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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148825/on-the-growth-and-detectability-of-land-plants-on-habitable-planets-around-m-dwarfs
#1
Duo Cui, Feng Tian, Yuwei Wang, Changshen Li, Chaoqing Yu, Le Yu
One signature of life on Earth is the vegetation red edge (VRE) feature of land plants, a dramatic change of reflectivity at wavelength near 0.7 μm. Potentially habitable planets around M dwarfs are tidally locked, which can limit the distribution of land plants. In this study, we used a biogeochemical model to investigate the distribution of land plants on potentially habitable planets around M dwarfs driven by climate data produced in a general circulation model (GCM). When considering the effects of clouds, the observation time needed for VRE detection on nearby p = 1 exoplanets around nearby M dwarfs is on the order of days using a 25 m(2) telescope if a large continent faces Earth during observations...
November 17, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148655/feframing-climate-change-for-environmental-health
#2
Caitlin Weems, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam
Repeated warnings by the scientific community on the dire consequences of climate change through global warming to the ecology and sustenance of our planet have not been give appropriate attention by the U.S. public. Research has shown that climate change is responsible for catastrophic weather occurrences--such as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and heat waves--resulting in environmental and public health issues. The purpose of this report is to examine factors influencing public views on climate change. Theoretical and political perspectives are examined to unpack opinions held by the public in the U...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148024/blue-planet-dialysis-novel-water-sparing-strategies-for-reducing-dialysate-flow
#3
Alejandra Molano-Triviño, Benjamin Wancjer, Mauro M Neri, Akash N Karopadi, Mitchell Rosner, Claudio Ronco
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) is an expensive therapy in economic and in ecological terms, owing to a high carbon footprint and significant consumption of natural sources, especially water. Our aim was to review strategies to diminish waste of water in maintenance dialysis, exploring previously described water reuse trends and less known strategies for reducing the dialysate flow. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of water-sparing strategies, including the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water and the reduction of dialysate flux...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146123/planetary-health-protecting-human-health-on-a-rapidly-changing-planet
#4
Samuel S Myers
The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139533/at-the-very-beginning-of-life-on-earth-the-thiol-rich-peptide-trp-world-hypothesis
#5
Yannick Vallee, Ibrahim Shalayel, Kieu-Dung Ly, K V Raghavendra Rao, Gael De Paëpe, Katharina Märker, Anne Milet
Life developed on Earth probably about 3.8 billion years ago, on a planet that was already largely covered by oceans and where the atmosphere was very humid. The reactions, which may have led to the formation of the first polymers, particularly to the first peptides and nucleic acids, must have been compatible with these conditions. This is the case of the reaction of nitriles with aminothiols, such as cysteine and homocysteine. Since aminonitriles are the probable precursors of amino acids, this condensation reaction has been able to rapidly yield dipeptides, tripeptides, oligomers and even true polymers, each containing thiol functions...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137165/abs-fishcount-an-agent-based-simulator-of-underwater-sensors-for-measuring-the-amount-of-fish
#6
Iván García-Magariño, Raquel Lacuesta, Jaime Lloret
Underwater sensors provide one of the possibilities to explore oceans, seas, rivers, fish farms and dams, which all together cover most of our planet's area. Simulators can be helpful to test and discover some possible strategies before implementing these in real underwater sensors. This speeds up the development of research theories so that these can be implemented later. In this context, the current work presents an agent-based simulator for defining and testing strategies for measuring the amount of fish by means of underwater sensors...
November 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135299/oxygen-free-biochemistry-the-putative-chn-foundation-for-exotic-life-in-a-hydrocarbon-world
#7
Kong-Peng Lv, Lucy Norman, Yi-Liang Li
Since Earth's biochemistry is carbon-based and water-borne, the main strategies for searching for life elsewhere are "follow the carbon" and "follow the water." Recently, however, there is a growing focus on the prospect that putative exotic life on other planets could rely on unearthly biochemistries. Here, we hypothesize a novel oxygen-free organic chemistry for supporting potential exotic biosystems, which is named CHN biochemistry. This oxygen-free CHN biochemistry starts from simple oxygen-free species (including hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, and nitriles) and produces a range of functional macromolecules that may function in similar ways to terran macromolecules, such as sugars (cyanosugars), acids (cyanoacids), amino acids (amino cyanoacids), and nucleobases (cyanonucleobases)...
November 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134521/metals-in-diplodus-sargus-cadenati-and-sparisoma-cretense-a-risk-assessment-for-consumers
#8
Aridani Afonso, Ángel J Gutiérrez, Gonzalo Lozano, Dailos González-Weller, Enrique Lozano-Bilbao, Carmen Rubio, José M Caballero, Consuelo Revert, Arturo Hardisson
The increases in urbanization, demography and industrial activity, along with growing human needs which exploit the resources of the planet, have exponentially exacerbated pollution. In particular, the discharge of heavy metals into the marine ecosystem is a problem of global magnitude, as this may damage the diversity of marine species and ecosystems because of their toxicity, long persistence and bioaccumulation. Consequently, it is necessary to carry out an assessment of the risk of human exposure from the consumption of marine species potentially exposed to this type of pollutants...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133451/chance-necessity-and-the-origins-of-life-a-physical-sciences-perspective
#9
Robert M Hazen
Earth's 4.5-billion-year history has witnessed a complex sequence of high-probability chemical and physical processes, as well as 'frozen accidents'. Most models of life's origins similarly invoke a sequence of chemical reactions and molecular self-assemblies in which both necessity and chance play important roles. Recent research adds two important insights into this discussion. First, in the context of chemical reactions, chance versus necessity is an inherently false dichotomy-a range of probabilities exists for many natural events...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133439/re-conceptualizing-the-origins-of-life
#10
Sara I Walker, N Packard, G D Cody
Over the last several hundred years of scientific progress, we have arrived at a deep understanding of the non-living world. We have not yet achieved an analogous, deep understanding of the living world. The origins of life is our best chance at discovering scientific laws governing life, because it marks the point of departure from the predictable physical and chemical world to the novel, history-dependent living world. This theme issue aims to explore ways to build a deeper understanding of the nature of biology, by modelling the origins of life on a sufficiently abstract level, starting from prebiotic conditions on Earth and possibly on other planets and bridging quantitative frameworks approaching universal aspects of life...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129942/priorities-for-research-in-soil-ecology
#11
Nico Eisenhauer, Pedro M Antunes, Alison E Bennett, Klaus Birkhofer, Andrew Bissett, Matthew A Bowker, Tancredi Caruso, Baodong Chen, David C Coleman, Wietse de Boer, Peter de Ruiter, Thomas H DeLuca, Francesco Frati, Bryan S Griffiths, Miranda M Hart, Stephan Hättenschwiler, Jari Haimi, Michael Heethoff, Nobuhiro Kaneko, Laura C Kelly, Hans Petter Leinaas, Zoë Lindo, Catriona Macdonald, Matthias C Rillig, Liliane Ruess, Stefan Scheu, Olaf Schmidt, Timothy R Seastedt, Nico M van Straalen, Alexei V Tiunov, Martin Zimmer, Jeff R Powell
The ecological interactions that occur in and with soil are of consequence in many ecosystems on the planet. These interactions provide numerous essential ecosystem services, and the sustainable management of soils has attracted increasing scientific and public attention. Although soil ecology emerged as an independent field of research many decades ago, and we have gained important insights into the functioning of soils, there still are fundamental aspects that need to be better understood to ensure that the ecosystem services that soils provide are not lost and that soils can be used in a sustainable way...
July 2017: Pedobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123059/perovskite-in-earth-s-deep-interior
#12
REVIEW
Kei Hirose, Ryosuke Sinmyo, John Hernlund
Silicate perovskite-type phases are the most abundant constituent inside our planet and are the predominant minerals in Earth's lower mantle more than 660 kilometers below the surface. Magnesium-rich perovskite is a major lower mantle phase and undergoes a phase transition to post-perovskite near the bottom of the mantle. Calcium-rich perovskite is proportionally minor but may host numerous trace elements that record chemical differentiation events. The properties of mantle perovskites are the key to understanding the dynamic evolution of Earth, as they strongly influence the transport properties of lower mantle rocks...
November 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122179/pathogenic-potential-of-environmental-resident-fungi-from-ornithogenic-soils-of-antarctica
#13
Jordana R P de Sousa, Vívian N Gonçalves, Rodrigo A de Holanda, Daniel A Santos, Cinthia F L G Bueloni, Adriana O Costa, Maria V Petry, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
We assessed the diversity of cultivable fungi in the ornithogenic soil nests of bird species like Phalacrocorax atriceps, Macronectes giganteus, Pygoscelis antarcticus, and Pygoscelis papua in the Antarctic islands. From 481 fungi isolated at 15 °C, only 50 displayed growth at 37 °C, and were identified as 14 species of 15 genera. Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were the most abundant species obtained. Fifty taxa grew at 40 °C; displayed haemolytic and phospholipase activities; produced tiny spores, capsule, and melanin; showed growth at different pH; and showed resistance to amphotericin B...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108732/-pigmentary-planet
#14
J F Rouland, J Coppin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107377/determination-of-annual-and-seasonal-daytime-and-nighttime-trends-of-modis-lst-over-greece-climate-change-implications
#15
Dimitrios Eleftheriou, Kyriakos Kiachidis, Georgios Kalmintzis, Argiro Kalea, Christos Bantasis, Paraskevi Koumadoraki, Maria Eleni Spathara, Angeliki Tsolaki, Maria Irini Tzampazidou, Alexandra Gemitzi
Climate change is one of the most challenging research topics during the last few decades, as temperature rise has already posed a significant impact on the earth's functions thus affecting all life of the planet. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is identified as a key variable in environmental and climate studies. The present study investigates the distribution of daytime and nighttime LST trends over Greece, a country in the Mediterranean area which is identified as one of the main "hot-spots" of climate change projections...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105824/wound-culture-isolated-antibiograms-and-caregiver-reported-skin-care-practices-in-children-with-epidermolysis-bullosa
#16
Hannah M Singer, Laura E Levin, Maria C Garzon, Christine T Lauren, Paul J Planet, Nicole W Kittler, Susan Whittier, Kimberly D Morel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) require intensive daily wound care and individualized treatment plans. Understanding patient's home skin care routines and emerging antibiotic resistance patterns in EB wounds is necessary to optimize treatment recommendations. The objective was to identify patterns of antimicrobial resistance in EB wounds and characterize patient's home practices of skin care and bathing. METHODS: This was an observational study of 23 children with EB at an outpatient pediatric dermatology practice in New York City from 2012 to 2014...
November 6, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104823/record-breaking-achievements-by-spiders-and-the-scientists-who-study-them
#17
Stefano Mammola, Peter Michalik, Eileen A Hebets, Marco Isaia
Organismal biology has been steadily losing fashion in both formal education and scientific research. Simultaneous with this is an observable decrease in the connection between humans, their environment, and the organisms with which they share the planet. Nonetheless, we propose that organismal biology can facilitate scientific observation, discovery, research, and engagement, especially when the organisms of focus are ubiquitous and charismatic animals such as spiders. Despite being often feared, spiders are mysterious and intriguing, offering a useful foundation for the effective teaching and learning of scientific concepts and processes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097975/the-role-of-the-occupational-therapist-in-disaster-areas-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
M Parente, M Tofani, R De Santis, G Esposito, V Santilli, G Galeoto
Background: Disasters are increasingly more frequent events on our planet. During disaster the role of the occupational therapist will require a more specific operative framework within nongovernmental organizations and community health services. Design: Systematic review. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the evidence that highlight occupational therapist's role in disaster area through a systematic review. Materials and Methods: Research on MEDLINE was performed...
2017: Occupational Therapy International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097693/atmospheric-beacons-of-life-from-exoplanets-around-g-and-k-stars
#19
Vladimir S Airapetian, Charles H Jackman, Martin Mlynczak, William Danchi, Linda Hunt
The current explosion in detection and characterization of thousands of extrasolar planets from the Kepler mission, the Hubble Space Telescope, and large ground-based telescopes opens a new era in searches for Earth-analog exoplanets with conditions suitable for sustaining life. As more Earth-sized exoplanets are detected in the near future, we will soon have an opportunity to identify habitale worlds. Which atmospheric biosignature gases from habitable planets can be detected with our current capabilities? The detection of the common biosignatures from nitrogen-oxygen rich terrestrial-type exoplanets including molecular oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) requires days of integration time with largest space telescopes, and thus are very challenging for current instruments...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097520/evolution-of-life-in-urban-environments
#20
REVIEW
Marc T J Johnson, Jason Munshi-South
Our planet is an increasingly urbanized landscape, with over half of the human population residing in cities. Despite advances in urban ecology, we do not adequately understand how urbanization affects the evolution of organisms, nor how this evolution may affect ecosystems and human health. Here, we review evidence for the effects of urbanization on the evolution of microbes, plants, and animals that inhabit cities. Urbanization affects adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes that shape the genetic diversity within and between populations...
November 3, 2017: Science
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