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Anthony T Zimmer, HakSoo Ha
Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Sean N Raymond, Andre Izidoro
The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals...
September 2017: Science Advances
William J Ripple, Christopher Wolf, Thomas M Newsome, Michael Hoffmann, Aaron J Wirsing, Douglas J McCauley
Extinction risk in vertebrates has been linked to large body size, but this putative relationship has only been explored for select taxa, with variable results. Using a newly assembled and taxonomically expansive database, we analyzed the relationships between extinction risk and body mass (27,647 species) and between extinction risk and range size (21,294 species) for vertebrates across six main classes. We found that the probability of being threatened was positively and significantly related to body mass for birds, cartilaginous fishes, and mammals...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J D Rummel, C A Conley
While it is anticipated that future human missions to Mars will increase the amount of biological and organic contamination that might be distributed on that planet, robotic missions continue to grow in capability and complexity, requiring precautions to be taken now to protect Mars, and particularly areas of Mars that might be Special Regions. Such precautionary cleanliness requirements for spacecraft have evolved over the course of the space age, as we have learned more about planetary environments, and are the subject of regular deliberations and decisions sponsored by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR)...
September 16, 2017: Astrobiology
Shunichi Fukuzumi, Yong-Min Lee, Wonwoo Nam
Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the remarkable merit that it would not compete with growing demands of pure water. This review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100% Faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride ion. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency...
September 15, 2017: ChemSusChem
Elyar Sedaghati, Henri M J Boffin, Ryan J MacDonald, Siddharth Gandhi, Nikku Madhusudhan, Neale P Gibson, Mahmoudreza Oshagh, Antonio Claret, Heike Rauer
As an exoplanet transits its host star, some of the light from the star is absorbed by the atoms and molecules in the planet's atmosphere, causing the planet to seem bigger; plotting the planet's observed size as a function of the wavelength of the light produces a transmission spectrum. Measuring the tiny variations in the transmission spectrum, together with atmospheric modelling, then gives clues to the properties of the exoplanet's atmosphere. Chemical species composed of light elements-such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sodium and potassium-have in this way been detected in the atmospheres of several hot giant exoplanets, but molecules composed of heavier elements have thus far proved elusive...
September 13, 2017: Nature
Marissa Lingen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Nature
Matheus Melo Pithon, Lucianne Cople Maia de Faria, Orlando Motohiro Tanaka, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas, Laura Salignac de Souza Guimarães Primo
The sustainability of the natural resources of our planet is a topic for worldwide debate. Mankind, during its evolution as a species, has not been greatly concerned about conserving the environment in which we live. Nowadays we are reaping the fruits of this neglect. Climatic changes and storms are good examples of this. We, humans, must re-think our attitudes in order to leave the planet in a healthy state to be used by our descendants. But thinking of orthodontics, what can we do as orthodontists? From this perspective, the authors of the present study aimed, in a clear and objective manner, to present simple and sustainable ways to proceed during our activity as orthodontists, in order to minimize the effects on nature, caused by man...
July 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
Matthew P Galaska, Chester J Sands, Scott R Santos, Andrew R Mahon, Kenneth M Halanych
The Antarctic Polar Front (APF) is one of the most well-defined and persistent oceanographic features on the planet and serves as a barrier to dispersal between the Southern Ocean and lower latitudes. High levels of endemism in the Southern Ocean have been attributed to this barrier, whereas the accompanying Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) likely promotes west-to-east dispersal. Previous phylogeographic work on the brittle star Astrotoma agassizii Lyman, 1875 based on mitochondrial genes suggested isolation across the APF, even though populations in both South American waters and the Southern Ocean are morphologically indistinguishable...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
Jingnan Guo, Cary Zeitlin, Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, Donald M Hassler, Jan Köhler, Bent Ehresmann, Stephan Böttcher, Eckart Böhm, David E Brinza
The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, has been measuring the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars since the landing of the rover in August 2012. In contrast to charged particles, neutral particles (neutrons and γ-rays) are measured indirectly: the energy deposition spectra produced by neutral particles are complex convolutions of the incident particle spectra with the detector response functions...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
Alberto G Fairén, Victor Parro, Dirk Schulze-Makuch, Lyle Whyte
Decades of robotic exploration have confirmed that in the distant past, Mars was warmer and wetter and its surface was habitable. However, none of the spacecraft missions to Mars have included among their scientific objectives the exploration of Special Regions, those places on the planet that could be inhabited by extant martian life or where terrestrial microorganisms might replicate. A major reason for this is because of Planetary Protection constraints, which are implemented to protect Mars from terrestrial biological contamination...
September 8, 2017: Astrobiology
Sunil Nath
The vital coupled processes of oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthetic phosphorylation synthesize molecules of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), the universal biological energy currency, and sustain all life on our planet. The chemiosmotic theory of energy coupling in oxidative and photophosphorylation was proposed by Mitchell >50years ago. It has had a contentious history, with part of the accumulated body of experimental evidence supporting it, and part of it in conflict with the theory. Although the theory was strongly criticized by many prominent scientists, the controversy has never been resolved...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
Stefano Maffei, Andrew Jackson, Philip W Livermore
We consider fluid-filled spheres and spheroidal containers of eccentricity ϵ in rapid rotation, as a proxy for the interior dynamics of stars and planets. The fluid motion is assumed to be quasi-geostrophic (QG): horizontal motions are invariant parallel to the rotation axis z, a characteristic which is handled by use of a stream function formulation which additionally enforces mass conservation and non-penetration at the boundary. By linearizing about a quiescent background state, we investigate a variety of methods to study the QG inviscid inertial wave modes which are compared with fully three-dimensional (3D) calculations...
August 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Katrin Weidenbach, Lisa Nickel, Horst Neve, Omer S Alkhnbashi, Sven Künzel, Anne Kupczok, Thorsten Bauersachs, Liam Cassidy, Andreas Tholey, Rolf Backofen, Ruth A Schmitz
A novel archaeal lytic virus targeting species of the genus Methanosarcina was isolated using Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 as host. Due to its spherical morphology the virus was designated Methanosarcinaspherical virus (MetSV). Molecular analysis demonstrated that MetSV contains double stranded linear DNA with a genome size of 10,567 bp containing 22 open reading frames (ORFs) all oriented in the same direction. Functions were predicted for some of these ORFs, i. e. like DNA polymerase, ATPase, DNA-binding protein, as well as envelope (structural) protein...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
Philip Judge
A laboratory experiment is suggested in which conditions similar to those in the plume ejecta from Enceladus and, perhaps, Europa are established. With the use of infrared spectroscopy and polarimetry, the experiment might identify possible biomarkers in differential measurements of water from the open ocean, hydrothermal vents, and abiotic water samples. Should the experiment succeed, large telescopes could be used to acquire sensitive infrared spectra of the plumes of Enceladus and Europa, as the satellites transit the bright planetary disks...
September 2017: Astrobiology
Laura Genovese, Nadia Lotti, Valentina Siracusa, Andrea Munari
In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate) (PNF) to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, through a solvent-free process, starting directly from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid...
September 4, 2017: Materials
Janna Beling, Enock Chisati
Challenged health systems are a motivation for health education reform. Although resources-limited areas cover our planet, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest disease burden, yet the lowest health-care provider and medical school density of any region in the world. Malawi is among the most under-resourced countries in the world. While much of the data focus on dental, medical, and psychiatric service provision, physical therapists are also in short supply. Among the barriers to achieving the recommended standards for physical therapist education, African physiotherapists (the term for "physical therapists" in Africa) identify limited training opportunities, limited research education, and limited resources and funding...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
G Viera-López, A Serrano-Muñoz, J Amigó-Vega, O Cruzata, E Altshuler
We introduce an instrument for a wide spectrum of experiments on gravities other than our planet's. It is based on a large Atwood machine where one of the loads is a bucket equipped with a single board computer and different sensors. The computer is able to detect the falling (or rising) and then the stabilization of the effective gravity and to trigger actuators depending on the experiment. Gravities within the range 0.4 g-1.2 g are easily achieved with acceleration noise of the order of 0.01 g. Under Martian gravity, we are able to perform experiments of approximately 1...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Vennam Srilekha, Gudikandula Krishna, Vutukuru Seshasrinivas, Maringanti Alha Singara Charya
The marine environment covers three quarters of the surface of the planet and is estimated to be home to more than 80% of life but yet it remains largely unexplored. It harbours a number of macro and microorganisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. In this study, pigment forming bacterial strains were isolated from the sea surface inter tidal zones at different sampling sites along the Visakhapatnam coastal region...
August 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zihao Xu, Chengliang Yang, Peiguang Zhang, Xingyun Zhang, Zhaoliang Cao, Quanquan Mu, Qiang Sun, Li Xuan
There are more than eight large aperture telescopes (larger than eight meters) equipped with adaptive optics system in the world until now. Due to the limitations such as the difficulties of increasing actuator number of deformable mirror, most of them work in the infrared waveband. A novel two-step high-resolution optical imaging approach is proposed by applying phase diversity (PD) technique to the open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system (LC AOS) for visible light high-resolution adaptive imaging...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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