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Dark matter

April L Darling, Vladimir N Uversky
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are functional proteins and domains that devoid stable secondary and/or tertiary structure. IDPs/IDPRs are abundantly present in various proteomes, where they are involved in regulation, signaling, and control, thereby serving as crucial regulators of various cellular processes. Various mechanisms are utilized to tightly regulate and modulate biological functions, structural properties, cellular levels, and localization of these important controllers...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Carlos Vergara, Karla E C Araujo, Segundo Urquiaga, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Nivaldo Schultz, Ednaldo da Silva Araújo, Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro, Gustavo R Xavier, Jerri É Zilli
An understanding of the interaction between rice and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, under green fertilization, may lead to sustainable agricultural practices. Nevertheless, this interaction is still poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the accumulation of macro- and micronutrients, dry matter, and protein and N recovery efficiency from Canavalia ensiformis (L.)-15 N in rice inoculated with DSE fungi. An experiment under greenhouse conditions was conducted in a randomized complete block design comprising split-plots, with five replicates of rice plants potted in non-sterilized soil...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
H Terças, J D Rodrigues, J T Mendonça
Axions are hypothetical particles related to the violation of the charge-parity symmetry within the strong sector of the standard model, being one of the most prone candidates for dark matter. Multiple attempts to prove their existence are currently performed in different physical systems. Here, we predict that axions may couple to the electrostatic (Langmuir) modes of a strongly magnetized plasma, and show that a new quasiparticle can be defined, the axion-plasmon polariton. The excitation of axions can be inferred from the pronounced modification of the dispersion relation of the Langmuir waves, a feature that we estimate to be accessible in state-of-the-art plasma-based experiments...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mark C Neyrinck, Johan Hidding, Marina Konstantatou, Rien van de Weygaert
For over 20 years, the term 'cosmic web' has guided our understanding of the large-scale arrangement of matter in the cosmos, accurately evoking the concept of a network of galaxies linked by filaments. But the physical correspondence between the cosmic web and structural engineering or textile 'spiderwebs' is even deeper than previously known, and also extends to origami tessellations. Here, we explain that in a good structure-formation approximation known as the adhesion model, threads of the cosmic web form a spiderweb, i...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jennifer A Dill, Alvin C Camus, John H Leary, Terry Fei Fan Ng
Only eight families of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are known to infect vertebrate animals. During an investigation of papillomatous skin disease in an elasmobranch species, the giant guitarfish ( Rhynchobatus djiddensis ), a novel virus, distinct from all known viral families in regard to particle size, morphology, genome organization, and helicase phylogeny was discovered. Large inclusion bodies containing 75-nm icosahedral viral particles were present within epithelial cell nuclei in the proliferative skin lesions...
May 15, 2018: MBio
Emmanuel Chang, Zohreh Davoudi, William Detmold, Arjun S Gambhir, Kostas Orginos, Martin J Savage, Phiala E Shanahan, Michael L Wagman, Frank Winter
Complete flavor decompositions of the matrix elements of the scalar, axial, and tensor currents in the proton, deuteron, diproton, and ^{3}He at SU(3)-symmetric values of the quark masses corresponding to a pion mass m_{π}∼806  MeV are determined using lattice quantum chromodynamics. At the physical quark masses, the scalar interactions constrain mean-field models of nuclei and the low-energy interactions of nuclei with potential dark matter candidates. The axial and tensor interactions of nuclei constrain their spin content, integrated transversity, and the quark contributions to their electric dipole moments...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
N Du, N Force, R Khatiwada, E Lentz, R Ottens, L J Rosenberg, G Rybka, G Carosi, N Woollett, D Bowring, A S Chou, A Sonnenschein, W Wester, C Boutan, N S Oblath, R Bradley, E J Daw, A V Dixit, J Clarke, S R O'Kelley, N Crisosto, J R Gleason, S Jois, P Sikivie, I Stern, N S Sullivan, D B Tanner, G C Hilton
This Letter reports the results from a haloscope search for dark matter axions with masses between 2.66 and 2.81  μeV. The search excludes the range of axion-photon couplings predicted by plausible models of the invisible axion. This unprecedented sensitivity is achieved by operating a large-volume haloscope at subkelvin temperatures, thereby reducing thermal noise as well as the excess noise from the ultralow-noise superconducting quantum interference device amplifier used for the signal power readout...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Marianna S Safronova, Sergey G Porsev, Christian Sanner, Jun Ye
We propose a new frequency standard based on a 4f^{14}6s6p ^{3}P_{0}-4f^{13}6s^{2}5d (J=2) transition in neutral Yb. This transition has a potential for high stability and accuracy and the advantage of the highest sensitivity among atomic clocks to variation of the fine-structure constant α. We find its dimensionless α-variation enhancement factor to be K=-15, in comparison to the most sensitive current clock (Yb^{+}  E3, K=-6), and it is 18 times larger than in any neutral-atomic clocks (Hg, K=0.8)...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Siegfried Aigner, Klaus Herburger, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten
Many alpine streams inhabit conspicuous epilithic biofilms on pebbles and rocks that are formed by members of the cyanobacterial genus Chamaesiphon (Synechococcales). In the Austrian Alps, some Chamaesiphon species can even overgrow up to 70% of the surface of river rocks, and hence they must play an important but still unstudied ecological role in the organic matter flux. Since photo-biological traits have not been investigated so far, photosynthetic features, pigments, and UV-sunscreen compounds were studied in three Chamaesiphon morphospecies ( C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Randy J Nelson, Souhad Chbeir
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations...
May 11, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Lisa Randall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
(no author information available yet)
Large experimental programmes in the fields of nuclear and particle physics search for evidence of physics beyond that explained by current theories. The observation of the Higgs boson completed the set of particles predicted by the standard model, which currently provides the best description of fundamental particles and forces. However, this theory's limitations include a failure to predict fundamental parameters, such as the mass of the Higgs boson, and the inability to account for dark matter and energy, gravity, and the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, among other phenomena...
May 2018: Nature
Azhar I Carim, Kathryn R Hamann, Nicolas A Batara, Jonathan R Thompson, Harry A Atwater, Nathan S Lewis
Highly periodic, geometrically directed, anisotropic Se-Pb films have been synthesized at room temperature from an isotropic aqueous solution without the use of physical templates, by photoelectrodeposition using a series of discrete input illumination polarizations and wavelengths from an unstructured, uncorrelated, incoherent light source. Dark growth did not generate deposits with substantial long-range order, but growth using unpolarized illumination resulted in an ordered, nanoscale, mesh-type morphology...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaoyan Jing, Honglei Gou, Yanhai Gong, Xiaolu Su, La Xu, Yuetong Ji, Yizhi Song, Ian P Thompson, Jian Xu, Wei E Huang
It is of great significance to understand CO2 fixation in the oceans. Using single cell Raman spectra (SCRS) as biochemical profiles, Raman activated cell ejection (RACE) was able to link phenotypes and genotypes of cells. Here we show that mini-metagenomic sequences from RACE can be used as a reference to reconstruct nearly complete genomes of key functional bacteria by binning shotgun metagenomic sequencing data. By applying this approach to 13 C-bicarbonate spiked seawater from euphotic zone of the Yellow Sea of China, the dominant bacteria Synechococcus spp...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Jack W Heal, Gail J Bartlett, Christopher W Wood, Andrew R Thomson, Derek N Woolfson
Motivation: To understand protein structure, folding and function fully and to design proteins de novo reliably, we must learn from natural protein structures that have been characterised experimentally. The number of protein structures available is large and growing exponentially, which makes this task challenging. Indeed, computational resources are becoming increasingly important for classifying and analysing this resource. Here, we use tools from graph theory to define an atlas classification scheme for automatically categorising certain protein substructures...
May 2, 2018: Bioinformatics
Michael Goodfellow, Imen Nouioui, Roy Sanderson, Feiyang Xie, Alan T Bull
An "in house" taxonomic approach to drug discovery led to the isolation of diverse actinobacteria from hyper-arid, extreme hyper-arid and very high altitude Atacama Desert soils. A high proportion of the isolates were assigned to novel taxa, with many showing activity in standard antimicrobial plug assays. The application of more advanced taxonomic and screening strategies showed that strains classified as novel species of Lentzea and Streptomyces synthesised new specialised metabolites thereby underpinning the premise that the extreme abiotic conditions in the Atacama Desert favour the development of a unique actinobacterial diversity which is the basis of novel chemistry...
May 2, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mariam Bouhmadi-López, Ahmed Errahmani, Taoufik Ouali, Yaser Tavakoli
The background cosmological dynamics of the late Universe is analysed on the framework of a dark energy model described by an holographic Ricci dark energy component. Several kind of interactions between the dark energy and the dark matter components are considered herein. We solve the background cosmological dynamics for the different choices of interactions with the aim to analyse not only the current evolution of the universe but also its asymptotic behaviour and, in particular, possible future singularities removal...
2018: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Stefano Campanaro, Laura Treu, Panagiotis G Kougias, Gang Luo, Irini Angelidaki
The aim of this work was to elucidate the microbial ecology in twelve mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale biogas plants using a genome-centric metagenomic approach. In this study both biogas plants treating manure and those treating sludge from waste water treatment plants were considered. The identification of 132 Metagenome-Assembled Genomes (MAGs) and analysis of their abundance profile in different samples allowed the identification of the most abundant core members of the anaerobic digestion microbiome...
April 20, 2018: Water Research
J-M Tillema, S D Weigand, M Dayan, Y Shu, O H Kantarci, C F Lucchinetti, J D Port
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 2010 McDonald criteria are designed to sensitively detect MS; however, the low specificity of these criteria can occasionally lead to the misdiagnosis of MS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a novel double inversion recovery MR imaging technique has the potential to increase the specificity of diagnostic criteria distinguishing MS from non-MS white matter lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study...
April 26, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Subhas J Chakravorty, James Chan, Marie Nicole Greenwood, Ioana Popa-Burke, Katja S Remlinger, Stephen D Pickett, Darren V S Green, Martin C Fillmore, Tony W Dean, Juan I Luengo, Ricardo Macarrón
High-throughput screening (HTS) hits include compounds with undesirable properties. Many filters have been described to identify such hits. Notably, pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) has been adopted by the community as the standard term to refer to such filters, and very useful guidelines have been adopted by the American Chemical Society (ACS) and subsequently triggered a healthy scientific debate about the pitfalls of draconian use of filters. Using an inhibitory frequency index, we have analyzed in detail the promiscuity profile of the whole GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) HTS collection comprising more than 2 million unique compounds that have been tested in hundreds of screening assays...
April 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
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