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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209895/seagrass-ecosystems-reduce-exposure-to-bacterial-pathogens-of-humans-fishes-and-invertebrates
#1
Joleah B Lamb, Jeroen A J M van de Water, David G Bourne, Craig Altier, Margaux Y Hein, Evan A Fiorenza, Nur Abu, Jamaluddin Jompa, C Drew Harvell
Plants are important in urban environments for removing pathogens and improving water quality. Seagrass meadows are the most widespread coastal ecosystem on the planet. Although these plants are known to be associated with natural biocide production, they have not been evaluated for their ability to remove microbiological contamination. Using amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we found that when seagrass meadows are present, there was a 50% reduction in the relative abundance of potential bacterial pathogens capable of causing disease in humans and marine organisms...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209893/localized-aliphatic-organic-material-on-the-surface-of-ceres
#2
M C De Sanctis, E Ammannito, H Y McSween, A Raponi, S Marchi, F Capaccioni, M T Capria, F G Carrozzo, M Ciarniello, S Fonte, M Formisano, A Frigeri, M Giardino, A Longobardo, G Magni, L A McFadden, E Palomba, C M Pieters, F Tosi, F Zambon, C A Raymond, C T Russell
Organic compounds occur in some chondritic meteorites, and their signatures on solar system bodies have been sought for decades. Spectral signatures of organics have not been unambiguously identified on the surfaces of asteroids, whereas they have been detected on cometary nuclei. Data returned by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres. This signature is characteristic of aliphatic organic matter and is mainly localized on a broad region of ~1000 square kilometers close to the ~50-kilometer Ernutet crater...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209859/dwarf-planet-ceres-and-the-ingredients-of-life
#3
Michael Küppers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195030/extra-terra-incognita-martian-maps-in-the-digital-age
#4
Lisa Messeri
Science and technology studies (STS) and critical cartography are both asking questions about the ontological fixity of maps and other scientific objects. This paper examines how a group of NASA computer scientists who call themselves The Mapmakers conceptualizes and creates maps in service of different commitments. The maps under construction are those of alien Mars, produced through partnerships that NASA has established with Google and Microsoft. With the goal of bringing an experience of Mars to as many people as possible, these maps influence how we imagine our neighbouring planet...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193874/six-centuries-of-geomagnetic-intensity-variations-recorded-by-royal-judean-stamped-jar-handles
#5
Erez Ben-Yosef, Michael Millman, Ron Shaar, Lisa Tauxe, Oded Lipschits
Earth's magnetic field, one of the most enigmatic physical phenomena of the planet, is constantly changing on various time scales, from decades to millennia and longer. The reconstruction of geomagnetic field behavior in periods predating direct observations with modern instrumentation is based on geological and archaeological materials and has the twin challenges of (i) the accuracy of ancient paleomagnetic estimates and (ii) the dating of the archaeological material. Here we address the latter by using a set of storage jar handles (fired clay) stamped by royal seals as part of the ancient administrative system in Judah (Jerusalem and its vicinity)...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193809/living-in-the-dark-does-not-mean-a-blind-life-bird-and-mammal-visual-communication-in-dim-light
#6
REVIEW
Vincenzo Penteriani, María Del Mar Delgado
For many years, it was believed that bird and mammal communication 'in the dark of the night' relied exclusively on vocal and chemical signalling. However, in recent decades, several case studies have conveyed the idea that the nocturnal world is rich in visual information. Clearly, a visual signal needs a source of light to work, but diurnal light (twilight included, i.e. any light directly dependent on the sun) is not the only source of luminosity on this planet. Actually, moonlight represents a powerful source of illumination that cannot be neglected from the perspective of visual communication...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191883/loap-is-a-broadly-conserved-antiterminator-protein-that-regulates-antibiotic-gene-clusters-in-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#7
Jonathan R Goodson, Steven Klupt, Chengxi Zhang, Paul Straight, Wade C Winkler
A valuable resource available in the search for new natural products is the diverse microbial life that spans the planet. A large subset of these microorganisms synthesize complex specialized metabolites exhibiting biomedically important activities. A limiting step to the characterization of these compounds is an elucidation of the genetic regulatory mechanisms that oversee their production. Although proteins that control transcription initiation of specialized metabolite gene clusters have been identified, those affecting transcription elongation have not been broadly investigated...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183977/lifetime-of-the-solar-nebula-constrained-by-meteorite-paleomagnetism
#8
Huapei Wang, Benjamin P Weiss, Xue-Ning Bai, Brynna G Downey, Jun Wang, Jiajun Wang, Clément Suavet, Roger R Fu, Maria E Zucolotto
A key stage in planet formation is the evolution of a gaseous and magnetized solar nebula. However, the lifetime of the nebular magnetic field and nebula are poorly constrained. We present paleomagnetic analyses of volcanic angrites demonstrating that they formed in a near-zero magnetic field (<0.6 microtesla) at 4563.5 ± 0.1 million years ago, ~3.8 million years after solar system formation. This indicates that the solar nebula field, and likely the nebular gas, had dispersed by this time. This sets the time scale for formation of the gas giants and planet migration...
February 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179394/pathophysiology-of-migraine-a-disorder-of-sensory-processing
#9
REVIEW
Peter J Goadsby, Philip R Holland, Margarida Martins-Oliveira, Jan Hoffmann, Christoph Schankin, Simon Akerman
Plaguing humans for more than two millennia, manifest on every continent studied, and with more than one billion patients having an attack in any year, migraine stands as the sixth most common cause of disability on the planet. The pathophysiology of migraine has emerged from a historical consideration of the "humors" through mid-20th century distraction of the now defunct Vascular Theory to a clear place as a neurological disorder. It could be said there are three questions: why, how, and when? Why: migraine is largely accepted to be an inherited tendency for the brain to lose control of its inputs...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170264/uniform-distance-scaling-behavior-of-planet-satellite-nanostructures-made-by-star-polymers
#10
Christian Rossner, Qiyun Tang, Otto Glatter, Marcus Mueller, Philipp Vana
Planet-satellite nanostructures from RAFT star polymers and larger (planet) as well as smaller (satellite) gold nanoparticles are analyzed in experiments and computer simulations regarding the influence of arm number of star polymers. A uniform scaling behavior of planet-satellite distances as a function of arm length was found both in the dried state (via transmission electron microscopy) after casting the nanostructures on surfaces and in the colloidally dispersed state (via simulations and small-angle X-ray scattering) when 2-, 3-, and 6-arm star polymers were employed...
February 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166539/primordial-helium-entrained-by-the-hottest-mantle-plumes
#11
M G Jackson, J G Konter, T W Becker
Helium isotopes provide an important tool for tracing early-Earth, primordial reservoirs that have survived in the planet's interior. Volcanic hotspot lavas, like those erupted at Hawaii and Iceland, can host rare, high (3)He/(4)He isotopic ratios (up to 50 times the present atmospheric ratio, Ra) compared to the lower (3)He/(4)He ratios identified in mid-ocean-ridge basalts that form by melting the upper mantle (about 8Ra; ref. 5). A long-standing hypothesis maintains that the high-(3)He/(4)He domain resides in the deep mantle, beneath the upper mantle sampled by mid-ocean-ridge basalts, and that buoyantly upwelling plumes from the deep mantle transport high-(3)He/(4)He material to the shallow mantle beneath plume-fed hotspots...
February 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165203/multiple-stressors-threaten-the-imperiled-coastal-foundation-species-eelgrass-zostera-marina-in-chesapeake-bay-usa
#12
Jonathan S Lefcheck, David J Wilcox, Rebecca R Murphy, Scott R Marion, Robert J Orth
Interactions among global change stressors and their effects at large scales are often proposed, but seldom evaluated. This situation is primarily due to lack of comprehensive, sufficiently long-term, and spatially extensive datasets. Seagrasses, which provide nursery habitat, improve water quality, and constitute a globally important carbon sink, are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Here, we unite 31 years of high-resolution aerial monitoring and water quality data to elucidate the patterns and drivers of eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA, one of the largest and most valuable estuaries in the world, with an unparalleled history of regulatory efforts...
February 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160296/in-defense-of-artificial-replacement
#13
Derek Shiller
If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158920/the-geobiological-nitrogen-cycle-from-microbes-to-the-mantle
#14
A L Zerkle, S Mikhail
Nitrogen forms an integral part of the main building blocks of life, including DNA, RNA, and proteins. N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen is stored in all of Earth's geological reservoirs, including the crust, the mantle, and the core. As such, nitrogen geochemistry is fundamental to the evolution of planet Earth and the life it supports. Despite the importance of nitrogen in the Earth system, large gaps remain in our knowledge of how the surface and deep nitrogen cycles have evolved over geologic time...
February 3, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157200/revisiting-metallization-boundary-of-warm-dense-helium-in-a-wide-%C3%AF-t-regime-from-ab-initio-study
#15
Wei Zhang, Zhiguo Li, Zhijian Fu, Jiayu Dai, Qifeng Chen, Lingcang Cai
The knowledge of the metallization of warm dense helium has important implications for understanding the thermal histories, stellar structure and magnetic field environment of giant planets. However, it is also a pendent scientific topic. For a revisiting into the properties of warm dense helium, we performed extensive quantum Langevin molecular dynamic simulations and electronic structure calculations to study helium over a very wide range of density (ρ = 1~24 g/cm(3)) and temperature (T = 10~160 kK)...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151696/survival-dna-integrity-and-ultrastructural-damage-in-antarctic-cryptoendolithic-eukaryotic-microorganisms-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#16
Claudia Pacelli, Laura Selbmann, Laura Zucconi, Marina Raguse, Ralf Moeller, Igor Shuryak, Silvano Onofri
Life dispersal between planets, planetary protection, and the search for biosignatures are main topics in astrobiology. Under the umbrella of the STARLIFE project, three Antarctic endolithic microorganisms, the melanized fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515, a hyaline strain of Umbilicaria sp. (CCFEE 6113, lichenized fungus), and a Stichococcus sp. strain (C45A, green alga), were exposed to high doses of space-relevant gamma radiation ((60)Co), up to 117.07 kGy. After irradiation survival, DNA integrity and ultrastructural damage were tested...
February 2, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141890/transcriptome-dynamics-over-a-lunar-month-in-a-broadcast-spawning-acroporid-coral
#17
Matthew J Oldach, Matthew Workentine, Mikhail V Matz, T-Y Fan, Peter D Vize
On one night per year, at a specific point in the lunar cycle, one of the most extraordinary reproductive events on the planet unfolds as hundreds of millions of broadcast spawning corals release their trillions of gametes into the waters of the tropical seas. Each species spawns on a specific night within the lunar cycle, typically from full moon to third quarter moon, and in a specific time window after sunset. This accuracy is essential to achieve efficient fertilization in the vastness of the oceans. In this report we use transcriptome sequencing at noon and midnight across an entire lunar cycle to explore how Acroporid corals interpret lunar signals...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134443/challenges-and-opportunities-for-whole-genome-sequencing-based-surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance
#18
Anita C Schürch, Willem van Schaik
Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are increasingly reported across the planet, and drug-resistant bacteria are recognized to be a major threat to public health and modern medicine. In this review, we discuss how whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based approaches can contribute to the surveillance of the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. We outline the characteristics of sequencing technologies that are currently most used for WGS (Illumina short-read technologies and the long-read sequencing platforms developed by Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore)...
January 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134338/a-strong-diffusive-ion-mode-in-dense-ionized-matter-predicted-by-langevin-dynamics
#19
P Mabey, S Richardson, T G White, L B Fletcher, S H Glenzer, N J Hartley, J Vorberger, D O Gericke, G Gregori
The state and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and neutron star crusts is determined by the properties of dense and compressed matter. Due to the inherent difficulties in modelling strongly coupled plasmas, however, current predictions of transport coefficients differ by orders of magnitude. Collective modes are a prominent feature, whose spectra may serve as an important tool to validate theoretical predictions for dense matter. With recent advances in free electron laser technology, X-rays with small enough bandwidth have become available, allowing the investigation of the low-frequency ion modes in dense matter...
January 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128236/ruthenium-isotopic-evidence-for-an-inner-solar-system-origin-of-the-late-veneer
#20
Mario Fischer-Gödde, Thorsten Kleine
The excess of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle is thought to reflect the addition of primitive meteoritic material after core formation ceased. This 'late veneer' either comprises material remaining in the terrestrial planet region after the main stages of the Earth's accretion, or derives from more distant asteroidal or cometary sources. Distinguishing between these disparate origins is important because a late veneer consisting of carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroids or comets could be the principal source of the Earth's volatiles and water...
January 25, 2017: Nature
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