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Critical medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932862/subchondral-bone-and-the-osteochondral-unit-basic-science-and-clinical-implications-in-sports-medicine
#1
Bryan M Saltzman, Jonathan C Riboh
CONTEXT: Articular cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis are among the most common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians. Nonetheless, treatment options for articular degeneration are limited once the osteoarthritic cascade has started. Intense research is focused on the use of biologics, cartilage regeneration, and transplantation to help maintain and improve cartilage health. An underappreciated component of joint health is the subchondral bone. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive, nonsystematic review of the published literature was completed via a PubMed/MEDLINE search of the keywords "subchondral" AND "bone" from database inception through December 1, 2016...
June 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932044/optimization-of-antimicrobial-treatment-to-minimize-resistance-selection
#2
Luca Guardabassi, Mike Apley, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Scott Weese
Optimization of antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Various national and international authorities and professional veterinary and farming associations have released generic guidelines on prudent antimicrobial use in animals. However, these generic guidelines need to be translated into a set of animal species- and disease-specific practice recommendations. This article focuses on prevention of antimicrobial resistance and its complex relationship with treatment efficacy, highlighting key situations where the current antimicrobial drug products, treatment recommendations, and practices may be insufficient to minimize antimicrobial selection...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931565/nonoperative-treatment-of-muscle-injuries-recommendations-from-the-gots-expert-meeting
#3
REVIEW
T Hotfiel, R Seil, W Bily, W Bloch, A Gokeler, R M Krifter, F Mayer, P Ueblacker, L Weisskopf, M Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Muscle injuries are some of the most common injuries in sports; they have a high recurrence rate and can result in the loss of ability to participate in training or competition. In clinical practice, a wide variety of treatment strategies are commonly applied. However, a limited amount of evidence-based data exists, and most therapeutic approaches are solely based on "best practice". Thus, there is a need for consensus to provide strategies and recommendations for the treatment of muscle injuries...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931477/neuroscience-and-brain-death-controversies-the-elephant-in-the-room
#4
Joseph L Verheijde, Mohamed Y Rady, Michael Potts
The conception and the determination of brain death continue to raise scientific, legal, philosophical, and religious controversies. While both the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1981 and the President's Council on Bioethics in 2008 committed to a biological definition of death as the basis for the whole-brain death criteria, contemporary neuroscientific findings augment the concerns about the validity of this biological definition...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930359/systematic-review-finds-that-silver-diamine-fluoride-is-effective-for-both-root-caries-prevention-and-arrest-in-older-adults
#5
David McReynolds, Brett Duane
Data sourcesPubMed, Pubmed Clinical Queries, EMBASE, the American Dental Associations Evidence-Based Dentistry Website, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, repository of the Journal of the American Dental Association and Google Scholar.Study selectionFour authors independently assessed the abstracts of studies resulting from the above searches which compared treatment of root caries in an older population with SDF versus other preventive agents or placebos.Data extraction and synthesisTitles and abstracts of all reports identified through the electronic searches were assessed independently by four authors based on agreed upon inclusion and exclusion criteria...
June 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928146/therapeutic-potential-of-medicinal-marijuana-an-educational-primer-for-health-care-professionals
#6
REVIEW
Yara Mouhamed, Andrey Vishnyakov, Bessi Qorri, Manpreet Sambi, Sm Signy Frank, Catherine Nowierski, Anmol Lamba, Umrao Bhatti, Myron R Szewczuk
With the proposed Canadian July 2018 legalization of marijuana through the Cannabis Act, a thorough critical analysis of the current trials on the efficacy of medicinal marijuana (MM) as a treatment option is necessary. This review is particularly important for primary care physicians whose patients may be interested in using MM as an alternative therapy. In response to increased interest in MM, Health Canada released a document in 2013 for general practitioners (GPs) as an educational tool on the efficacy of MM in treating some chronic and acute conditions...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927715/personalized-herbal-medicine-a-roadmap-for-convergence-of-herbal-and-precision-medicine-biomarker-innovations
#7
Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Kevin Dzobo, Emile Chimusa, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela, Shadreck Chirikure, Ambroise Wonkam, Collet Dandara
While drugs remain the cornerstone of medicine, herbal medicine is an important comedication worldwide. Thus, precision medicine ought to face this clinical reality and develop "companion diagnostics" for drugs as well as herbal medicines. Yet, many are in denial with respect to the extent of use of traditional/herbal medicines, overlooking that a considerable number of contemporary therapeutic drugs trace their discovery from herbal medicines. This expert review underscores that absent such appropriate attention on both classical drug therapy and herbal medicines, precision medicine biomarkers will likely not stand the full test of clinical practice while patients continue to use both drugs and herbal medicines and, yet the biomarker research and applications focus only (or mostly) on drug therapy...
June 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927656/human-experimentation-in-public-schools-how-schools-served-as-sites-of-vaccine-trials-in-the-20th-century
#8
Will D Schupmann
Schools have long been critical partners for public health authorities in achieving widespread vaccination. In the mid-20th century, however, public schools also served as sites of large-scale experiments on novel vaccines. Through examining the experimental diphtheria, polio, and measles vaccine trials, I explored the implications of using schools in this manner, as well as the continuities and discontinuities among the three cases. Common to all of them was that the use of schools brought decision-making into the public sphere, subjecting parents to social pressures and the influences of school officials and community members...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926325/practical-wisdom-in-complex-medical-practices-a-critical-proposal
#9
C M M L Bontemps-Hommen, A Baart, F T H Vosman
In recent times, daily, ordinary medical practices have incontrovertibly been developing under the condition of complexity. Complexity jeopardizes the moral core of practicing medicine: helping people, with their illnesses and suffering, in a medically competent way. Practical wisdom (a modification of the Aristotelian phronèsis) has been proposed as part of the solution to navigate complexity, aiming at the provision of morally good care. Practical wisdom should help practitioners to maneuver in complexity, where the presupposed linear ways of operating prove to be insufficient...
June 20, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925125/-technical-specification-for-clinical-application-of-critical-ultrasonography
#10
M G Yin, X T Wang, D W Liu, Y G Chao, X D Guan, Y Kang, J Yan, X C Ma, Y Q Tang, Z J Hu, K J Yu, D C Chen, Y H Ai, L N Zhang, H M Zhang, J Wu, L X Liu, R Zhu, W He, Q Zhang, X Ding, L Li, Y Li, H T Liu, Q B Zeng, X Si, H Chen, J W Zhang, Q H Xu, W J Chen, X K Chen, D Z Huang, S H Cai, X L Shang, J Guan, J Du, L Zhao, M J Wang, S Cui, X M Wang, R Zhou, X Y Zeng, Y P Wang, L W Lyu, W H Zhu, Y Zhu, J Duan, J Yang, H Yang
Critical ultrasonography(CUS) is different from the traditional diagnostic ultrasound, the examiner and interpreter of the image are critical care medicine physicians. The core content of CUS is to evaluate the pathophysiological changes of organs and systems and etiology changes. With the idea of critical care medicine as the soul, it can integrate the above information and clinical information, bedside real-time diagnosis and titration treatment, and evaluate the therapeutic effect so as to improve the outcome...
June 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924349/aesthetic-journeys-a-review-of-cosmetic-surgery-tourism
#11
Ryan Terence Pereira, Carmel M Malone, Gerard T Flaherty
Background: Medical tourism has witnessed significant growth in recent years. The emerging trend towards international travel for cosmetic surgical interventions has not previously been reviewed. The current review aims to critically address the scale and impact of cosmetic surgical tourism and to delineate the complication profile of this form of medical tourism. Methods: Articles published in the English language on the PubMed database that were relevant to surgical tourism and the complications of elective surgical procedures abroad were examined...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923972/rapid-detection-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#12
Xin Yuan, Changqing Bai, Qian Cui, Han Zhang, Jing Yuan, Kaiwen Niu, Yuzhong Feng, Xin Jin, Puyuan Li, Huiying Liu
To improve the diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infection and reduce the misuse of antibiotics, we sought to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Mp.Six primers specific for the Mp P1 gene were designed, and the LAMP method was used to rapidly detect Mp. The sensitivity of the LAMP method was determined by serial dilution of the standard Mp strain FH (standard strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Specificity was assessed with 17 common pathogenic microorganisms in the respiratory tract...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922843/the-role-of-appearance-definition-of-appearance-pain-app-pain-and-systematic-review-of-patient-reported-outcome-measures-used-in-literature
#13
M Barone, A Cogliandro, R Salzillo, V Tambone, P Persichetti
INTRODUCTION: The objectives of the current study were: (1) to perform a systematic review of the existing scientific literature on appearance and any subsequently related disorders and (2) to research in the literature the correlation between the role of appearance and patient's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review protocol was developed a priori in accordance with the Preferred Reporting for Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidance...
June 19, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922460/optimizing-engagement-of-undergraduate-students-in-medical-education-research-the-emerg-training-network
#14
Michail Sideris, John Hanrahan, Nikolaos Staikoglou, Panteleimon Pantelidis, Connie Pidgeon, Nikolaos Psychalakis, Nikolai Andersen, Theodore Pittaras, Thanos Athanasiou, Georgios Tsoulfas, Apostolos Papalois
Background: The practice of evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal are essential for the modern doctor. Early engagement of medical students in research methodology is considered as a rising need for most medical school curricula; however, few peer-reviewed initiatives have been reported so far. We developed a Medical Education Research Group (eMERG) as part of a novel undergraduate surgical masterclass, which aimed to train undergraduate students on basic research methodology, as well as to motivate them to pursue a clinical and academic career in surgical specialties...
July 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921920/treatment-response-prediction-and-individualized-identification-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-using-brain-functional-connectivity
#15
Bo Cao, Raymond Y Cho, Dachun Chen, Meihong Xiu, Li Wang, Jair C Soares, Xiang Yang Zhang
Identifying biomarkers in schizophrenia during the first episode without the confounding effects of treatment has been challenging. Leveraging these biomarkers to establish diagnosis and make individualized predictions of future treatment responses to antipsychotics would be of great value, but there has been limited progress. In this study, by using machine learning algorithms and the functional connections of the superior temporal cortex, we successfully identified the first-episode drug-naive (FEDN) schizophrenia patients (accuracy 78...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921882/quercetin-attenuates-toosendanin-induced-hepatotoxicity-through-inducing-the-nrf2-gcl-gsh-antioxidant-signaling-pathway
#16
Yao Jin, Zhen-Lin Huang, Li Li, Yang Yang, Chang-Hong Wang, Zheng-Tao Wang, Li-Li Ji
Toosendanin (TSN) is the main active compound in Toosendan Fructus and Meliae Cortex, two commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. TSN has been reported to induce hepatotoxicity, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the critical role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in protecting against TSN-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and human normal liver L-02 cells. In mice, administration of TSN (10 mg/kg)-induced acute liver injury evidenced by increased serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and total bilirubin (TBiL) content as well as the histological changes...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921748/desmoglein1-deficiency-is-a-potential-cause-of-cutaneous-eruptions-induced-by-shuanghuanglian-injection
#17
Yidan Zhang, Xiujun Zhang, Shanshan Fan, Lili Song, Zhen Yang, Pengwei Zhuang, Yanjun Zhang
Cutaneous eruption is a common drug-adverse reaction, characterised by keratinocytes inflammation and apoptosis. Shuanghuanglian injeciton (SHLI) is a typical Chinese medicine injection, which is used to treat influenza. It has been reported that SHLI has the potential to induce cutaneous adverse eruptions. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Since desmoglein 1 (DSG1) shows a crucial role in maintaining skin barrier function and cell susceptibility, we assume that DSG1 plays a critical role in the cutaneous eruptions induced by SHLI...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921477/quality-of-evidence-based-guidelines-for-transfusion-of-red-blood-cells-and-plasma-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Katerina Pavenski, Simon Stanworth, Mark Fung, Erica M Wood, Joanne Pink, Michael F Murphy, Heather Hume, Susan Nahirniak, Kathryn E Webert, Susano Tanael, Denise Landry, Nadine Shehata
Many transfusion guidelines are available, but little appraisal of their quality has been undertaken. The quality of guidelines may potentially influence adoption. Our aim was to determine the quality of evidence-based transfusion guidelines (EBG) for red cells and plasma, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, and assess duplication and consistency of recommendations. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for EBG from 2005 to June 3, 2016. Citations were reviewed for inclusion in duplicate...
June 1, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921451/the-role-of-big-data-in-the-development-and-evaluation-of-us-dialysis-care
#19
Kevin F Erickson, Samaya Qureshi, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
Rapid growth in electronic communications and digitalization, combined with advances in data management, analysis, and storage, have led to an era of "Big Data." The Social Security Amendments of 1972 turned end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care into a single-payer system for most patients requiring dialysis in the United States. As a result, there are few areas of medicine that have been as influenced by Big Data as dialysis care, for which Medicare's large administrative data sets have had a central role in the evaluation and development of public policy for several decades...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921165/ethylene-glycol-and-methanol-ingestion-cared-for-by-tele-emergency-pharmacy-and-tele-emergency-medicine
#20
Christopher S Russi, Alicia E Mattson, Peter A Smars, James S Newman, Alex J Beuning
We believe this is the first documented case of a critically ill patient managed by telepharmacy in a remote, rural critical access hospital. We outline the case and the benefits of telepharmacy in under-resourced, rural critical access emergency departments.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
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