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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352677/surface-structure-and-tribology-of-legless-squamate-reptiles
#1
REVIEW
Hisham A Abdel-Aal
Squamate reptiles (around 10,000 species of snakes and lizards) comprise a myriad of distinct terrestrial vertebrates. The diversity within this biological group offers a great opportunity for customized bio-inspired solutions that address a variety of current technological problems especially within the realm of surface engineering and tribology. One subgroup within squamata is of interest in that context, namely the legless reptiles (mainly snakes and few lizards). The promise of that group lies within their functional adaptation as manifested in optimized surface designs and locomotion that is distinguished by economy of effort even when functioning within hostile tribological environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348613/solar-system-expansion-and-strong-equivalence-principle-as-seen-by-the-nasa-messenger-mission
#2
Antonio Genova, Erwan Mazarico, Sander Goossens, Frank G Lemoine, Gregory A Neumann, David E Smith, Maria T Zuber
The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347877/part-set-cueing-impairment-facilitation-in-semantic-memory
#3
Matthew R Kelley, Sushmeena A Parihar
The present study explored the influence of part-set cues in semantic memory using tests of "free" recall, reconstruction of order, and serial recall. Nine distinct categories of information were used (e.g., Zodiac signs, Harry Potter books, Star Wars films, planets). The results showed part-set cueing impairment for all three "free" recall sets, whereas part-set cueing facilitation was evident for five of the six ordered sets. Generally, the present results parallel those often observed across episodic tasks, which could indicate that similar mechanisms contribute to part-set cueing effects in both episodic and semantic memory...
January 19, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345235/news-on-climate-change-air-pollution-and-allergic-trigger-factors-of-asthma
#4
REVIEW
M D Amato, L Cecchi, I Annesi-Maesano, G D Amato
The rising frequency of obstructive respiratory diseases,in particular allergic asthma, observed over the last years, can be partially explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence in atmosphere of chemical (particulate matter and gaseous components such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and biologic (aeroallergens) trigger factors. Aeroallergens are able to stimulate, in allergic subjects, the airways' sensitization, inducing symptoms of bronchial asthma. Over the last 50 years, global earth's temperature has markedly risen likely because of growing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337543/bright-side-of-lignin-depolymerization-toward-new-platform-chemicals
#5
Zhuohua Sun, Bálint Fridrich, Alessandra de Santi, Saravanakumar Elangovan, Katalin Barta
Lignin, a major component of lignocellulose, is the largest source of aromatic building blocks on the planet and harbors great potential to serve as starting material for the production of biobased products. Despite the initial challenges associated with the robust and irregular structure of lignin, the valorization of this intriguing aromatic biopolymer has come a long way: recently, many creative strategies emerged that deliver defined products via catalytic or biocatalytic depolymerization in good yields...
January 16, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332819/chemometric-analysis-of-nmr-and-gc-datasets-for-chemotype-characterization-of-essential-oils-from-different-species-of-ocimum
#6
João Vito B Freitas, Elenilson G Alves Filho, Lorena Mara A Silva, Guilherme J Zocolo, Edy S de Brito, Nilce V Gramosa
The genus Ocimum (Labiatae) comprises 30 species found in tropical and subtropical regions of the planet, of which species O. basilicum L. and O. gratissimum are widely used in food and traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies on Ocimum have revealed a number of essential oil chemotypes, for example, eugenol, methyl chavicol, linalool, and methyl cinnamate. Since essential oils are commercially assessed according to their content, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and precise method for their qualitative and quantitative analysis using NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321631/stability-and-anisotropy-of-fexni1-x-2o-under-high-pressure-and-implications-in-earth-s-and-super-earths-core
#7
Shengxuan Huang, Xiang Wu, Shan Qin
Oxygen is thought to be an important light element in Earth's core but the amount of oxygen in Earth's core remains elusive. In addition, iron-rich iron oxides are of great interest and significance in the field of geoscience and condensed matter physics. Here, static calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that I4/mmm-Fe2O is dynamically and mechanically stable and becomes energetically favorable with respect to the assemblage of hcp-Fe and [Formula: see text]-FeO above 270 GPa, which indicates that I4/mmm-Fe2O can be a strong candidate phase for stable iron-rich iron oxides at high pressure, perhaps even at high temperature...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317748/a-mosquito-inspired-strategy-to-implant-microprobes-into-the-brain
#8
Andrew J Shoffstall, Suraj Srinivasan, Mitchell Willis, Allison M Stiller, Melanie Ecker, Walter E Voit, Joseph J Pancrazio, Jeffrey R Capadona
Mosquitos are among the deadliest insects on the planet due to their ability to transmit diseases like malaria through their bite. In order to bite, a mosquito must insert a set of micro-sized needles through the skin to reach vascular structures. The mosquito uses a combination of mechanisms including an insertion guide to enable it to bite and feed off of larger animals. Here, we report on a biomimetic strategy inspired by the mosquito insertion guide to enable the implantation of intracortical microelectrodes into the brain...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317065/nature-exposure-sufficiency-and-insufficiency-the-benefits-of-environmental-preservation
#9
John R Reddon, Salvatore B Durante
Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI)...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302752/the-role-of-the-circadian-clock-system-in-physiology
#10
REVIEW
Violetta Pilorz, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Henrik Oster
Life on earth is shaped by the 24-h rotation of our planet around its axes. To adapt behavior and physiology to the concurring profound but highly predictable changes, endogenous circadian clocks have evolved that drive 24-h rhythms in invertebrate and vertebrate species. At the molecular level, circadian clocks comprised a set of clock genes organized in a system of interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops. A ubiquitous network of cellular central and peripheral tissue clocks coordinates physiological functions along the day through activation of tissue-specific transcriptional programs...
January 4, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301994/earth-based-planet-finders-power-up
#11
Daniel Clery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300926/asymptomatic-summertime-shedding-of-respiratory-viruses
#12
Jeffrey Shaman, Haruka Morita, Ruthie Birger, Mary Boyle, Devon Comito, Benjamin Lane, Chanel Ligon, Hannah Smith, Rob Desalle, Paul Planet
To determine rates of both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection among ambulatory adults, we collected nasopharyngeal swabs, demographics, and survey information from 1477 adult visitors to a New York City tourist attraction during April-July 2016. Multiplex PCR was used to identify specimens positive for common respiratory viruses. 7.2% of samples tested positive; 71.0% of positive samples detected rhinovirus and 21.5% detected coronavirus. Influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza were also detected...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295910/range-expansion-and-the-origin-of-usa300-north-american-epidemic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Lavanya Challagundla, Xiao Luo, Isabella A Tickler, Xavier Didelot, David C Coleman, Anna C Shore, Geoffrey W Coombs, Daniel O Sordelli, Eric L Brown, Robert Skov, Anders Rhod Larsen, Jinnethe Reyes, Iraida E Robledo, Guillermo J Vazquez, Raul Rivera, Paul D Fey, Kurt Stevenson, Shu-Hua Wang, Barry N Kreiswirth, Jose R Mediavilla, Cesar A Arias, Paul J Planet, Rathel L Nolan, Fred C Tenover, Richard V Goering, D Ashley Robinson
The USA300 North American epidemic (USA300-NAE) clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has caused a wave of severe skin and soft tissue infections in the United States since it emerged in the early 2000s, but its geographic origin is obscure. Here we use the population genomic signatures expected from the serial founder effects of a geographic range expansion to infer the origin of USA300-NAE and identify polymorphisms associated with its spread. Genome sequences from 357 isolates from 22 U.S...
January 2, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289032/phase-synchronization-of-baroclinic-waves-in-a-differentially-heated-rotating-annulus-experiment-subject-to-periodic-forcing-with-a-variable-duty-cycle
#14
P L Read, X Morice-Atkinson, E J Allen, A A Castrejón-Pita
A series of laboratory experiments in a thermally driven, rotating fluid annulus are presented that investigate the onset and characteristics of phase synchronization and frequency entrainment between the intrinsic, chaotic, oscillatory amplitude modulation of travelling baroclinic waves and a periodic modulation of the (axisymmetric) thermal boundary conditions, subject to time-dependent coupling. The time-dependence is in the form of a prescribed duty cycle in which the periodic forcing of the boundary conditions is applied for only a fraction δ of each oscillation...
December 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284755/lamost-telescope-reveals-that-neptunian-cousins-of-hot-jupiters-are-mostly-single-offspring-of-stars-that-are-rich-in-heavy-elements
#15
Subo Dong, Ji-Wei Xie, Ji-Lin Zhou, Zheng Zheng, Ali Luo
We discover a population of short-period, Neptune-size planets sharing key similarities with hot Jupiters: both populations are preferentially hosted by metal-rich stars, and both are preferentially found in Kepler systems with single-transiting planets. We use accurate Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Data Release 4 (DR4) stellar parameters for main-sequence stars to study the distributions of short-period [Formula: see text] Kepler planets as a function of host star metallicity...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284746/atmospheric-escape-from-the-trappist-1-planets-and-implications-for-habitability
#16
Chuanfei Dong, Meng Jin, Manasvi Lingam, Vladimir S Airapetian, Yingjuan Ma, Bart van der Holst
The presence of an atmosphere over sufficiently long timescales is widely perceived as one of the most prominent criteria associated with planetary surface habitability. We address the crucial question of whether the seven Earth-sized planets transiting the recently discovered ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 are capable of retaining their atmospheres. To this effect, we carry out numerical simulations to characterize the stellar wind of TRAPPIST-1 and the atmospheric ion escape rates for all of the seven planets...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284198/signals-from-the-south-humpback-whales-carry-messages-of-antarctic-sea-ice-ecosystem-variability
#17
Susan M Bengtson Nash, Juliana Castrillon, Pascale Eisenmann, Brian Fry, Jon D Shuker, Roger A Cropp, Amanda Dawson, Anders Bignert, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Courtney A Waugh, Bradley J Polkinghorne, Greta Dalle Luche, David McLagan
Southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) rely on summer prey abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) to fuel one of the longest-known mammalian migration on the planet. It is hypothesised that this species, already adapted to endure metabolic extremes, will be one of the first Antarctic consumers to show measurable physiological change in response to fluctuating prey availability in a changing climate; and as such, a powerful sentinel candidate for the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276803/projections-of-temperature-related-excess-mortality-under-climate-change-scenarios
#18
Antonio Gasparrini, Yuming Guo, Francesco Sera, Ana Maria Vicedo-Cabrera, Veronika Huber, Shilu Tong, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Eric Lavigne, Patricia Matus Correa, Nicolas Valdes Ortega, Haidong Kan, Samuel Osorio, Jan Kyselý, Aleš Urban, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Niilo R I Ryti, Mathilde Pascal, Patrick G Goodman, Ariana Zeka, Paola Michelozzi, Matteo Scortichini, Masahiro Hashizume, Yasushi Honda, Magali Hurtado-Diaz, Julio Cesar Cruz, Xerxes Seposo, Ho Kim, Aurelio Tobias, Carmen Iñiguez, Bertil Forsberg, Daniel Oudin Åström, Martina S Ragettli, Yue Leon Guo, Chang-Fu Wu, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz, Michelle L Bell, Tran Ngoc Dang, Dung Do Van, Clare Heaviside, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Shakoor Hajat, Andy Haines, Ben Armstrong
Background: Climate change can directly affect human health by varying exposure to non-optimal outdoor temperature. However, evidence on this direct impact at a global scale is limited, mainly due to issues in modelling and projecting complex and highly heterogeneous epidemiological relationships across different populations and climates. Methods: We collected observed daily time series of mean temperature and mortality counts for all causes or non-external causes only, in periods ranging from Jan 1, 1984, to Dec 31, 2015, from various locations across the globe through the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network...
December 2017: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258300/orbital-misalignment-of-the-neptune-mass-exoplanet-gj-436b-with-the-spin-of-its-cool-star
#19
Vincent Bourrier, Christophe Lovis, Hervé Beust, David Ehrenreich, Gregory W Henry, Nicola Astudillo-Defru, Romain Allart, Xavier Bonfils, Damien Ségransan, Xavier Delfosse, Heather M Cegla, Aurélien Wyttenbach, Kevin Heng, Baptiste Lavie, Francesco Pepe
The angle between the spin of a star and the orbital planes of its planets traces the history of the planetary system. Exoplanets orbiting close to cool stars are expected to be on circular, aligned orbits because of strong tidal interactions with the stellar convective envelope. Spin-orbit alignment can be measured when the planet transits its star, but such ground-based spectroscopic measurements are challenging for cool, slowly rotating stars. Here we report the three-dimensional characterization of the trajectory of an exoplanet around an M dwarf star, derived by mapping the spectrum of the stellar photosphere along the chord transited by the planet...
December 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243053/should-biodiversity-and-nature-have-to-earn-their-keep-what-it-really-means-to-bring-environmental-goods-into-the-marketplace
#20
REVIEW
Donald S Maier
Pursuit of economic gain has sponsored much of our planet's despoliation. Yet conservation increasingly operates as an economic sector that markets biodiversity, ecosystems, and nature as natural capital, service provider, or option value. This essay first elucidates what basic moral theory says about the principle that the goodness of biodiversity and nature is largely economic. It explains why economic valuations may be morally unimportant, inapt for environmental goods, and subversive of more important ideals...
December 14, 2017: Ambio
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