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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796840/yes-research-matters
#1
Mari L Shinohara
My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99%) have been infected with H...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782358/iron-redox-transformations-in-the-presence-of-natural-organic-matter-effect-of-calcium
#2
Chao Jiang, Shikha Garg, T David Waite
The effects of calcium on iron redox transformations in acidic non-irradiated and irradiated Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) solutions are investigated in this study. Our results reveal that, even though calcium is redox-inert, it affects the redox transformations of iron with increased Fe(III) reduction rates under irradiated conditions and decreased Fe(II) oxidation rates in the dark in the presence compared to the absence of calcium. While the exact mechanism via which the Fe(III) reduction rate under irradiated conditions is impacted by calcium addition is not clear, the formation of more photo-labile weakly complexed Fe(III)SRFA is most consistent with our experimental results...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777598/primordial-black-holes-from-supersymmetry-in-the-early-universe
#3
Eric Cotner, Alexander Kusenko
Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into Q balls before decaying. If the Q balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). Other scalar fields, unrelated to supersymmetry, can play a similar role. For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over the entire mass range allowed by observational constraints, with a sufficient abundance to account for all dark matter in some parameter ranges...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777592/first-constraints-on-fuzzy-dark-matter-from-lyman-%C3%AE-forest-data-and-hydrodynamical-simulations
#4
Vid Iršič, Matteo Viel, Martin G Haehnelt, James S Bolton, George D Becker
We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter (FDM) from Lyman-α forest data. Extremely light bosons with a de Broglie wavelength of ∼1  kpc have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold dark matter model. For the first time, we use hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-α flux power spectrum in these models and compare it to the observed flux power spectrum from two different data sets: the XQ-100 and HIRES/MIKE quasar spectra samples...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753376/searching-for-the-qcd-axion-with-gravitational-microlensing
#5
Malcolm Fairbairn, David J E Marsh, Jérémie Quevillon
The phase transition responsible for axion dark matter (DM) production can create large amplitude isocurvature perturbations, which collapse into dense objects known as axion miniclusters. We use microlensing data from the EROS survey and from recent observations with the Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam to place constraints on the minicluster scenario. We compute the microlensing event rate for miniclusters, treating them as spatially extended objects. Using the published bounds on the number of microlensing events, we bound the fraction of DM collapsed into miniclusters f_{MC}...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753364/novel-cosmic-ray-electron-and-positron-constraints-on-mev-dark-matter-particles
#6
Mathieu Boudaud, Julien Lavalle, Pierre Salati
MeV dark matter (DM) particles annihilating or decaying to electron-positron pairs cannot, in principle, be observed via local cosmic-ray (CR) measurements because of the shielding solar magnetic field. In this Letter, we take advantage of spacecraft Voyager 1's capacity for detecting interstellar CRs since it crossed the heliopause in 2012. This opens up a new avenue to probe DM in the sub-GeV energy/mass range that we exploit here for the first time. From a complete description of the transport of electrons and positrons at low energy, we derive predictions for both the secondary astrophysical background and the pair production mechanisms relevant to DM annihilation or decay down to the MeV mass range...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753350/%C3%AE-ray-constraints-on-decaying-dark-matter-and-implications-for-icecube
#7
Timothy Cohen, Kohta Murase, Nicholas L Rodd, Benjamin R Safdi, Yotam Soreq
Utilizing the Fermi measurement of the γ-ray spectrum toward the Inner Galaxy, we derive some of the strongest constraints to date on the dark matter (DM) lifetime in the mass range from hundreds of MeV to above an EeV. Our profile-likelihood-based analysis relies on 413 weeks of Fermi Pass 8 data from 200 MeV to 2 TeV, along with up-to-date models for diffuse γ-ray emission within the Milky Way. We model Galactic and extragalactic DM decay and include contributions to the DM-induced γ-ray flux resulting from both primary emission and inverse-Compton scattering of primary electrons and positrons...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741730/fermentation-quality-and-nutritive-value-of-total-mixed-ration-silages-based-on-desert-wormwood-artemisia-desertorum-spreng-combining-with-early-stage-corn
#8
Guomei Yin, Chunsheng Bai, Juanjuan Sun, Lin Sun, Yanlin Xue, Yuanyuan Zhang, Heping Zhao, Zhu Yu, Sibo Liu, Kewei Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on desert wormwood (DW) combined with early stage corn (ESC) as forage and determine an optimum formula. Desert wormwood and ESC were harvested, chopped, and mixed with other ingredients according to a formula, packed into laboratory silos at densities of 500-550 g/L, and stored in the dark for 60 days. The DW proportions in the forage of TMR were 1, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0, based on fresh weight...
July 25, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739513/intrauterine-inflammation-induces-sex-specific-effects-on-neuroinflammation-white-matter-and-behavior
#9
Ryan Makinson, Kelsey Lloyd, Aditya Rayasam, Sarah McKee, Amy Brown, Guillermo Barila, Nicola Grissom, Robert George, Matt Marini, Zsuzsanna Fabry, Michal Elovitz, Teresa M Reyes
Exposure to inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring. One common route through which a developing fetus is exposed to inflammation is with intrauterine inflammation. To that end, we utilized an animal model of intrauterine inflammation (IUI; intrauterine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, 50 µg, E15) to assess placental and fetal brain inflammatory responses, white matter integrity, anxiety-related behaviors (elevated zero maze, light dark box, open field), microglial counts, and the CNS cytokine response to an acute injection of LPS in both males and females...
July 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735402/determination-of-total-sulfur-sulfate-sulfite-thiosulfate-and-sulfolipids-in-plants
#10
Assylay Kurmanbayeva, Galina Brychkova, Aizat Bekturova, Inna Khozin, Dominic Standing, Dmitry Yarmolinsky, Moshe Sagi
In response to oxidative stress the biosynthesis of the ROS scavenger, glutathione is induced. This requires the induction of the sulfate reduction pathway for an adequate supply of cysteine, the precursor for glutathione. Cysteine also acts as the sulfur donor for the sulfuration of the molybdenum cofactor, crucial for the last step of ABA biosynthesis. Sulfate and sulfite are, respectively, the precursor and intermediate for cysteine biosynthesis and there is evidence for stress-induced sulfate uptake and further downstream, enhanced sulfite generation by 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (APR, EC 1...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733590/hypersaline-sapropels-act-as-hotspots-for-microbial-dark-matter
#11
Adrian-Ştefan Andrei, Andreea Baricz, Michael Scott Robeson, Manuela Raluca Păuşan, Tudor Tămaş, Cecilia Chiriac, Edina Szekeres, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Erika Andrea Levei, Cristian Coman, Mircea Podar, Horia Leonard Banciu
Present-day terrestrial analogue sites are crucial ground truth proxies for studying life in geochemical conditions close to those assumed to be present on early Earth or inferred to exist on other celestial bodies (e.g. Mars, Europa). Although hypersaline sapropels are border-of-life habitats with moderate occurrence, their microbiological and physicochemical characterization lags behind. Here, we study the diversity of life under low water activity by describing the prokaryotic communities from two disparate hypersaline sapropels (Transylvanian Basin, Romania) in relation to geochemical milieu and pore water chemistry, while inferring their role in carbon cycling by matching taxa to known taxon-specific biogeochemical functions...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727549/learning-and-inferring-dark-matter-and-predicting-human-intents-and-trajectories-in-videos
#12
Dan Xie, Tianmin Shu, Sinisa Todorovic, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents a method for localizing functional objects and predicting human intents and trajectories in surveillance videos of public spaces, under no supervision in training. People in public spaces are expected to intentionally take shortest paths (subject to obstacles) toward certain objects (e.g. vending machine, picnic table, dumpster etc.) where they can satisfy certain needs (e.g., quench thirst). Since these objects are typically very small or heavily occluded, they cannot be inferred by their visual appearance but indirectly by their influence on people's trajectories...
July 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727425/the-database-and-bioinformatics-studies-of-probiotics
#13
Lin Tao, Bohua Wang, Yafen Zhong, Siok Hoon Pow, Xian Zeng, Chu Qin, Peng Zhang, Shangying Chen, Weidong He, Ying Tan, Hongxia Liu, Yuyang Jiang, Weiping Chen, Yu Zong Chen
Probiotics have been widely explored for health benefits, animal cares, and agricultural applications. Recent advances in microbiome, microbiota and microbial dark matter research have fueled greater interests in and paved ways for the study of the mechanisms of probiotics and the discovery of new probiotics from uncharacterized microbial sources. A probiotics database named PROBIO was developed to facilitate these efforts and the need for the information of the known probiotics, which provides the comprehensive information about the probiotic functions of 448 marketed, 167 clinical trial/field trial and 382 research probiotics for use or being studied for use in humans, animals, and plants...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720832/deep-ocean-dissolved-organic-matter-reactivity-along-the-mediterranean-sea-does-size-matter
#14
Alba María Martínez-Pérez, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Mar Nieto-Cid
Despite of the major role ascribed to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the global carbon cycle, the reactivity of this pool in the dark ocean is still poorly understood. Present hypotheses, posed within the size-reactivity continuum (SRC) and the microbial carbon pump (MCP) conceptual frameworks, need further empirical support. Here, we provide field evidence of the soundness of the SRC model. We sampled the high salinity core-of-flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water along its westward route through the entire Mediterranean Sea...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716281/-black-butterfly-sign-on-t2-weighted-and-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-a-novel-finding-of-chronic-venous-congestion-of-the-brain-stem-and-spinal-cord-associated-with-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#15
Mikako Enokizono, Noriko Sato, Minoru Morikawa, Yukio Kimura, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Tomoko Maekawa, Daichi Sone, Daiki Takewaki, Tomoko Okamoto, Yuji Takahashi, Nobutaka Horie, Takayuki Matsuo
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with spinal perimedullary venous drainage can cause progressive myelopathy, and it is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as another spinal cord disease. Here we report the cases of three individuals with a DAVF (one craniocervical junction DAVF and two tentorial DAVFs) with progressive myelopathy showing unique magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. MR T2*WI or susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated symmetrical dark signal intensity lesions predominantly in the dorsal aspect of medulla and the central gray matter of cervical spinal cord that showed the "black butterfly" silhouette...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709991/drugs-as-habitable-planets-in-the-space-of-dark-chemical-matter
#16
Vishal B Siramshetty, Robert Preissner
A recent study demonstrated antifungal activity of dark chemical matter (DCM) compounds that were otherwise inactive in more than 100 HTS assays. These compounds were proposed to possess unique activity and 'clean' safety profiles. Here, we present an outlook of the promiscuity and safety of these compounds by retrospectively comparing their chemical and biological spaces with those of drugs. Significant amounts of marketed drugs (16%), withdrawn drugs (16.5%) and natural compounds (3.5%) share structural identity with DCM...
July 11, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707940/ultralight-dark-matter-resonates-with-binary-pulsars
#17
Diego Blas, Diana López Nacir, Sergey Sibiryakov
We consider the scenario where dark matter (DM) is represented by an ultralight classical scalar field performing coherent periodic oscillations. We point out that such DM perturbs the dynamics of binary systems either through its gravitational field or via direct coupling to ordinary matter. This perturbation gets resonantly amplified if the frequency of DM oscillations is close to a (half-)integer multiple of the orbital frequency of the system and leads to a secular variation of the orbital period. We suggest using binary pulsars as probes of this scenario and estimate their sensitivity...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707899/experimental-and-dft-computational-insight-into-nitrosamine-photochemistry-oxygen-matters
#18
Ashwini A Ghogare, Ciro J Debaz, Marilene Silva Oliveira, Inna Abramova, Prabhu P Mohapatra, Kitae Kwon, Edyta M Greer, Fernanda Manso Prado, Hellen Paula Valerio, Paolo Di Mascio, Alexander Greer
A nitrosamine photooxidation reaction is shown to generate a peroxy intermediate by experimental physical-organic methods. The irradiation of phenyl and methyl-substituted nitrosamines in the presence of isotopically labeled 18-oxygen revealed that an O atom was trapped from a peroxy intermediate to trimethylphosphite or triphenylphosphine, or by nitrosamine itself, forming two moles of nitramine. The unstable peroxy intermediate can be trapped at low temperature in postphotolyzed solution in the dark. Chemiluminescence was also observed upon thermal decomposition of the peroxy intermediate, that is, when a postphotolysis low-temperature solution is brought up to room temperature...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703782/understanding-the-role-of-non-coding-rnas-in-bladder-cancer-from-dark-matter-to-valuable-therapeutic-targets
#19
REVIEW
Cecilia Pop-Bica, Diana Gulei, Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric, Cornelia Braicu, Bogdan Petrut, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
The mortality and morbidity that characterize bladder cancer compel this malignancy into the category of hot topics in terms of biomolecular research. Therefore, a better knowledge of the specific molecular mechanisms that underlie the development and progression of bladder cancer is demanded. Tumor heterogeneity among patients with similar diagnosis, as well as intratumor heterogeneity, generates difficulties in terms of targeted therapy. Furthermore, late diagnosis represents an ongoing issue, significantly reducing the response to therapy and, inevitably, the overall survival...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701247/the-effect-of-dietary-addition-of-nitrate-or-increase-in-lipid-concentrations-alone-or-in-combination-on-performance-and-methane-emissions-of-beef-cattle
#20
C-A Duthie, S M Troy, J J Hyslop, D W Ross, R Roehe, J A Rooke
Adding nitrate to or increasing the concentration of lipid in the diet are established strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions, but their effectiveness when used in combination has been largely unexplored. This study investigated the effect of dietary nitrate and increased lipid included alone or together on CH4 emissions and performance traits of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a 2×4 factorial design comprising two breeds (cross-bred Aberdeen Angus (AAx) and cross-bred Limousin (LIMx) steers) and four dietary treatments (each based on 550 g forage : 450 g concentrate/kg dry matter (DM))...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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