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Honghai Zhang, Thomas L Delworth
Precipitation is characterized by substantial natural variability, including on regional and decadal scales. This relatively large variability poses a grand challenge in assessing the significance of anthropogenically forced precipitation changes. Here we use multiple large ensembles of climate change experiments to evaluate whether, on regional scales, anthropogenic changes in decadal precipitation mean state are distinguishable. Here, distinguishable means the anthropogenic change is outside the range expected from natural variability...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Jason W Shapiro, Catherine Putonti
Bacteriophages are the most abundant and diverse biological entities on the planet, and new phage genomes are being discovered at a rapid pace. As more phage genomes are published, new methods are needed for placing these genomes in an ecological and evolutionary context. Phages are difficult to study by phylogenetic methods, because they exchange genes regularly, and no single gene is conserved across all phages. Here, we demonstrate how gene-level networks can provide a high-resolution view of phage genetic diversity and offer a novel perspective on virus ecology...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Giuseppe Amatulli, Sami Domisch, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Benoit Parmentier, Ajay Ranipeta, Jeremy Malczyk, Walter Jetz
Topographic variation underpins a myriad of patterns and processes in hydrology, climatology, geography and ecology and is key to understanding the variation of life on the planet. A fully standardized and global multivariate product of different terrain features has the potential to support many large-scale research applications, however to date, such datasets are unavailable. Here we used the digital elevation model products of global 250 m GMTED2010 and near-global 90 m SRTM4.1dev to derive a suite of topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, eastness, northness, roughness, terrain roughness index, topographic position index, vector ruggedness measure, profile/tangential curvature, first/second order partial derivative, and 10 geomorphological landform classes...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Nancy L Chabot, Evangela E Shread, John K Harmon
There is strong evidence that Mercury's polar deposits are water ice hosted in permanently shadowed regions. In this study, we present new Arecibo radar observations of Mercury's south pole, which reveal numerous radar-bright deposits and substantially increase the radar imaging coverage. We also use images from MESSENGER's full mission to determine the illumination conditions of Mercury's south polar region at the same spatial resolution as the north polar region, enabling comparisons between the two poles...
February 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Xiu Jia, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Joana Falcão Salles
Our planet teems with microorganisms that often present a skewed abundance distribution in a local community, with relatively few dominant species coexisting alongside a high number of rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that these rare taxa serve as limitless reservoirs of genetic diversity, and perform disproportionate types of functions despite their low abundances. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms controlling rarity and the processes promoting the development of the rare biosphere...
March 14, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Marco Giovanni Malusà, Maria Luce Frezzotti, Simona Ferrando, Enrico Brandmayr, Fabio Romanelli, Giuliano Francesco Panza
The long-term carbon budget has major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere, but the balance between carbon sequestration during subduction, and outgassing by volcanism is still poorly known. Although carbon-rich fluid inclusions and minerals are described in exhumed mantle rocks and xenoliths, compelling geophysical evidence of large-scale carbon storage in the upper mantle is still lacking. Here, we use a geophysical surface-wave seismic tomography model of the mantle wedge above the subducted European slab to document a prominent shear-wave low-velocity anomaly at depths greater than 180 km...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea Raponi, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Alessandro Frigeri, Eleonora Ammannito, Mauro Ciarniello, Michelangelo Formisano, Jean-Philippe Combe, Gianfranco Magni, Federico Tosi, Filippo Giacomo Carrozzo, Sergio Fonte, Marco Giardino, Steven P Joy, Carol A Polanskey, Marc D Rayman, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Andrea Longobardo, Ernesto Palomba, Francesca Zambon, Carol A Raymond, Christopher T Russell
The dwarf planet Ceres is known to host a considerable amount of water in its interior, and areas of water ice were detected by the Dawn spacecraft on its surface. Moreover, sporadic water and hydroxyl emissions have been observed from space telescopes. We report the detection of water ice in a mid-latitude crater and its unexpected variation with time. The Dawn spectrometer data show a change of water ice signatures over a period of 6 months, which is well modeled as ~2-km2 increase of water ice. The observed increase, coupled with Ceres' orbital parameters, points to an ongoing process that seems correlated with solar flux...
March 2018: Science Advances
Vincent Clesi, Mohamed Ali Bouhifd, Nathalie Bolfan-Casanova, Geeth Manthilake, Federica Schiavi, Caroline Raepsaet, Hélène Bureau, Hicham Khodja, Denis Andrault
Hydrogen has been thought to be an important light element in Earth's core due to possible siderophile behavior during core-mantle segregation. We reproduced planetary differentiation conditions using hydrogen contents of 450 to 1500 parts per million (ppm) in the silicate phase, pressures of 5 to 20 GPa, oxygen fugacity varying within IW-3.7 and IW-0.2 (0.2 to 3.7 log units lower than iron-wüstite buffer), and Fe alloys typical of planetary cores. We report hydrogen metal-silicate partition coefficients of ~2 × 10-1 , up to two orders of magnitude lower than reported previously, and indicative of lithophile behavior...
March 2018: Science Advances
Filippo Giacomo Carrozzo, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Andrea Raponi, Eleonora Ammannito, Julie Castillo-Rogez, Bethany L Ehlmann, Simone Marchi, Nathaniel Stein, Mauro Ciarniello, Federico Tosi, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Sergio Fonte, Michelangelo Formisano, Alessandro Frigeri, Marco Giardino, Andrea Longobardo, Gianfranco Magni, Ernesto Palomba, Francesca Zambon, Carol A Raymond, Christopher T Russell
Different carbonates have been detected on Ceres, and their abundance and spatial distribution have been mapped using a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR), the Dawn imaging spectrometer. Carbonates are abundant and ubiquitous across the surface, but variations in the strength and position of infrared spectral absorptions indicate variations in the composition and amount of these minerals. Mg-Ca carbonates are detected all over the surface, but localized areas show Na carbonates, such as natrite (Na2 CO3 ) and hydrated Na carbonates (for example, Na2 CO3 ·H2 O)...
March 2018: Science Advances
Marilyne Kafrouni, Carole Allimant, Marjolaine Fourcade, Sébastien Vauclin, Julien Delicque, Alina-Diana Ilonca, Boris Guiu, Federico Manna, Nicolas Molinari, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Fayçal Ben Bouallègue
The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the body surface area (BSA) model ability to predict tumor absorbed dose and treatment outcome through retrospective voxel-based dosimetry. Methods: Data from thirty-five hepatocellular carcinoma patients with a total of forty-two resin microsphere radioembolization treatments were included. Injected activity was planned with the BSA model. Voxel dosimetry based on99m Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin SPECT and90 Y-microsphere PET was retrospectively performed using a dedicated treatment planning system (PLANET® Dose, DOSIsoft SA, Cachan, France)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Michael J Willatt, Michele Ceriotti, Stuart C Althorpe
Matsubara dynamics is the quantum-Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics which remains when real-time coherences are taken out of the exact quantum Liouvillian [T. J. H. Hele et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 134103 (2015)]; because of a phase-term, it cannot be used as a practical method without further approximation. Recently, Smith et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 244112 (2015)] developed a "planetary" model dynamics which conserves the Feynman-Kleinert (FK) approximation to the quantum-Boltzmann distribution...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Monsignor Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, Howard Frumkin, Veerabhadran Ramanathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Marcus Woo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Francesco Ferretti, David Curnick, Keli Liu, Evgeny V Romanov, Barbara A Block
Scientific monitoring has recorded only a recent fraction of the oceans' alteration history. This biases our understanding of marine ecosystems. Remote coral reef ecosystems are often considered pristine because of high shark abundance. However, given the long history and global nature of fishing, sharks' vulnerability, and the ecological consequences of shark declines, these states may not be natural. In the Chagos archipelago, one of the remotest coral reef systems on the planet, protected by a very large marine reserve, we integrated disparate fisheries and scientific survey data to reconstruct baselines and long-term population trajectories of two dominant sharks...
March 2018: Science Advances
Sergey Melnikov, Kasidet Manakongtreecheep, Dieter Söll
Ribosomal proteins are indispensable components of a living cell, and yet their structures are remarkably diverse in different species. Here we use manually curated structural alignments to provide a comprehensive catalog of structural variations in homologous ribosomal proteins from bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. By resolving numerous ambiguities and errors of automated structural and sequence alignments, we uncover a whole new class of structural variations, which reside within seemingly conserved segments of ribosomal proteins...
February 24, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Alberto A Esteves-Ferreira, Masami Inaba, Antoine Fort, Wagner L Araújo, Ronan Sulpice
Cyanobacteria are one of the earliest branching groups of organisms on the planet, and during their evolutionary history were submitted to varying selective pressures. Nowadays, cyanobacteria can grow in a variety of conditions, using a large number of nitrogen sources. The control of the nitrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria depends on a fine-tuning regulatory network involving 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), PII, PipX, and NtcA. This network answers to the cellular 2-OG levels, which reflects the cellular carbon/nitrogen balance, and as an output regulates gene expression, translation, protein activities and thus metabolic pathways...
March 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Tyson J Brunstetter, William J Tarver
Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i...
March 12, 2018: Eye
Joanne Purves, Jamie Thomas, Gustavo Pelicoli Riboldi, Marta Zapotoczna, Emma Tarrant, Peter W Andrew, Alejandra Londoño, Paul J Planet, Joan A Geoghegan, Kevin J Waldron, Julie A Morrissey
Excess copper is highly toxic and forms part of the host innate immune system's antibacterial arsenal, accumulating at sites of infection and acting within macrophages to kill engulfed pathogens. We show for the first time that a novel, horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus (copXL), uniquely associated with the SCCmec elements of the highly virulent, epidemic, community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300, confers copper hyper-resistance. These genes are additional to existing core genome copper resistance mechanisms, and are not found in typical S...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Thomas B H Schroeder, Jared Houghtaling, Bodo D Wilts, Michael Mayer
Over the course of their wildly successful proliferation across the earth, the insects as a taxon have evolved enviable adaptations to their diverse habitats, which include adhesives, locomotor systems, hydrophobic surfaces, and sensors and actuators that transduce mechanical, acoustic, optical, thermal, and chemical signals. Insect-inspired designs currently appear in a range of contexts, including antireflective coatings, optical displays, and computing algorithms. However, as over one million distinct and highly specialized species of insects have colonized nearly all habitable regions on the planet, they still provide a largely untapped pool of unique problem-solving strategies...
March 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
L Iess, W M Folkner, D Durante, M Parisi, Y Kaspi, E Galanti, T Guillot, W B Hubbard, D J Stevenson, J D Anderson, D R Buccino, L Gomez Casajus, A Milani, R Park, P Racioppa, D Serra, P Tortora, M Zannoni, H Cao, R Helled, J I Lunine, Y Miguel, B Militzer, S Wahl, J E P Connerney, S M Levin, S J Bolton
The gravity harmonics of a fluid, rotating planet can be decomposed into static components arising from solid-body rotation and dynamic components arising from flows. In the absence of internal dynamics, the gravity field is axially and hemispherically symmetric and is dominated by even zonal gravity harmonics J2n that are approximately proportional to qn , where q is the ratio between centrifugal acceleration and gravity at the planet's equator. Any asymmetry in the gravity field is attributed to differential rotation and deep atmospheric flows...
March 7, 2018: Nature
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