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Romeo-Gabriel Mihăilă
INTRODUCTION: Our research strategy was aimed at evaluating the possible implication of the type of factor VIII product administered as substitution treatment to haemophilia A patients in the occurrence of inhibitors and their consequences on the management. METHODS: Scientific articles from July 2015 to July 2017 were searched using the PubMed and PubMed Central databases. The used search terms included "haemophilia A", "inhibitors", "plasma-derived factor VIII" and "recombinant factor VIII"...
May 1, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
A Frank, Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, M Alberti, A Kleidon
We present a framework for studying generic behaviors possible in the interaction between a resource-harvesting technological civilization (an exo-civilization) and the planetary environment in which it evolves. Using methods from dynamical systems theory, we introduce and analyze a suite of simple equations modeling a population which consumes resources for the purpose of running a technological civilization and the feedback those resources drive on the state of the host planet. The feedbacks can drive the planet away from the initial state the civilization originated in and into domains that are detrimental to its sustainability...
May 2018: Astrobiology
Andrew J Rushby, Martin Johnson, Benjamin J W Mills, Andrew J Watson, Mark W Claire
The potential habitability of an exoplanet is traditionally assessed by determining whether its orbit falls within the circumstellar "habitable zone" of its star, defined as the distance at which water could be liquid on the surface of a planet (Kopparapu et al., 2013 ). Traditionally, these limits are determined by radiative-convective climate models, which are used to predict surface temperatures at user-specified levels of greenhouse gases. This approach ignores the vital question of the (bio)geochemical plausibility of the proposed chemical abundances...
May 2018: Astrobiology
Yinon M Bar-On, Rob Phillips, Ron Milo
A census of the biomass on Earth is key for understanding the structure and dynamics of the biosphere. However, a global, quantitative view of how the biomass of different taxa compare with one another is still lacking. Here, we assemble the overall biomass composition of the biosphere, establishing a census of the ≈550 gigatons of carbon (Gt C) of biomass distributed among all of the kingdoms of life. We find that the kingdoms of life concentrate at different locations on the planet; plants (≈450 Gt C, the dominant kingdom) are primarily terrestrial, whereas animals (≈2 Gt C) are mainly marine, and bacteria (≈70 Gt C) and archaea (≈7 Gt C) are predominantly located in deep subsurface environments...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David E Smith, Maria T Zuber, Erwan Mazarico, Antonio Genova, Gregory A Neumann, Xiaoli Sun, Mark H Torrence, Dan-Dan Mao
The scale of the solar system is slowly changing, likely increasing as a result of solar mass loss, with additional change possible if there is a secular variation of the gravitational constant, G . The measurement of the change of scale could provide insight into the past and the future of the solar system, and in addition a better understanding of planetary motion and fundamental physics. Estimates for the expansion of the scale of the solar system are of order 1.5 cm year-1 AU-1 , which over several years is an observable quantity with present-day laser ranging systems...
April 2018: Planetary and Space Science
Amanda M Koltz, Niels M Schmidt, Toke T Høye
The Arctic is experiencing some of the fastest rates of warming on the planet. Although many studies have documented responses to such warming by individual species, the idiosyncratic nature of these findings has prevented us from extrapolating them to community-level predictions. Here, we leverage the availability of a long-term dataset from Zackenberg, Greenland (593 700 specimens collected between 1996 and 2014), to investigate how climate parameters influence the abundance of different arthropod groups and overall community composition...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Zackary J Jay, Jacob P Beam, Mensur Dlakić, Douglas B Rusch, Mark A Kozubal, William P Inskeep
The discovery of archaeal lineages is critical to our understanding of the universal tree of life and evolutionary history of the Earth. Geochemically diverse thermal environments in Yellowstone National Park provide unprecedented opportunities for studying archaea in habitats that may represent analogues of early Earth. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a phylum-level archaeal lineage proposed and herein referred to as the 'Marsarchaeota', after the red planet. The Marsarchaeota contains at least two major subgroups prevalent in acidic, microaerobic geothermal Fe(III) oxide microbial mats across a temperature range from ~50-80 °C...
May 14, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Cathy Hohenegger, Bjorn Stevens
Convection-permitting simulations on an idealized land planet are performed to understand whether soil moisture acts to support or impede the organization of convection. Initially, shallow circulations driven by differential radiative cooling induce a self-aggregation of the convection into a single band, as has become familiar from simulations over idealized sea surfaces. With time, however, the drying of the nonprecipitating region induces a reversal of the shallow circulation, drawing the flow at low levels from the precipitating to the nonprecipitating region...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Renato Pakter, Yan Levin
We show that stability of planetary systems is intimately connected with their internal order. An arbitrary initial distribution of planets is susceptible to catastrophic events in which planets either collide or are ejected from the planetary system. These instabilities are a fundamental consequence of chaotic dynamics and of Arnold diffusion characteristic of many body gravitational interactions. To ensure stability over astronomical time scale of a realistic planetary system-in which planets have masses comparable to those of planets in the solar system-the motion must be quasiperiodic...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Peter J Hotez
By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Benton C Clark, Vera M Kolb
In the “comet pond” model, a rare combination of circumstances enables the entry and landing of pristine organic material onto a planetary surface with the creation of a pond by a soft impact and melting of entrained ices. Formation of the constituents of the comet in the cold interstellar medium and our circumstellar disk results in multiple constituents at disequilibrium which undergo rapid chemical reactions in the warmer, liquid environment. The planetary surface also provides minerals and atmospheric gases which chemically interact with the pond’s organic- and trace-element-rich constituents...
May 11, 2018: Life
Valmir C Barbosa
Analyzing the information content of DNA, though holding the promise to help quantify how the processes of evolution have led to information gain throughout the ages, has remained an elusive goal. Paradoxically, one of the main reasons for this has been precisely the great diversity of life on the planet: if on the one hand this diversity is a rich source of data for information-content analysis, on the other hand there is so much variation as to make the task unmanageable. During the past decade or so, however, succinct fragments of the COI mitochondrial gene, which is present in all animal phyla and in a few others, have been shown to be useful for species identification through DNA barcoding...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
I F Silvera, Ranga Dias
Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe. There are two
 pathways for creating metallic hydrogen under high pressures. Over 80 years ago Wigner and
 Huntington predicted that if solid molecular hydrogen was sufficiently compressed in the T=0 K
 limit, molecules would dissociate to form atomic metallic hydrogen (MH). We have observed
 this transition at a pressure of 4.95 megabars. MH in this form has probably never existed on
 Earth or in the Universe; it may be a room temperature superconductor and is predicted to be
May 11, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Aris Tritsis, Konstantinos Tassis
Stars and planets are formed inside dense interstellar molecular clouds by processes imprinted on the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the clouds. Determining the 3D structure of interstellar clouds remains challenging because of projection effects and difficulties measuring the extent of the clouds along the line of sight. We report the detection of normal vibrational modes in the isolated interstellar cloud Musca, allowing determination of the 3D physical dimensions of the cloud. We found that Musca is vibrating globally, with the characteristic modes of a sheet viewed edge on, not the characteristics of a filament as previously supposed...
May 11, 2018: Science
Helen McKenna, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Irwin Reiss, Daniel Martin
A fundamental aspect of human physiology is its cyclical nature over a 24-h period, a feature conserved across most life on Earth. Organisms compartmentalise processes with respect to time in order to promote survival, in a manner that mirrors the rotation of the planet and accompanying diurnal cycles of light and darkness. The influence of circadian rhythms can no longer be overlooked in clinical settings; this review provides intensivists with an up-to-date understanding of the burgeoning field of chronobiology, and suggests ways to incorporate these concepts into daily practice to improve patient outcomes...
May 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Sergey V Pisarenko, Dmitry A Kovalev, Anna S Volynkina, Dmitry G Ponomarenko, Diana V Rusanova, Nina V Zharinova, Anna A Khachaturova, Lyudmila E Tokareva, Irina G Khvoynova, Alexander N Kulichenko
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease. Annually in the world more than 500,000 new cases of brucellosis in humans are registered. In this study, we propose an evolutionary model of the historical distribution of B. melitensis based on the full-genomic SNP analysis of 98 strains. RESULTS: We performed an analysis of the SNP of the complete genomes of 98 B. melitensis strains isolated in different geographical regions of the world to obtain relevant information on the population structure, genetic diversity and the evolution history of the species...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Tiago Alves Jorge de Souza, Tiago Campos Pereira
One of the most important laboratory animal species is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been used in a range of research fields such as neurobiology, body development, and molecular biology. The scientific progress obtained by employing C. elegans as a model in these areas has encouraged its use in new fields. One of the new potential applications concerns the biological responses to hyperacceleration stress (g-force), but only a few studies have evaluated the response of multicellular organisms to extreme hypergravity conditions at the order of magnitude 105  x g, which is the theorized force experienced by rocks ejected from Mars (or similar planets)...
May 10, 2018: Astrobiology
Liliana Rojas-Velázquez, Patricia Morán, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Leonardo D Fernández, Horacio Pérez-Juárez, Augusto C Poot-Hernández, Tobías Portillo, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Miriam E Nieves-Ramírez, Ulises Magaña, Javier Torres, Luis E Eguiarte, Daniel Piñero, Cecilia Ximénez
Blastocystis subtype 3 (ST3) is a parasitic protist found in the digestive tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic humans around the world. While this parasite exhibits a high prevalence in the human population, its true geographic distribution and global genetic diversity are still unknown. This gap in knowledge limits the understanding of the spread mechanisms, epidemiology, and impact that this parasite has on human populations. Herein, we provided new data on the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Blastocystis ST3 from a rural human population in Mexico...
2018: BioMed Research International
Nancy Y Kiang, Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Mary N Parenteau, David C Catling, Yuka Fujii, Victoria S Meadows, Edward W Schwieterman, Sara I Walker
The rapid rate of discoveries of exoplanets has expanded the scope of the science possible for the remote detection of life beyond Earth. The Exoplanet Biosignatures Workshop Without Walls (EBWWW) held in 2016 engaged the international scientific community across diverse scientific disciplines, to assess the state of the science and technology in the search for life on exoplanets, and to identify paths for progress. The workshop activities resulted in five major review papers, which provide (1) an encyclopedic review of known and proposed biosignatures and models used to ascertain them (Schwieterman et al...
May 9, 2018: Astrobiology
Xinyan Zhou, Xiaoyu Ji, Bin Wang, Yushi Cheng, Zhuoran Ma, Francis Choi, Brian Helmuth, Wenyuan Xu
Intertidal habitats are among the harshest environments on the planet, and have emerged as a model system for exploring the ecological impacts of global climate change. Deploying reliable instrumentation to measure environmental conditions such as temperature is challenging in this environment. The application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) shows considerable promise as a means of optimizing continuous data collection, but poor link quality and unstable connections between nodes, caused by harsh physical environmental conditions, bring about a delay problem...
May 8, 2018: Sensors
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