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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727549/learning-and-inferring-dark-matter-and-predicting-human-intents-and-trajectories-in-videos
#1
Dan Xie, Tianmin Shu, Sinisa Todorovic, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents a method for localizing functional objects and predicting human intents and trajectories in surveillance videos of public spaces, under no supervision in training. People in public spaces are expected to intentionally take shortest paths (subject to obstacles) toward certain objects (e.g. vending machine, picnic table, dumpster etc.) where they can satisfy certain needs (e.g., quench thirst). Since these objects are typically very small or heavily occluded, they cannot be inferred by their visual appearance but indirectly by their influence on people's trajectories...
July 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727425/the-database-and-bioinformatics-studies-of-probiotics
#2
Lin Tao, Bohua Wang, Yafen Zhong, Siok Hoon Pow, Xian Zeng, Chu Qin, Peng Zhang, Shangying Chen, Weidong He, Ying Tan, Hongxia Liu, Yuyang Jiang, Weiping Chen, Yu Zong Chen
Probiotics have been widely explored for health benefits, animal cares, and agricultural applications. Recent advances in microbiome, microbiota and microbial dark matter research have fueled greater interests in and paved ways for the study of the mechanisms of probiotics and the discovery of new probiotics from uncharacterized microbial sources. A probiotics database named PROBIO was developed to facilitate these efforts and the need for the information of the known probiotics, which provides the comprehensive information about the probiotic functions of 448 marketed, 167 clinical trial/field trial and 382 research probiotics for use or being studied for use in humans, animals, and plants...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720832/deep-ocean-dissolved-organic-matter-reactivity-along-the-mediterranean-sea-does-size-matter
#3
Alba María Martínez-Pérez, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Mar Nieto-Cid
Despite of the major role ascribed to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the global carbon cycle, the reactivity of this pool in the dark ocean is still poorly understood. Present hypotheses, posed within the size-reactivity continuum (SRC) and the microbial carbon pump (MCP) conceptual frameworks, need further empirical support. Here, we provide field evidence of the soundness of the SRC model. We sampled the high salinity core-of-flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water along its westward route through the entire Mediterranean Sea...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716281/-black-butterfly-sign-on-t2-weighted-and-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-a-novel-finding-of-chronic-venous-congestion-of-the-brain-stem-and-spinal-cord-associated-with-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#4
Mikako Enokizono, Noriko Sato, Minoru Morikawa, Yukio Kimura, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Tomoko Maekawa, Daichi Sone, Daiki Takewaki, Tomoko Okamoto, Yuji Takahashi, Nobutaka Horie, Takayuki Matsuo
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with spinal perimedullary venous drainage can cause progressive myelopathy, and it is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as another spinal cord disease. Here we report the cases of three individuals with a DAVF (one craniocervical junction DAVF and two tentorial DAVFs) with progressive myelopathy showing unique magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. MR T2*WI or susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated symmetrical dark signal intensity lesions predominantly in the dorsal aspect of medulla and the central gray matter of cervical spinal cord that showed the "black butterfly" silhouette...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709991/drugs-as-habitable-planets-in-the-space-of-dark-chemical-matter
#5
Vishal B Siramshetty, Robert Preissner
A recent study demonstrated antifungal activity of dark chemical matter (DCM) compounds that were otherwise inactive in more than 100 HTS assays. These compounds were proposed to possess unique activity and 'clean' safety profiles. Here, we present an outlook of the promiscuity and safety of these compounds by retrospectively comparing their chemical and biological spaces with those of drugs. Significant amounts of marketed drugs (16%), withdrawn drugs (16.5%) and natural compounds (3.5%) share structural identity with DCM...
July 11, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707940/ultralight-dark-matter-resonates-with-binary-pulsars
#6
Diego Blas, Diana López Nacir, Sergey Sibiryakov
We consider the scenario where dark matter (DM) is represented by an ultralight classical scalar field performing coherent periodic oscillations. We point out that such DM perturbs the dynamics of binary systems either through its gravitational field or via direct coupling to ordinary matter. This perturbation gets resonantly amplified if the frequency of DM oscillations is close to a (half-)integer multiple of the orbital frequency of the system and leads to a secular variation of the orbital period. We suggest using binary pulsars as probes of this scenario and estimate their sensitivity...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707899/experimental-and-dft-computational-insight-into-nitrosamine-photochemistry-oxygen-matters
#7
Ashwini A Ghogare, Ciro J Debaz, Marilene Silva Oliveira, Inna Abramova, Prabhu P Mohapatra, Kitae Kwon, Edyta M Greer, Fernanda Manso Prado, Hellen Paula Valerio, Paolo Di Mascio, Alexander Greer
A nitrosamine photooxidation reaction is shown to generate a peroxy intermediate by experimental physical-organic methods. The irradiation of phenyl and methyl-substituted nitrosamines in the presence of isotopically labeled 18-oxygen revealed an O atom was trapped from a peroxy intermediate to trimethylphosphite or triphenylphosphine, or by nitrosamine itself, forming two moles of nitramine. The unstable peroxy intermediate can be trapped at low temperature in post-photolyzed solution in the dark. Chemiluminescence is also observed upon thermal decomposition of the peroxy intermediate, i...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701247/the-effect-of-dietary-addition-of-nitrate-or-increase-in-lipid-concentrations-alone-or-in-combination-on-performance-and-methane-emissions-of-beef-cattle
#8
C-A Duthie, S M Troy, J J Hyslop, D W Ross, R Roehe, J A Rooke
Adding nitrate to or increasing the concentration of lipid in the diet are established strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions, but their effectiveness when used in combination has been largely unexplored. This study investigated the effect of dietary nitrate and increased lipid included alone or together on CH4 emissions and performance traits of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a 2×4 factorial design comprising two breeds (cross-bred Aberdeen Angus (AAx) and cross-bred Limousin (LIMx) steers) and four dietary treatments (each based on 550 g forage : 450 g concentrate/kg dry matter (DM))...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696757/selection-rule-for-enhanced-dark-matter-annihilation
#9
Anirban Das, Basudeb Dasgupta
We point out a selection rule for enhancement (suppression) of odd (even) partial waves of dark matter coannihilation or annihilation using the Sommerfeld effect. Using this, the usually velocity-suppressed p-wave annihilation can dominate the annihilation signals in the present Universe. The selection mechanism is a manifestation of the exchange symmetry of identical incoming particles, and generic for multistate DM with off-diagonal long-range interactions. As a consequence, the relic and late-time annihilation rates are parametrically different and a distinctive phenomenology, with large but strongly velocity-dependent annihilation rates, is predicted...
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696731/dark-matter-search-results-from-the-pico-60%C3%A2-c_-3-f_-8-bubble-chamber
#10
C Amole, M Ardid, I J Arnquist, D M Asner, D Baxter, E Behnke, P Bhattacharjee, H Borsodi, M Bou-Cabo, P Campion, G Cao, C J Chen, U Chowdhury, K Clark, J I Collar, P S Cooper, M Crisler, G Crowder, C E Dahl, M Das, S Fallows, J Farine, I Felis, R Filgas, F Girard, G Giroux, J Hall, O Harris, E W Hoppe, M Jin, C B Krauss, M Laurin, I Lawson, A Leblanc, I Levine, W H Lippincott, F Mamedov, D Maurya, P Mitra, T Nania, R Neilson, A J Noble, S Olson, A Ortega, A Plante, R Podviyanuk, S Priya, A E Robinson, A Roeder, R Rucinski, O Scallon, S Seth, A Sonnenschein, N Starinski, I Štekl, F Tardif, E Vázquez-Jáuregui, J Wells, U Wichoski, Y Yan, V Zacek, J Zhang
New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C_{3}F_{8} located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C_{3}F_{8} exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than one event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background...
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678351/how-simple-could-life-be
#11
REVIEW
Petra Schwille
Will we be ever able to produce living matter artificially? Despite our increasingly precise understanding of the details of life, its fundamental principles still lie in the dark. Armed with today's technology and knowledge about living systems, it is high time for us to re-address this persistent challenge in understanding nature. Graphics: Monika Krause, MPIB.
July 5, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672249/application-of-a-microalgal-slurry-to-soil-stimulates-heterotrophic-activity-and-promotes-bacterial-growth
#12
Evan A N Marks, Jorge Miñón, Ana Pascual, Olimpio Montero, Luis Manuel Navas, Carlos Rad
Active microalgae biomass from wastewater treatment may be given added value as a biofertilizer, but little is known about how this may affect soil nutrient dynamics and biology. If the goal is to recycle waste nutrients and matter, live algae applied in a liquid slurry to soil may add both organic carbon and nutrients while providing other benefits such as biological carbon fixation. However, the potential persistence of unicellular green algae after such an application is not known, nor the influence of their photosynthetic activity on soil organic carbon - the aim of the present study was to probe these basic questions...
June 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665632/searching-for-primordial-black-holes-in-the-radio-and-x-ray-sky
#13
Daniele Gaggero, Gianfranco Bertone, Francesca Calore, Riley M T Connors, Mark Lovell, Sera Markoff, Emma Storm
We model the accretion of gas onto a population of massive primordial black holes in the Milky Way and compare the predicted radio and x-ray emission with observational data. We show that, under conservative assumptions on the accretion process, the possibility that O(10)M_{⊙} primordial black holes can account for all of the dark matter in the Milky Way is excluded at 5σ by a comparison with a Very Large Array radio catalog at 1.4 GHz and at ≃40σ by a comparison with a Chandra x-ray catalog (0.5-8 keV)...
June 16, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659348/non-coding-regulatory-variations-the-dark-matter-of-pancreatic-cancer-genomics
#14
EDITORIAL
Aldo Scarpa, Andrea Mafficini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650442/magnetic-brightening-and-control-of-dark-excitons-in-monolayer-wse2
#15
Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Ting Cao, Zhengguang Lu, Yu-Chuan Lin, Fan Zhang, Ying Wang, Zhiqiang Li, James C Hone, Joshua A Robinson, Dmitry Smirnov, Steven G Louie, Tony F Heinz
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide crystals, as direct-gap materials with strong light-matter interactions, have attracted much recent attention. Because of their spin-polarized valence bands and a predicted spin splitting at the conduction band edges, the lowest-lying excitons in WX2 (X = S, Se) are expected to be spin-forbidden and optically dark. To date, however, there has been no direct experimental probe of these dark excitons. Here, we show how an in-plane magnetic field can brighten the dark excitons in monolayer WSe2 and permit their properties to be observed experimentally...
June 26, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647088/deorphanization-strategies-for-dark-chemical-matter
#16
REVIEW
Anne Mai Wassermann, Matthew Tudor, Meir Glick
The term dark chemical matter (DCM) was recently introduced for those molecules in a screening collection that have never shown any substantial biological activity despite having been tested in hundreds of high-throughput assays. It was suggested that, if hits emerge from this compound pool in future screening campaigns, they should be prioritized due to their exquisite selectivity profile. In this article we define DCM at our company and describe on-going efforts to shed light on the bioactivity of these apparently silent compounds, with an emphasis on multi-parametric profiling methods...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646918/diurnal-cycling-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-is-associated-with-shifts-in-carbon-metabolism
#17
Christopher Staley, Abigail P Ferrieri, Malak M Tfaily, Yaya Cui, Rosalie K Chu, Ping Wang, Jared B Shaw, Charles K Ansong, Heather Brewer, Angela D Norbeck, Meng Markillie, Fernanda do Amaral, Thalita Tuleski, Tomás Pellizzaro, Beverly Agtuca, Richard Ferrieri, Susannah G Tringe, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Michael J Sadowsky
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock regulates plant metabolic functions and is an important component in plant health and productivity. Rhizosphere bacteria play critical roles in plant growth, health, and development and are shaped primarily by soil communities. Using Illumina next-generation sequencing and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we characterized bacterial communities of wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis thaliana and an acyclic line (OX34) ectopically expressing the circadian clock-associated cca1 transcription factor, relative to a soil control, to determine how cycling dynamics affected the microbial community...
June 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644643/first-demonstration-of-a-scintillating-xenon-bubble-chamber-for-detecting-dark-matter-and-coherent-elastic-neutrino-nucleus-scattering
#18
D Baxter, C J Chen, M Crisler, T Cwiok, C E Dahl, A Grimsted, J Gupta, M Jin, R Puig, D Temples, J Zhang
A 30-g xenon bubble chamber, operated at Northwestern University in June and November 2016, has for the first time observed simultaneous bubble nucleation and scintillation by nuclear recoils in a superheated liquid. This chamber is instrumented with a CCD camera for near-IR bubble imaging, a solar-blind photomultiplier tube to detect 175-nm xenon scintillation light, and a piezoelectric acoustic transducer to detect the ultrasonic emission from a growing bubble. The time of nucleation determined from the acoustic signal is used to correlate specific scintillation pulses with bubble-nucleating events...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644444/energy-and-carbon-metabolisms-in-a-deep-terrestrial-subsurface-fluid-microbial-community
#19
Lily Momper, Sean P Jungbluth, Michael D Lee, Jan P Amend
The terrestrial deep subsurface is a huge repository of microbial biomass, but in relation to its size and physical heterogeneity, few sites have been investigated in detail. Here, we applied a culture-independent metagenomic approach to characterize the microbial community composition in deep (1500 meters below surface) terrestrial fluids. Samples were collected from a former gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA, now Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). We reconstructed 74 genomes from metagenomes (MAGs), enabling the identification of common metabolic pathways...
June 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640271/a-massive-dead-disk-galaxy-in-the-early-universe
#20
Sune Toft, Johannes Zabl, Johan Richard, Anna Gallazzi, Stefano Zibetti, Moire Prescott, Claudio Grillo, Allison W S Man, Nicholas Y Lee, Carlos Gómez-Guijarro, Mikkel Stockmann, Georgios Magdis, Charles L Steinhardt
At redshift z = 2, when the Universe was just three billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies were extremely compact and had already exhausted their fuel for star formation. It is believed that they were formed in intense nuclear starbursts and that they ultimately grew into the most massive local elliptical galaxies seen today, through mergers with minor companions, but validating this picture requires higher-resolution observations of their centres than is currently possible. Magnification from gravitational lensing offers an opportunity to resolve the inner regions of galaxies...
June 21, 2017: Nature
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