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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430516/strong-constraints-on-self-interacting-dark-matter-with-light-mediators
#1
Torsten Bringmann, Felix Kahlhoefer, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Parampreet Walia
Coupling dark matter to light new particles is an attractive way to combine thermal production with strong velocity-dependent self-interactions. Here we point out that in such models the dark matter annihilation rate is generically enhanced by the Sommerfeld effect, and we derive the resulting constraints from the cosmic microwave background and other indirect detection probes. For the frequently studied case of s-wave annihilation, these constraints exclude the entire parameter space where the self-interactions are large enough to address the small-scale problems of structure formation...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430473/first-direct-detection-constraints-on-ev-scale-hidden-photon-dark-matter-with-damic-at-snolab
#2
A Aguilar-Arevalo, D Amidei, X Bertou, M Butner, G Cancelo, A Castañeda Vázquez, B A Cervantes Vergara, A E Chavarria, C R Chavez, J R T de Mello Neto, J C D'Olivo, J Estrada, G Fernandez Moroni, R Gaïor, Y Guardincerri, K P Hernández Torres, F Izraelevitch, A Kavner, B Kilminster, I Lawson, A Letessier-Selvon, J Liao, A Matalon, V B B Mello, J Molina, P Privitera, K Ramanathan, Y Sarkis, T Schwarz, M Settimo, M Sofo Haro, R Thomas, J Tiffenberg, E Tiouchichine, D Torres Machado, F Trillaud, X You, J Zhou
We present direct detection constraints on the absorption of hidden-photon dark matter with particle masses in the range 1.2-30  eV c^{-2} with the DAMIC experiment at SNOLAB. Under the assumption that the local dark matter is entirely constituted of hidden photons, the sensitivity to the kinetic mixing parameter κ is competitive with constraints from solar emission, reaching a minimum value of 2.2×10^{-14} at 17  eV c^{-2}. These results are the most stringent direct detection constraints on hidden-photon dark matter in the galactic halo with masses 3-12  eV c^{-2} and the first demonstration of direct experimental sensitivity to ionization signals <12  eV from dark matter interactions...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430462/fuzzy-dark-matter-from-infrared-confining-dynamics
#3
Hooman Davoudiasl, Christopher W Murphy
A very light boson of mass O(10^{-22})  eV may potentially be a viable dark matter (DM) candidate, which can avoid phenomenological problems associated with cold DM. Such "fuzzy DM (FDM)" may naturally be an axion with a decay constant f_{a}∼10^{16}-10^{18}  GeV and a mass m_{a}∼μ^{2}/f_{a} with μ∼10^{2}  eV. Here, we propose a concrete model, where μ arises as a dynamical scale from infrared confining dynamics, analogous to QCD. Our model is an alternative to the usual approach of generating μ through string theoretic instanton effects...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429270/degradation-of-streptomycin-in-aquatic-environment-kinetics-pathway-and-antibacterial-activity-analysis
#4
Yanru Shen, Wenyan Zhao, Chunling Zhang, Yujie Shan, Junxian Shi
Streptomycin used in human and veterinary medicine is released into the environment mainly through excretions. As such, its elimination in water should be investigated to control pollution. In this study, the degradation of streptomycin in water was studied, and the influence of variables, including light exposure, solution pH, temperature, ionic strength, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and coexisting surfactants, on degradation was investigated. Streptomycin degradation was consistent with the first-order model in aquatic environments...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420738/sar202-genomes-from-the-dark-ocean-predict-pathways-for-the-oxidation-of-recalcitrant-dissolved-organic-matter
#5
Zachary Landry, Brandon K Swan, Gerhard J Herndl, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Stephen J Giovannoni
Deep-ocean regions beyond the reach of sunlight contain an estimated 615 Pg of dissolved organic matter (DOM), much of which persists for thousands of years. It is thought that bacteria oxidize DOM until it is too dilute or refractory to support microbial activity. We analyzed five single-amplified genomes (SAGs) from the abundant SAR202 clade of dark-ocean bacterioplankton and found they encode multiple families of paralogous enzymes involved in carbon catabolism, including several families of oxidative enzymes that we hypothesize participate in the degradation of cyclic alkanes...
April 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418111/toward-the-dark-matter-of-natural-products
#6
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Wakimoto
Considering the dynamic features of natural products, our access toward exploring the entire diversity of natural products has been quite limited. It is challenging to assess the diversity of natural products by using conventional analytical methods, even with tandem chromatographic techniques, such as LC-MS and GC-MS. This viewpoint is supported by the sequencing analyses of microbial genomes, which have unveiled the potential of secondary metabolite production far exceeding the number of isolated molecules...
April 18, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410502/importance-of-allochthonous-and-autochthonous-dissolved-organic-matter-in-fe-ii-oxidation-a-case-study-in-shizugawa-bay-watershed-japan
#7
Ying Ping Lee, Manabu Fujii, Tetsuro Kikuchi, Masafumi Natsuike, Hiroaki Ito, Toru Watanabe, Chihiro Yoshimura
Ferrous iron (Fe[II]) oxidation by dissolved oxygen was investigated in the Shizugawa Bay watershed with particular attention given to the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties on Fe(II) oxidation. To cover a wide spectrum of DOM composition, water samples were collected from various water sources including freshwater (e.g., river water and wastewater effluent) and coastal seawater. Measurement of nanomolar Fe(II) oxidation by using luminol chemiluminescence under dark, air-saturated conditions at 25 °C indicated that spatio-temporal variation of the second-order rate constant (6...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409946/geometric-baryogenesis-from-shift-symmetry
#8
Andrea De Simone, Takeshi Kobayashi, Stefano Liberati
We present a new scenario for generating the baryon asymmetry of the Universe that is induced by a Nambu-Goldstone (NG) boson. The shift symmetry naturally controls the operators in the theory while allowing the NG boson to couple to the spacetime geometry as well as to the baryons. The cosmological background thus sources a coherent motion of the NG boson, which leads to baryogenesis. Good candidates of the baryon-generating NG boson are the QCD axion and axionlike fields. In these cases, the axion induces baryogenesis in the early Universe and can also serve as dark matter in the late Universe...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404794/neprosin-a-selective-prolyl-endoprotease-for-bottom-up-proteomics-and-histone-mapping
#9
Christoph U Schraeder, Linda Lee, Martial Rey, Vladimir Sarpe, Petr Man, Seema Sharma, Vlad Zabrouskov, Brett Larsen, David C Schriemer
Trypsin dominates bottom-up proteomics, but there are reasons to consider alternative enzymes. Improving sequence coverage, exposing proteomic dark matter and clustering post-translational modifications in different ways and with higher-order drive the pursuit of reagents complementary to trypsin. Additionally, enzymes that are easy to use and generate larger peptides that capitalize upon newer fragmentation technologies should have a place in proteomics. We expressed and characterized recombinant neprosin, a novel prolyl endoprotease of the DUF239 family, which preferentially cleaves C-terminal to proline residues under highly acidic conditions...
April 12, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394336/msfragger-ultrafast-and-comprehensive-peptide-identification-in-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#10
Andy T Kong, Felipe V Leprevost, Dmitry M Avtonomov, Dattatreya Mellacheruvu, Alexey I Nesvizhskii
There is a need to better understand and handle the 'dark matter' of proteomics-the vast diversity of post-translational and chemical modifications that are unaccounted in a typical mass spectrometry-based analysis and thus remain unidentified. We present a fragment-ion indexing method, and its implementation in peptide identification tool MSFragger, that enables a more than 100-fold improvement in speed over most existing proteome database search tools. Using several large proteomic data sets, we demonstrate how MSFragger empowers the open database search concept for comprehensive identification of peptides and all their modified forms, uncovering dramatic differences in modification rates across experimental samples and conditions...
April 10, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389564/natural-product-discovery-from-the-human-microbiome
#11
Matthew R Wilson, Li Zha, Emily P Balskus
Human-associated microorganisms have the potential to biosynthesize numerous secondary metabolites that may mediate important host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. However, there is currently a limited understanding of microbiome-derived natural products. A variety of complementary discovery approaches have begun to illuminate this microbial 'dark matter', which will in turn allow detailed mechanistic studies of these molecules' affects on microbiome and host. Herein, we review recent efforts to uncover microbiome-derived natural products and describe the key approaches that were used to identify and characterize these metabolites, discuss potential functional roles of these molecules, and discuss challenges related to this emerging research area...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384157/contrasting-seasonality-in-optical-biogeochemical-properties-of-the-baltic-sea
#12
Stefan G H Simis, Pasi Ylöstalo, Kari Y Kallio, Kristian Spilling, Tiit Kutser
Optical-biogeochemical relationships of particulate and dissolved organic matter are presented in support of remote sensing of the Baltic Sea pelagic. This system exhibits strong seasonality in phytoplankton community composition and wide gradients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), properties which are poorly handled by existing remote sensing algorithms. Absorption and scattering properties of particulate matter reflected the seasonality in biological (phytoplankton succession) and physical (thermal stratification) processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364753/three-component-gross-pitaevskii-equations-in-the-spin-1-bose-einstein-condensate-spin-rotation-symmetry-matter-wave-solutions-and-dynamics
#13
Zichao Wen, Zhenya Yan
We report new matter-wave solutions of the one-dimensional spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system by combining global spin-rotation states and similarity transformation. Dynamical behaviors of non-stationary global spin-rotation states derived from the SU(2) spin-rotation symmetry are discussed, which exhibit temporal periodicity. We derive generalized bright-dark mixed solitons and new rogue wave solutions and reveal the relations between Euler angles in spin-rotation symmetry and parameters in ferromagnetic and polar solitons...
March 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350962/multi-dimensional-hybridization-of-dark-surface-plasmons
#14
Andrew B Yankovich, Ruggero Verre, Erik Olsén, Anton E O Persson, Viet Trinh, Gudrun Dovner, Mikael Käll, Eva Olsson
Synthetic three-dimensional nano-architectures are providing more control over light-matter interactions and rapidly progressing photonic based technology. These applications often utilize the strong synergy between electromagnetic fields and surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic nanostructures. However, many of the SP interactions hosted by complex 3D nanostructures are poorly understood because they involve dark hybridized states that are typically undetectable with far-field optical spectroscopy. Here, we use experimental and theoretical electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to elucidate dark SPs and their interactions in layered metal-insulator-metal disc nanostructures...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339273/search-for-electronic-recoil-event-rate-modulation-with-4-years-of-xenon100-data
#15
E Aprile, J Aalbers, F Agostini, M Alfonsi, F D Amaro, M Anthony, F Arneodo, P Barrow, L Baudis, B Bauermeister, M L Benabderrahmane, T Berger, P A Breur, A Brown, E Brown, S Bruenner, G Bruno, R Budnik, L Bütikofer, J Calvén, J M R Cardoso, M Cervantes, D Cichon, D Coderre, A P Colijn, J Conrad, J P Cussonneau, M P Decowski, P de Perio, P Di Gangi, A Di Giovanni, S Diglio, G Eurin, J Fei, A D Ferella, A Fieguth, D Franco, W Fulgione, A Gallo Rosso, M Galloway, F Gao, M Garbini, C Geis, L W Goetzke, Z Greene, C Grignon, C Hasterok, E Hogenbirk, R Itay, B Kaminsky, G Kessler, A Kish, H Landsman, R F Lang, D Lellouch, L Levinson, Q Lin, S Lindemann, M Lindner, J A M Lopes, A Manfredini, I Maris, T Marrodán Undagoitia, J Masbou, F V Massoli, D Masson, D Mayani, M Messina, K Micheneau, B Miguez, A Molinario, M Murra, J Naganoma, K Ni, U Oberlack, P Pakarha, B Pelssers, R Persiani, F Piastra, J Pienaar, V Pizzella, M-C Piro, G Plante, N Priel, L Rauch, S Reichard, C Reuter, A Rizzo, S Rosendahl, N Rupp, J M F Dos Santos, G Sartorelli, M Scheibelhut, S Schindler, J Schreiner, M Schumann, L Scotto Lavina, M Selvi, P Shagin, M Silva, H Simgen, M V Sivers, A Stein, D Thers, A Tiseni, G Trinchero, C Tunnell, H Wang, Y Wei, C Weinheimer, J Wulf, J Ye, Y Zhang
We report on a search for electronic recoil event rate modulation signatures in the XENON100 data accumulated over a period of 4 yr, from January 2010 to January 2014. A profile likelihood method, which incorporates the stability of the XENON100 detector and the known electronic recoil background model, is used to quantify the significance of periodicity in the time distribution of events. There is a weak modulation signature at a period of 431_{-14}^{+16} day in the low energy region of (2.0-5.8) keV in the single scatter event sample, with a global significance of 1...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339231/chiral-dark-sector
#16
Raymond T Co, Keisuke Harigaya, Yasunori Nomura
We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U(1)_{D}, which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336618/in-search-for-unseen-matter-physicists-turn-to-dark-sector
#17
Adrian Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334666/bio-refractory-dissolved-organic-matter-and-colorants-in-cassava-distillery-wastewater-characterization-coagulation-treatment-and-mechanisms
#18
Ming Zhang, Zhou Wang, Penghui Li, Hua Zhang, Li Xie
An important portion of organic matter and colorants still remain in the biologically treated distillery wastewater, leaving the dark brown and odorous downstream with the heavy loading of chemical oxygen demand and the potential of forming disinfection byproducts. However, those bio-recalcitrant colorants have not been clearly recognized. The current study investigated the features of the bio-refractory organic matter and colorants in a typical distillery effluent, cassava distillery wastewater; special attention was paid to their change and behaviors in the coagulation treatment following the bio-processes...
March 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333270/environmental-and-genetic-modulation-of-the-phenotypic-expression-of-antibiotic-resistance
#19
Diarmaid Hughes, Dan I Andersson
Antibiotic resistance can be acquired by mutation or horizontal transfer of a resistance gene, and generally an acquired mechanism results in a predictable increase in phenotypic resistance. However, recent findings suggest that the environment and/or the genetic context can modify the phenotypic expression of specific resistance genes/mutations. An important implication from these findings is that a given genotype does not always result in the expected phenotype. This dissociation of genotype and phenotype has important consequences for clinical bacteriology and for our ability to predict resistance phenotypes from genetics and DNA sequences...
March 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320645/interactive-exploration-of-cosmological-dark-matter-simulation-data
#20
Aaron Scherzinger, Tobias Brix, Dominik Drees, Andreas Volker, Kiril Radkov, Niko Santalidis, Alexander Fieguth, Klaus H Hinrichs
The winning entry of the 2015 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest, this article describes a visualization tool for cosmological data resulting from dark-matter simulations. The proposed system helps users explore all aspects of the data at once and receive more detailed information about structures of interest at any time. Moreover, novel methods for visualizing and interactively exploring dark-matter halo substructures are proposed.
March 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
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