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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546207/jupiter-s-magnetosphere-and-aurorae-observed-by-the-juno-spacecraft-during-its-first-polar-orbits
#1
J E P Connerney, A Adriani, F Allegrini, F Bagenal, S J Bolton, B Bonfond, S W H Cowley, J-C Gerard, G R Gladstone, D Grodent, G Hospodarsky, J L Jorgensen, W S Kurth, S M Levin, B Mauk, D J McComas, A Mura, C Paranicas, E J Smith, R M Thorne, P Valek, J Waite
The Juno spacecraft acquired direct observations of the jovian magnetosphere and auroral emissions from a vantage point above the poles. Juno's capture orbit spanned the jovian magnetosphere from bow shock to the planet, providing magnetic field, charged particle, and wave phenomena context for Juno's passage over the poles and traverse of Jupiter's hazardous inner radiation belts. Juno's energetic particle and plasma detectors measured electrons precipitating in the polar regions, exciting intense aurorae, observed simultaneously by the ultraviolet and infrared imaging spectrographs...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543430/planet-an-ellipse-fitting-approach-for-simultaneous-t1-and-t2-mapping-using-phase-cycled-balanced-steady-state-free-precession
#2
Yulia Shcherbakova, Cornelis A T van den Berg, Chrit T W Moonen, Lambertus W Bartels
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel, ellipse fitting approach, named PLANET, for simultaneous estimation of relaxation times T1 and T2 from a single 3D phase-cycled balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence. METHODS: A method is presented in which the elliptical signal model is used to describe the phase-cycled bSSFP steady-state signal. The fitting of the model to the acquired data is reformulated into a linear convex problem, which is solved directly by a linear least squares method, specific to ellipses...
May 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534616/microbes-and-the-next-nitrogen-revolution
#3
Ilje Pikaar, Silvio Matassa, Korneel Rabaey, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Alexander Popp, Mario Herrero, Willy Verstraete
The Haber Bosch process is among the greatest inventions of the 20th century. It provided agriculture with reactive nitrogen and ultimately mankind with nourishment for a population of 7 billion people. However, the present agricultural practice of growing crops for animal production and human food constitutes a major threat to the sustainability of the planet in terms of reactive nitrogen pollution. In view of the shortage of directly feasible and cost-effective measures to avoid these planetary nitrogen burdens and the necessity to remediate this problem, we foresee the absolute need for, and expect, a revolution in the use of microbes as a source of protein...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528426/building-a-bio-based-industry-in-the-middle-east-through-harnessing-the-potential-of-the-red-sea-biodiversity
#4
REVIEW
Jens Nielsen, John Archer, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic, Takashi Gojobori, Ivan Mijakovic
The incentive for developing microbial cell factories for production of fuels and chemicals comes from the ability of microbes to deliver these valuable compounds at a reduced cost and with a smaller environmental impact compared to the analogous chemical synthesis. Another crucial advantage of microbes is their great biological diversity, which offers a much larger "catalog" of molecules than the one obtainable by chemical synthesis. Adaptation to different environments is one of the important drives behind microbial diversity...
May 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527827/in%C3%A2-vitro-bioconversion-of-chitin-to-pyruvate-with-thermophilic-enzymes
#5
Kohsuke Honda, Keisuke Kimura, Pham Huynh Ninh, Hironori Taniguchi, Kenji Okano, Hisao Ohtake
Chitin is the second most abundant organic compound on the planet and thus has been regarded as an alternative resource to petroleum feedstocks. One of the key challenges in the biological conversion of biomass-derived polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, is to close the gap between optimum temperatures for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation and to implement them in a single bioreactor. To address this issue, in the present study, we aimed to perform an in vitro, one-pot bioconversion of chitin to pyruvate, which is a precursor of a wide range of useful metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525656/a-snapshot-on-prokaryotic-diversity-of-the-solim%C3%A3%C2%B5es-river-basin-amazon-brazil
#6
D Toyama, C D Santos-Júnior, L T Kishi, T C S Oliveira, J W Garcia, H Sarmento, F P Miranda, F Henrique-Silva
The Amazon region has the largest hydrographic basin on the planet and 
is well known for its huge biodiversity of plants and animals. However, 
there is a lack of studies on aquatic microbial biodiversity in the 
Solimões River, one of its main water courses. To investigate the 
microbial biodiversity of this region, we performed 16S rRNA gene clone 
libraries from Solimões River and adjacent rivers and lakes. Our question was which microorganisms inhabit the different types of aquatic 
environments in this part of the basin, and how diversity varies among 
these environments (rivers and lakes)...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520473/a-new-method-and-mass-spectrometric-instrument-for-extraterrestrial-microbial-life-detection-using-the-elemental-composition-analyses-of-martian-regolith-and-permafrost-ice
#7
G G Managadze, A A Safronova, K A Luchnikov, E A Vorobyova, N S Duxbury, P Wurz, N G Managadze, A E Chumikov, R Kh Khamizov
We propose a new technique for the detection of microorganisms by elemental composition analyses of a sample extracted from regolith, permafrost, and ice of extraterrestrial bodies. We also describe the design of the ABIMAS instrument, which consists of the onboard time-of-flight laser mass-reflectron (TOF LMR) and the sample preparation unit (SPU) for biomass extraction. This instrument was initially approved to fly on board the ExoMars 2020 lander mission. The instrument can be used to analyze the elemental composition of possible extraterrestrial microbial communities and compare it to that of terrestrial microorganisms...
May 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516941/the-wooden-skyscrapers-that-could-help-to-cool-the-planet
#8
Jeff Tollefson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516926/environment-law-for-a-healthy-planet
#9
Hari Osofsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514493/the-narrow-road-to-the-deep-past
#10
Jack W Szostak
The sequence of events that gave rise to the first life on our planet took place in the Earth's deep past, seemingly forever beyond our reach. Perhaps for that very reason the idea of reconstructing our ancient story is tantalizing, almost irresistible. Understanding the processes that led to synthesis of the chemical building blocks of biology and the ways in which these molecules self-assembled into cells that could grow, divide and evolve, nurtured by a rich and complex environment, seems at times insurmountably difficult...
May 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508058/new-technology-reveals-the-role-of-giant-larvaceans-in-oceanic-carbon-cycling
#11
Kakani Katija, Rob E Sherlock, Alana D Sherman, Bruce H Robison
To accurately assess the impacts of climate change on our planet, modeling of oceanic systems and understanding how atmospheric carbon is transported from surface waters to the deep benthos are required. The biological pump drives the transport of carbon through the ocean's depths, and the rates at which carbon is removed and sequestered are often dependent on the grazing abilities of surface and midwater organisms. Some of the most effective and abundant midwater grazers are filter-feeding invertebrates. Although the impact of smaller, near-surface filter feeders is generally known, efforts to quantify the impact of deeper filter feeders, such as giant larvaceans, have been unsuccessful...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503165/stress-related-and-circadian-secretion-and-target-tissue-actions-of-glucocorticoids-impact-on-health
#12
REVIEW
Nicolas C Nicolaides, Evangelia Charmandari, Tomoshige Kino, George P Chrousos
Living organisms are highly complex systems that must maintain a dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis that requires energy to be sustained. Stress is a state in which several extrinsic or intrinsic disturbing stimuli, the stressors, threaten, or are perceived as threatening, homeostasis. To achieve homeostasis against the stressors, organisms have developed a highly sophisticated system, the stress system, which provides neuroendocrine adaptive responses, to restore homeostasis. These responses must be appropriate in terms of size and/or duration; otherwise, they may sustain life but be associated with detrimental effects on numerous physiologic functions of the organism, leading to a state of disease-causing disturbed homeostasis or cacostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500352/whole-mantle-convection-with-tectonic-plates-preserves-long-term-global-patterns-of-upper-mantle-geochemistry
#13
T L Barry, J H Davies, M Wolstencroft, I L Millar, Z Zhao, P Jian, I Safonova, M Price
The evolution of the planetary interior during plate tectonics is controlled by slow convection within the mantle. Global-scale geochemical differences across the upper mantle are known, but how they are preserved during convection has not been adequately explained. We demonstrate that the geographic patterns of chemical variations around the Earth's mantle endure as a direct result of whole-mantle convection within largely isolated cells defined by subducting plates. New 3D spherical numerical models embedded with the latest geological paleo-tectonic reconstructions and ground-truthed with new Hf-Nd isotope data, suggest that uppermost mantle at one location (e...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496253/survey-on-the-use-of-cad-cam-technology-by-uk-and-irish-dental-technicians
#14
E Blackwell, M Nesbit, H Petridis
Statement of the problem Digital workflows (CAD/CAM) have been introduced in dentistry during recent years. No published information exists on dental technicians' use and reporting of this technology.Purpose The aim of this cross sectional survey was to identify the extent digital technology has infiltrated the workplace and to investigate the factors affecting the use of CAD-CAM technology by dental laboratory technicians within Ireland and the UK.Materials and methods A web-based questionnaire was composed (Opinio, Object Planet Inc...
May 12, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495968/laboratory-measurements-of-hdo-h2o-isotopic-fractionation-during-ice-deposition-in-simulated-cirrus-clouds
#15
Kara D Lamb, Benjamin W Clouser, Maximilien Bolot, Laszlo Sarkozy, Volker Ebert, Harald Saathoff, Ottmar Möhler, Elisabeth J Moyer
The stable isotopologues of water have been used in atmospheric and climate studies for over 50 years, because their strong temperature-dependent preferential condensation makes them useful diagnostics of the hydrological cycle. However, the degree of preferential condensation between vapor and ice has never been directly measured at temperatures below 233 K (-40 °C), conditions necessary to form cirrus clouds in the Earth's atmosphere, routinely observed in polar regions, and typical for the near-surface atmospheric layers of Mars...
May 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495748/hat-p-26b-a-neptune-mass-exoplanet-with-a-well-constrained-heavy-element-abundance
#16
Hannah R Wakeford, David K Sing, Tiffany Kataria, Drake Deming, Nikolay Nikolov, Eric D Lopez, Pascal Tremblin, David S Amundsen, Nikole K Lewis, Avi M Mandell, Jonathan J Fortney, Heather Knutson, Björn Benneke, Thomas M Evans
A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H2O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum...
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495743/a-probable-dwarf-planet-beyond-neptune
#17
Keith T Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495507/up-and-away-five-decades-of-urologic-investigation-in-microgravity
#18
REVIEW
Michael S Leapman, Jeffrey A Jones, Karl Coutinho, Daniel Sagalovich, Maurice Garcia, Carl A Olsson, Jeffrey Stock
A renewed global interest in manned space-exploration has emerged, propelled by the challenge of reaching a new frontier: travel to the Red Planet, Mars. As the physiologic changes induced by microgravity bear direct relevance to the safety and viability of these goals, we provide a historical narrative of the urological investigations in space. We review the significant contributions to the understanding of the urologic consequences associated with exposure to microgravity, considerations for prolonged missions, and forward-looking efforts to manage emergent conditions remotely...
May 8, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487755/conjecture-and-hypothesis-the-importance-of-reality-checks
#19
David Deamer
In origins of life research, it is important to understand the difference between conjecture and hypothesis. This commentary explores the difference and recommends alternative hypotheses as a way to advance our understanding of how life can begin on the Earth and other habitable planets. As an example of how this approach can be used, two conditions have been proposed for sites conducive to the origin of life: hydrothermal vents in salty seawater, and fresh water hydrothermal fields associated with volcanic landmasses...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486655/microbial-processes-driving-coral-reef-organic-carbon-flow
#20
Cynthia B Silveira, Giselle S Cavalcanti, Juline M Walter, Arthur W Silva-Lima, Elizabeth A Dinsdale, David G Bourne, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Coral reefs are one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet, with primary production rates compared to that of rain forests. Benthic organisms release 10-50% of their gross organic production as mucus that stimulates heterotrophic microbial metabolism in the water column. As a result, coral reef microbes grow up to 50 times faster than open ocean communities. Anthropogenic disturbances cause once coral-dominated reefs to become dominated by fleshy organisms, with several outcomes for trophic relationships...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
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