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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907130/environmental-nitrogen-losses-from-commercial-crop-production-systems-in-the-suwannee-river-basin-of-florida
#1
Rishi Prasad, George J Hochmuth
The springs and the Suwannee river of northern Florida in Middle Suwanee River Basin (MSRB) are among several examples in this planet that have shown a temporal trend of increasing nitrate concentration primarily due to the impacts of non-point sources such as agriculture. The rate of nitrate increase in the river as documented by Ham and Hatzell (1996) was 0.02 mg N L-1 y-1. Best management practices (BMPs) for nutrients were adopted by the commercial farms in the MSRB region to reduce the amounts of pollutants entering the water bodies, however the effectiveness of BMPs remains a topic of interest and discussion among the researchers, environmental administrators and policy makers about the loads of nitrogen entering into groundwater and river systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905827/modeling-pn2-through-geological-time-implications-for-planetary-climates-and-atmospheric-biosignatures
#2
E E Stüeken, M A Kipp, M C Koehler, E W Schwieterman, B Johnson, R Buick
Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure...
December 1, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905022/neurophysiology-of-space-travel-energetic-solar-particles-cause-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-neurotransmission
#3
Sang-Hun Lee, Barna Dudok, Vipan K Parihar, Kwang-Mook Jung, Miklós Zöldi, Young-Jin Kang, Mattia Maroso, Allyson L Alexander, Gregory A Nelson, Daniele Piomelli, István Katona, Charles L Limoli, Ivan Soltesz
In the not too distant future, humankind will embark on one of its greatest adventures, the travel to distant planets. However, deep space travel is associated with an inevitable exposure to radiation fields. Space-relevant doses of protons elicit persistent disruptions in cognition and neuronal structure. However, whether space-relevant irradiation alters neurotransmission is unknown. Within the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for cognition, perisomatic inhibitory control of pyramidal cells (PCs) is supplied by two distinct cell types, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells (CB1BCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900659/territorial-rights-and-carbon-sinks
#4
Steve Vanderheiden
Scholars concerned with abuses of the "resource privilege" by the governments of developing states sometimes call for national sovereignty over the natural resources that lie within its borders. While such claims may resist a key driver of the "resource curse" when applied to mineral resources in the ground, and are often recognized as among a people's territorial rights, their implications differ in the context of climate change, where they are invoked on behalf of a right to extract and combust fossil fuels that is set in opposition to global climate change mitigation imperatives...
November 29, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899800/creating-a-pandemic-of-health-what-is-the-role-of-digital-technologies
#5
Alejandro R Jadad
Imagine a world in which every human being is healthy until the last breath. Thanks to the fast penetration of digital technologies in every region of the planet, this seemingly utopian scenario is not only feasible but also potentially viable. Now that digital technologies have provided almost full interconnectivity among all humans, they should be used to meet key challenges to ensure that health is created and that it spreads to reach every person on earth. The objective of this article is to describe and trigger a serious discussion of such challenges, which include: adopting a new concept of health; positioning self-rated health as the main outcome of the system; creating a health-oriented model to guide service provision; facilitating the identification, scaling up, and sustaining of innovations that can create and spread health; promoting a culture of health promotion; and encouraging the emergence of Precision Health...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891507/improved-separations-of-proteins-and-sugar-derivatives-using-the-small-scale-cross-axis-coil-planet-centrifuge-with-locular-multilayer-coiled-columns
#6
Kazufusa Shinomiya, Motoki Umezawa, Manami Seki, Jun Nitta, Kazumasa Zaima, Naoki Harikai, Yoichiro Ito
1 BACKGROUND: Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is liquid-liquid partition chromatography without using a solid support matrix. This technique requires further improvement of partition efficiency and shortening theseparation time. 2 METHODS: The locular multilayer coils modified with and without mixer glass beads were developed for the separation of proteins and 4-methylumbelliferyl (MU) sugar derivatives using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge...
December 2016: Separations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890586/exploring-the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-antibiotic-resistance
#7
Itziar Lekunberri, Jèssica Subirats, Carles M Borrego, José Luis Balcázar
Bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant and diverse biological entities in our planet. They infect susceptible bacterial hosts into which they either multiply or persist. In the latter case, phages can confer new functions to their hosts as a result of gene transfer, thus contributing to their adaptation (short-term) and evolution (long-term). In this regard, the role of phages on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among bacterial hosts in natural environments has not yet been clearly resolved...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881980/comparative-genomics-of-dna-recombination-and-repair-in-cyanobacteria-biotechnological-implications
#8
REVIEW
Corinne Cassier-Chauvat, Théo Veaudor, Franck Chauvat
Cyanobacteria are fascinating photosynthetic prokaryotes that are regarded as the ancestors of the plant chloroplast; the purveyors of oxygen and biomass for the food chain; and promising cell factories for an environmentally friendly production of chemicals. In colonizing most waters and soils of our planet, cyanobacteria are inevitably challenged by environmental stresses that generate DNA damages. Furthermore, many strains engineered for biotechnological purposes can use DNA recombination to stop synthesizing the biotechnological product...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881192/effect-of-a-ceiling-fan-ventilation-system-on-finishing-young-bulls-health-behaviour-and-growth-performance
#9
L Magrin, M Brscic, I Lora, C Rumor, L Tondello, G Cozzi, F Gottardo
This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880678/evidence-for-an-alternative-mechanism-of-toxin-production-in-the-box-jellyfish-alatina-alata
#10
Cheryl Lewis Ames, Jason Macrander
Cubozoans (box jellyfish) have a reputation as the most venomous animals on the planet. Herein, we provide a review of cubozoan prey capture and digestion informed by the scientific literature. Like all cnidarians, box jellyfish envenomation originates from structures secreted within nematocyte post-Golgi vesicles called nematocysts. When tentacles come in contact with prey or would-be predators, a cocktail of toxins is rapidly deployed from nematocysts via a long spiny tubule that serves to immobilize the target organism...
November 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872200/transferring-scientific-discovery-to-the-public-the-intramercurial-planet-vulcan-in-1860
#11
Hsiang-Fu Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871225/genomic-epidemiology-of-lineage-4-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-subpopulations-in-new-york-city-and-new-jersey-1999-2009
#12
Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, John R Walker, Paul J Planet, Pablo J Bifani, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Barry N Kreiswirth, Barun Mathema
BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has rapidly become an important research tool in tuberculosis epidemiology and is likely to replace many existing methods in public health microbiology in the near future. WGS-based methods may be particularly useful in areas with less diverse Mycobacterium tuberculosis populations, such as New York City, where conventional genotyping is often uninformative and field epidemiology often difficult. This study applies four candidate strategies for WGS-based identification of emerging M...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870585/another-earth-2-0-not-so-fast
#13
Dirk Schulze-Makuch, Edward Guinan
The number of confirmed exoplanets now exceeds 3000, with an additional nearly 5000 exoplanet candidates awaiting confirmation in the NASA Exoplanet Archive ( 2016 ). Nearly weekly we hear about the detection of a new exoplanet similar in mass to Earth and located in the so-called habitable zone around its host star. The excitement is understandable given our desire to find a second Earth. However, the excitement should not lead to an over-interpretation of the findings, because the claim can only be to have some crude similarity to Earth based on a few selected geophysical parameters...
November 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870583/organic-matter-responses-to-radiation-under-lunar-conditions
#14
Richard Matthewman, Ian A Crawford, Adrian P Jones, Katherine H Joy, Mark A Sephton
Large bodies, such as the Moon, that have remained relatively unaltered for long periods of time have the potential to preserve a record of organic chemical processes from early in the history of the Solar System. A record of volatiles and impactors may be preserved in buried lunar regolith layers that have been capped by protective lava flows. Of particular interest is the possible preservation of prebiotic organic materials delivered by ejected fragments of other bodies, including those originating from the surface of early Earth...
November 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859073/insect-herbivory-fluctuations-through-geological-time
#15
Esther R S Pinheiro, Roberto Iannuzzi, Leandro D S Duarte
Arthropods and land plants are the major macroscopic sources of biodiversity on the planet. Knowledge of the organization and specialization of plant-herbivore interactions, such as their roles in food webs is important for understanding the processes for maintaining biodiversity. A limited number of studies have examined herbivory through geological time. The most have analyzed localities from one restricted interval within a geological period, or a time transition such as the Paleocene-Eocene boundary interval...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856906/the-formation-of-peak-rings-in-large-impact-craters
#16
Joanna V Morgan, Sean P S Gulick, Timothy Bralower, Elise Chenot, Gail Christeson, Philippe Claeys, Charles Cockell, Gareth S Collins, Marco J L Coolen, Ludovic Ferrière, Catalina Gebhardt, Kazuhisa Goto, Heather Jones, David A Kring, Erwan Le Ber, Johanna Lofi, Xiao Long, Christopher Lowery, Claire Mellett, Rubén Ocampo-Torres, Gordon R Osinski, Ligia Perez-Cruz, Annemarie Pickersgill, Michael Poelchau, Auriol Rae, Cornelia Rasmussen, Mario Rebolledo-Vieyra, Ulrich Riller, Honami Sato, Douglas R Schmitt, Jan Smit, Sonia Tikoo, Naotaka Tomioka, Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Michael Whalen, Axel Wittmann, Kosei E Yamaguchi, William Zylberman
Large impacts provide a mechanism for resurfacing planets through mixing near-surface rocks with deeper material. Central peaks are formed from the dynamic uplift of rocks during crater formation. As crater size increases, central peaks transition to peak rings. Without samples, debate surrounds the mechanics of peak-ring formation and their depth of origin. Chicxulub is the only known impact structure on Earth with an unequivocal peak ring, but it is buried and only accessible through drilling. Expedition 364 sampled the Chicxulub peak ring, which we found was formed from uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks...
November 18, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854336/what-we-know-about-the-public-s-level-of-concern-for-farm-animal-welfare-in-food-production-in-developed-countries
#17
REVIEW
Amelia Cornish, David Raubenheimer, Paul McGreevy
Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public...
November 16, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854248/paris-agreement-on-climate-change-a-booster-to-enable-sustainable-global-development-and-beyond
#18
Subhash Janardhan Bhore
The global warming and its adverse effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere are obvious. Based on this fact, the international community is fully convinced that we need to fix the problem urgently for our survival, good health, and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to promote the awareness about the United Nations (UN) historic 'Paris Agreement on Climate Change (PACC)' which entered into-force on 4 November 2016. The expected impact of PACC on the global average temperature rise by 2100 as well as its role in enabling accomplishment of global sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the people and planet is also highlighted...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851731/reorientation-and-faulting-of-pluto-due-to-volatile-loading-within-sputnik-planitia
#19
James T Keane, Isamu Matsuyama, Shunichi Kamata, Jordan K Steckloff
Pluto is an astoundingly diverse, geologically dynamic world. The dominant feature is Sputnik Planitia-a tear-drop-shaped topographic depression approximately 1,000 kilometres in diameter possibly representing an ancient impact basin. The interior of Sputnik Planitia is characterized by a smooth, craterless plain three to four kilometres beneath the surrounding rugged uplands, and represents the surface of a massive unit of actively convecting volatile ices (N2, CH4 and CO) several kilometres thick. This large feature is very near the Pluto-Charon tidal axis...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848144/the-human-physiological-impact-of-global-deoxygenation
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Martin, Helen McKenna, Valerie Livina
There has been a clear decline in the volume of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere over the past 20 years. Although the magnitude of this decrease appears small compared to the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, it is difficult to predict how this process may evolve, due to the brevity of the collected records. A recently proposed model predicts a non-linear decay, which would result in an increasingly rapid fall-off in atmospheric oxygen concentration, with potentially devastating consequences for human health...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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