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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106460/fermi-large-area-telescope-as-a-galactic-supernovae-axionscope
#1
M Meyer, M Giannotti, A Mirizzi, J Conrad, M A Sánchez-Conde
In a Galactic core-collapse supernova (SN), axionlike particles (ALPs) could be emitted via the Primakoff process and eventually convert into γ rays in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. From a data-driven sensitivity estimate, we find that, for a SN exploding in our Galaxy, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) would be able to explore the photon-ALP coupling down to g_{aγ}≃2×10^{-13}  GeV^{-1} for an ALP mass m_{a}≲10^{-9}  eV. These values are out of reach of next generation laboratory experiments...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106454/search-for-invisible-decays-of-sub-gev-dark-photons-in-missing-energy-events-at-the-cern-sps
#2
D Banerjee, V Burtsev, D Cooke, P Crivelli, E Depero, A V Dermenev, S V Donskov, F Dubinin, R R Dusaev, S Emmenegger, A Fabich, V N Frolov, A Gardikiotis, S N Gninenko, M Hösgen, V A Kachanov, A E Karneyeu, B Ketzer, D V Kirpichnikov, M M Kirsanov, S G Kovalenko, V A Kramarenko, L V Kravchuk, N V Krasnikov, S V Kuleshov, V E Lyubovitskij, V Lysan, V A Matveev, Yu V Mikhailov, V V Myalkovskiy, V D Peshekhonov, D V Peshekhonov, O Petuhov, V A Polyakov, B Radics, A Rubbia, V D Samoylenko, V O Tikhomirov, D A Tlisov, A N Toropin, A Yu Trifonov, B Vasilishin, G Vasquez Arenas, P Ulloa, K Zhukov, K Zioutas
We report on a direct search for sub-GeV dark photons (A^{'}), which might be produced in the reaction e^{-}Z→e^{-}ZA^{'} via kinetic mixing with photons by 100 GeV electrons incident on an active target in the NA64 experiment at the CERN SPS. The dark photons would decay invisibly into dark matter particles resulting in events with large missing energy. No evidence for such decays was found with 2.75×10^{9} electrons on target. We set new limits on the γ-A^{'} mixing strength and exclude the invisible A^{'} with a mass ≲100  MeV as an explanation of the muon g_{μ}-2 anomaly...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106446/exacerbating-the-cosmological-constant-problem-with-interacting-dark-energy-models
#3
M C David Marsh
Future cosmological surveys will probe the expansion history of the Universe and constrain phenomenological models of dark energy. Such models do not address the fine-tuning problem of the vacuum energy, i.e., the cosmological constant problem (CCP), but can make it spectacularly worse. We show that this is the case for "interacting dark energy" models in which the masses of the dark matter states depend on the dark energy sector. If realized in nature, these models have far-reaching implications for proposed solutions to the CCP that require the number of vacua to exceed the fine-tuning of the vacuum energy density...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106438/relativistic-axions-from-collapsing-bose-stars
#4
D G Levkov, A G Panin, I I Tkachev
The substructures of light bosonic (axionlike) dark matter may condense into compact Bose stars. We study the collapse of critical-mass stars caused by attractive self-interaction of the axionlike particles and find that these processes proceed in an unexpected universal way. First, nonlinear self-similar evolution (called "wave collapse" in condensed matter physics) forces the particles to fall into the star center. Second, interactions in the dense center create an outgoing stream of mildly relativistic particles which carries away an essential part of the star mass...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093751/the-emergence-of-the-ecological-mind-in-hua-yen-kegon-buddhism-and-jungian-psychology
#5
Joe Cambray
The complexity associated with deep interconnectedness in nature is beginning to be articulated and elaborated in the field of ecological studies. While some parallels to the psyche have been made and the field of Eco-psychology has been developing, Jung's explicit contribution by way of the image of rhizomes has not been considered in detail. Philosopher Gilles Deleuze acknowledges borrowing the term from Jung, though he disagreed with Jung's Empedoclean use of the term. The paper presents some fundamental properties of rhizomes along with contemporary scientific research on mycorrhizal (fungal) networks...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092812/%C3%AE-14-co2-from-dark-respiration-in-plants-and-its-impact-on-the-estimation-of-atmospheric-fossil-fuel-co2
#6
Xiaohu Xiong, Weijian Zhou, Peng Cheng, Shugang Wu, Zhenchuan Niu, Hua Du, Xuefeng Lu, Yunchong Fu, George S Burr
Radiocarbon ((14)C) has been widely used for quantification of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere and for ecosystem source partitioning studies. The strength of the technique lies in the intrinsic differences between the (14)C signature of fossil fuels and other sources. In past studies, the (14)C content of CO2 derived from plants has been equated with the (14)C content of the atmosphere. Carbon isotopic fractionation mechanisms vary among plants however, and experimental study on fractionation associated with dark respiration is lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089614/dark-septate-endophyte-decreases-stress-on-rice-plants
#7
Silvana Gomes Dos Santos, Paula Renata Alves da Silva, Andres Calderin Garcia, Jerri Édson Zilli, Ricardo Luis Louro Berbara
Abiotic stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant development and productivity, which makes it important to identify microorganisms capable of increasing plant tolerance to stress. Dark septate endophytes can be symbionts of plants. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of dark septate endophytes isolates to reduce the effects of water stress in the rice varieties Nipponbare and Piauí. The experiments were performed under gnotobiotic conditions, and the water stress was induced with PEG...
December 27, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070216/metabolism-in-anoxic-permeable-sediments-is-dominated-by-eukaryotic-dark-fermentation
#8
Michael F Bourke, Philip J Marriott, Ronnie N Glud, Harald Hasler-Sheetal, Manoj Kamalanathan, John Beardall, Chris Greening, Perran L M Cook
Permeable sediments are common across continental shelves and are critical contributors to marine biogeochemical cycling. Organic matter in permeable sediments is dominated by microalgae, which as eukaryotes have different anaerobic metabolic pathways to prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea. Here we present analyses of flow-through reactor experiments showing that dissolved inorganic carbon is produced predominantly as a result of anaerobic eukaryotic metabolic activity. In our experiments, anaerobic production of dissolved inorganic carbon was consistently accompanied by large dissolved H2 production rates, suggesting the presence of fermentation...
January 2017: Nature Geoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061427/municipal-waste-liquor-treatment-via-bioelectrochemical-and-fermentation-h2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ch4-processes-assessment-of-various-technological-sequences
#9
Tamás Rózsenberszki, László Koók, Péter Bakonyi, Nándor Nemestóthy, Washington Logroño, Mario Pérez, Gladys Urquizo, Celso Recalde, Róbert Kurdi, Attila Sarkady
In this paper, the anaerobic treatment of a high organic-strength wastewater-type feedstock, referred as the liquid fraction of pressed municipal solid waste (LPW) was studied for energy recovery and organic matter removal. The processes investigated were (i) dark fermentation to produce biohydrogen, (ii) anaerobic digestion for biogas formation and (iii) microbial fuel cells for electrical energy generation. To find a feasible alternative for LPW treatment (meeting the two-fold aims given above), various one- as well as multi-stage processes were tested...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059542/sensitivity-of-atom-interferometry-to-ultralight-scalar-field-dark-matter
#10
Andrew A Geraci, Andrei Derevianko
We discuss the use of atom interferometry as a tool to search for dark matter (DM) composed of virialized ultralight fields (VULFs). Previous work on VULF DM detection using accelerometers has considered the possibility of equivalence-principle-violating effects whereby gradients in the dark matter field can directly produce relative accelerations between media of differing composition. In atom interferometers, we find that time-varying phase signals induced by coherent oscillations of DM fields can also arise due to changes in the atom rest mass that can occur between light pulses throughout the interferometer sequence as well as changes in Earth's gravitational field...
December 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054627/china-s-ivory-ban-spine-disease-drug-and-dark-matter-pioneer-dies
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049838/insights-into-the-lifestyle-of-uncultured-bacterial-natural-product-factories-associated-with-marine-sponges
#12
Gerald Lackner, Eike Edzard Peters, Eric J N Helfrich, Jörn Piel
The as-yet uncultured filamentous bacteria "Candidatus Entotheonella factor" and "Candidatus Entotheonella gemina" live associated with the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei Y, the source of numerous unusual bioactive natural products. Belonging to the proposed candidate phylum "Tectomicrobia," Candidatus Entotheonella members are only distantly related to any cultivated organism. The Ca E. factor has been identified as the source of almost all polyketide and modified peptides families reported from the sponge host, and both Ca Entotheonella phylotypes contain numerous additional genes for as-yet unknown metabolites...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045047/lasing-in-dark-and-bright-modes-of-a-finite-sized-plasmonic-lattice
#13
T K Hakala, H T Rekola, A I Väkeväinen, J-P Martikainen, M Nečada, A J Moilanen, P Törmä
Lasing at the nanometre scale promises strong light-matter interactions and ultrafast operation. Plasmonic resonances supported by metallic nanoparticles have extremely small mode volumes and high field enhancements, making them an ideal platform for studying nanoscale lasing. At visible frequencies, however, the applicability of plasmon resonances is limited due to strong ohmic and radiative losses. Intriguingly, plasmonic nanoparticle arrays support non-radiative dark modes that offer longer life-times but are inaccessible to far-field radiation...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030870/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-periventricular-leukomalacia-in-very-young-children-assessment-of-peritrigonal-stripe-of-restricted-diffusion
#14
Ping-Sheng Lu, Cheng-Hong Toh, Chih-Hua Yeh, Huei-Shyong Wang, Kuang-Lin Lin, Alex Mun-Ching Wong
Purpose In periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) reduction, normally shown as dark stripe in the peritrigonal (PT) white matter, may be incomplete. We assessed the PT dark stripe to differentiate between PVL patients and control subjects. Patients and Methods We reviewed the magnetic resonance studies of 27 neonates and young children with PVL and 67 control subjects to assess the PT dark stripe on ADC maps. In PVL patients, the assessment was referred to the location of PVL lesion on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging...
December 28, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028549/ssunique-detecting-sequence-novelty-in-microbiome-surveys
#15
Michael D J Lynch, Josh D Neufeld
High-throughput sequencing of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes has revolutionized understanding of microbial communities and facilitated investigations into ecological dynamics at unprecedented scales. Such extensive SSU rRNA gene sequence libraries, constructed from DNA extracts of environmental or host-associated samples, often contain a substantial proportion of unclassified sequences, many representing organisms with novel taxonomy (taxonomic "blind spots") and potentially unique ecology. Indeed, these novel taxonomic lineages are associated with so-called microbial "dark matter," which is the genomic potential of these lineages...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026100/uptake-release-dynamics-of-the-inorganic-and-organic-carbon-pool-mediated-by-planktonic-prokaryotes-in-the-deep-mediterranean-sea
#16
Mauro Celussi, Francesca Malfatti, Patrizia Ziveri, Michele Giani, Paola Del Negro
Understanding the ecosystem functioning in the dark portion of the ocean is a challenge that microbial ecologists are still facing. Due to the large volume of the global deep Ocean, it plays a central role in the regulation of climate, possibly buffering the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide if processes of CO2 fixation compensate for respiration. We investigated the rates of several prokaryotic activities (dissolved and particulate primary production, heterotrophic carbon production and respiration) in meso- and bathypelagic waters of the Mediterranean Sea, covering all sub-basins...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009895/three-dimensional-cavity-nanoantennas-with-resonant-enhanced-surface-plasmons-as-dynamic-color-tuning-reflectors
#17
J R Fan, W G Wu, Z J Chen, J Zhu, J Li
As plasmonic antennas for surface-plasmon-assisted control of optical fields at specific frequencies, metallic nanostructures have recently emerged as crucial optical components for fascinating plasmonic color engineering. Particularly, plasmonic resonant nanocavities can concentrate lightwave energy to strongly enhance light-matter interactions, making them ideal candidates as optical elements for fine-tuning color displays. Inspired by the color mixing effect found on butterfly wings, a new type of plasmonic, multiresonant, narrow-band (the minimum is about 45 nm), high-reflectance (the maximum is about 95%), and dynamic color-tuning reflector is developed...
December 22, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988500/non-coding-rnas-the-cancer-genome-dark-matter-that-matters
#18
Hui Ling, Leonard Girnita, Octavian Buda, George A Calin
Protein-coding genes comprise only 3% of the human genome, while the genes that are transcribed into RNAs but do not code for proteins occupy majority of the genome. Once considered as biological darker matter, non-coding RNAs are now being recognized as critical regulators in cancer genome. Among the many types of non-coding RNAs, microRNAs approximately 20 nucleotides in length are best characterized and their mechanisms of action are well generalized. microRNA exerts oncogenic or tumor suppressor function by regulation of protein-coding genes via sequence complementarity...
December 19, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987238/enrichment-of-deleterious-variants-of-mitochondrial-dna-polymerase-gene-polg1-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
Takaoki Kasahara, Mizuho Ishiwata, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Satoshi Fuke, Nakao Iwata, Norio Ozaki, Hiroshi Kunugi, Yoshio Minabe, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Yasuhide Iwata, Kumiko Fujii, Shigenobu Kanba, Hiroshi Ujike, Ichiro Kusumi, Muneko Kataoka, Nana Matoba, Atsushi Takata, Kazuya Iwamoto, Takeo Yoshikawa, Tadafumi Kato
AIMS: Rare missense variants, which likely account for a substantial portion of the genetic 'dark matter' for a common complex disease, are challenging because the impact of variants on disease development are difficult to substantiate. This study aimed to examine the impacts of amino acid substitution variants in the POLG1 found in bipolar disorder, as an example and proof of concept, in three different modalities of assessment: in-silico predictions, in-vitro biochemical assays, and clinical evaluation...
December 17, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983674/current-and-future-perspectives-on-the-structural-identification-of-small-molecules-in-biological-systems
#20
REVIEW
Daniel A Dias, Oliver A H Jones, David J Beale, Berin A Boughton, Devin Benheim, Konstantinos A Kouremenos, Jean-Luc Wolfender, David S Wishart
Although significant advances have been made in recent years, the structural elucidation of small molecules continues to remain a challenging issue for metabolite profiling. Many metabolomic studies feature unknown compounds; sometimes even in the list of features identified as "statistically significant" in the study. Such metabolic "dark matter" means that much of the potential information collected by metabolomics studies is lost. Accurate structure elucidation allows researchers to identify these compounds...
December 15, 2016: Metabolites
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