is suitable for routine analysis. Four indoles were found at detectable levels in commercial Cava samples: 5-methoxytryptophol (5MTL), tryptophan (TRP), tryptophan ethyl ester (TEE), and N-acetylserotonin (NSER)...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kimio Sugaya, Saori Nishijima, Katsumi Kadekawa, Katsuhiro Ashitomi, Tomoyuki Ueda, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Hattori
AIMS: We examined the mechanism of action of naftopidil, an α1D/A blocker, on spinal descending serotonergic neurotransmission for the micturition reflex. METHODS: We examined (1) urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) after intraperitoneal administration of saline, para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA; a serotonin synthetic enzyme inhibitor), and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP; a serotonin precursor); (2) isovolumetric cystometry after intraperitoneal administration of saline, PCPA, and/or 5-HTP and intravenous injection of naftopidil; and (3) isovolumetric cystometry before and after intrathecal administration of serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonists and intravenous injection of naftopidil...
April 29, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Stefano Comai, Antonella Bertazzo, Jeanne Vachon, Marc Daigle, Jean Toupin, Gilles Côté, Gustavo Turecki, Gabriella Gobbi
Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ)...
October 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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