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asymmetric cell division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632741/aging-mortality-and-the-fast-growth-trade-off-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#1
Hidenori Nakaoka, Yuichi Wakamoto
Replicative aging has been demonstrated in asymmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, seemingly caused by unequal damage partitioning. Although asymmetric segregation and inheritance of potential aging factors also occur in symmetrically dividing species, it nevertheless remains controversial whether this results in aging. Based on large-scale single-cell lineage data obtained by time-lapse microscopy with a microfluidic device, in this report, we demonstrate the absence of replicative aging in old-pole cell lineages of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cultured under constant favorable conditions...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630123/absence-of-the-polar-organizing-protein-popz-causes-aberrant-cell-division-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#2
Matthew Howell, Alena Aliashkevich, Anne K Salisbury, Felipe Cava, Grant R Bowman, Pamela J B Brown
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped bacterium that grows by polar insertion of new peptidoglycan during cell elongation. As the cell cycle progresses, peptidoglycan synthesis at the pole ceases prior to insertion of new peptidoglycan at mid-cell to enable cell division. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PopZ has been identified as a growth pole marker and a candidate polar growth promoting factor. Here, we characterize the function of PopZ in cell growth and division of A...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624889/transcriptional-control-of-unequal-cleavage-in-early-tubifex-embryos
#3
Momoe Aoki, Takashi Shimizu
Early embryos of the clitellate annelid Tubifex (oligochaete) undergo a series of unequal spiral cell divisions before the descendants of the D quadrant micromeres (cells 2d and 4d) divide bilaterally. Here, we show that inhibition of zygotic transcription by microinjection of α-amanitin (transcription inhibitor) exclusively converts unequal cleavage in cell 2d(11) (granddaughter of 2d) into equal cleavage while other unequal cleavages and ensuing bilateral cleavages in cells 4d and 2d(111) (great-granddaughter of 2d) all proceed in a normal fashion in the presence of this inhibitor...
June 17, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620140/comparison-of-tumor-biology-of-two-distinct-cell-sub-populations-in-lung-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Jianyu Wang, Zhiwei Sun, Yongli Liu, Liangsheng Kong, Shixia Zhou, Junlin Tang, Hongmei Rosie Xing
3Characterization of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain indirect and qualitative, especially the ability of CSCs to undergo asymmetric cell division for self renewal and differentiation, a unique property of cells of stem origin. It is partly due to the lack of stable cellular models of CSCs. In this study, we developed a new approach for CSC isolation and purification to derive a CSC-enriched cell line (LLC-SE). By conducting five consecutive rounds of single cell cloning using the LLC-SE cell line, we obtained two distinct sub-population of cells within the Lewis lung cancer CSCs that employed largely symmetric division for self-renewal (LLC-SD) or underwent asymmetric division for differentiation (LLC-ASD)...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619817/canoe-and-scribble-loss-synergizes-causing-tumor-like-overgrowth-via-ras-activation-in-neural-stem-cells-and-epithelia
#5
Noemí Rives-Quinto, Maribel Franco, Ana de Torres-Jurado, Ana Carmena
Over the past decade an intriguing connection between asymmetric cell division, stem cells and tumorigenesis has emerged. Neuroblasts, the neural stem cells of the Drosophila central nervous system, divide asymmetrically and constitute an excellent paradigm for further investigating that connection. Here we show that the simultaneous loss of the asymmetric cell division regulators Canoe (Afadin in mammals) and Scribble in neuroblast clones leads to tumor-like overgrowth through both a severe disruption of the asymmetric cell division process and a canoe loss-mediated Ras-PI3K-Akt activation...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615630/non-muscle-myosin-ii-is-required-for-correct-fate-specification-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-seam-cell-divisions
#6
Siyu Serena Ding, Alison Woollard
During development, cell division often generates two daughters with different developmental fates. Distinct daughter identities can result from the physical polarity and size asymmetry itself, as well as the subsequent activation of distinct fate programmes in each daughter. Asymmetric divisions are a feature of the C. elegans seam lineage, in which a series of post-embryonic, stem-like asymmetric divisions give rise to an anterior daughter that differentiates and a posterior daughter that continues to divide...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615194/fusion-fission-and-transport-control-asymmetric-inheritance-of-mitochondria-and-protein-aggregates
#7
Stefan Böckler, Xenia Chelius, Nadine Hock, Till Klecker, Madita Wolter, Matthias Weiss, Ralf J Braun, Benedikt Westermann
Partitioning of cell organelles and cytoplasmic components determines the fate of daughter cells upon asymmetric division. We studied the role of mitochondria in this process using budding yeast as a model. Anterograde mitochondrial transport is mediated by the myosin motor, Myo2. A genetic screen revealed an unexpected interaction of MYO2 and genes required for mitochondrial fusion. Genetic analyses, live-cell microscopy, and simulations in silico showed that fused mitochondria become critical for inheritance and transport across the bud neck in myo2 mutants...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600817/il17a-dependent-asymmetric-stem-cell-divisions-are-increased-in-human-psoriasis-a-mechanism-underlying-benign-hyperproliferation
#8
Alexandra Charruyer, Stephen Fong, Giselle Vitcov, Samuel Sklar, Leah Tabernik, Monica Taneja, Melinda Caputo, Catherine Soeung, Lili Yue, Yoshi Uchida, Sarah T Arron, Karen Horton, Robert Foster, Shigetoshi Sano, Jeffrey North, Ruby Ghadially
The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell (SC) divisions is key to tissue homeostasis and dysregulation of this balance has been shown in cancers. We hypothesized that the balance between asymmetric SC divisions (ACDs) and symmetric cell divisions (SCDs) would be dysregulated in the benign hyperproliferation of psoriasis. We found that, whereas SCDs were increased in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (human and murine), ACDs were increased in the benign hyperproliferation of psoriasis (human and murine)...
June 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585564/sara-phosphorylation-state-controls-the-dispatch-of-endosomes-from-the-central-spindle-during-asymmetric-division
#9
Sylvain Loubéry, Alicia Daeden, Carole Seum, Laurent Holtzer, Ana Moraleda, Nicolas Damond, Emmanuel Derivery, Thomas Schmidt, Marcos Gonzalez-Gaitan
During asymmetric division, fate assignation in daughter cells is mediated by the partition of determinants from the mother. In the fly sensory organ precursor cell, Notch signalling partitions into the pIIa daughter. Notch and its ligand Delta are endocytosed into Sara endosomes in the mother cell and they are first targeted to the central spindle, where they get distributed asymmetrically to finally be dispatched to pIIa. While the processes of endosomal targeting and asymmetry are starting to be understood, the machineries implicated in the final dispatch to pIIa are unknown...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576010/dynamic-adhesive-environment-alters-the-differentiation-potential-of-young-and-ageing-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Maria Valeska Bianchi, Firas Awaja, George Altankov
Engineering dynamic stem cell niche-like environment offers opportunity to obtain better control of the fate of stem cells. We identified, for the first time, that periodic changes in the adhesive environment of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) alters dramatically their asymmetric division but not their ability for symmetric renewal. Hereby, we used smart thermo-responsive polymer (PNIPAM) to create a dynamic adhesive environment for ADSCs by applying periodic temperature cycles to perturb adsorbed adhesive proteins to substratum interaction...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569798/deletion-of-a-mycobacterial-divisome-factor-collapses-single-cell-phenotypic-heterogeneity
#11
E Hesper Rego, Rebecca E Audette, Eric J Rubin
Microorganisms are often studied as populations but the behaviour of single, individual cells can have important consequences. For example, tuberculosis, caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, requires months of antibiotic therapy even though the bulk of the bacterial population dies rapidly. Shorter courses lead to high rates of relapse because subpopulations of bacilli can survive despite being genetically identical to those that are easily killed. In fact, mycobacteria create variability each time a cell divides, producing daughter cells with different sizes and growth rates...
June 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562636/a-systematic-review-of-the-asymmetric-inheritance-of-cellular-organelles-in-eukaryotes-a-critique-of-basic-science-validity-and-imprecision
#12
Anne Collins, Janine Ross, Shona H Lang
We performed a systematic review to identify all original publications describing the asymmetric inheritance of cellular organelles in normal animal eukaryotic cells and to critique the validity and imprecision of the evidence. Searches were performed in Embase, MEDLINE and Pubmed up to November 2015. Screening of titles, abstracts and full papers was performed by two independent reviewers. Data extraction and validity were performed by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Study quality was assessed using the SYRCLE risk of bias tool, for animal studies and by developing validity tools for the experimental model, organelle markers and imprecision...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545113/rac1-is-dispensable-for-oocyte-maturation-and-female-fertility-in-vivo
#13
Jian-Xiu Hao, Tie-Gang Meng, Li-Hua Fan, Yuan-Qing Yao
Oocyte maturation, the important process to produce female haploid gamete, accompanies with polarity establishment and highly asymmetric cell division to emit minor polar body within little cytoplasm. Microfilaments play central roles in polarity establishment and asymmetric cell division. Several actin regulators like WASP protein family as well as small GTPases function in microfilament dynamics, involving the process. Rac1, one member of RhoGTPases, has been reported to regulate the polarity and asymmetric cell division in mouse oocytes in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540498/metabolic-regulation-of-hematopoietic-and-leukemic-stem-progenitor-cells-under-homeostatic-and-stress-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Daiki Karigane, Keiyo Takubo
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit multilineage differentiation and self-renewal activities that maintain the entire hematopoietic system during an organism's lifetime. These abilities are sustained by intrinsic transcriptional programs and extrinsic cues from the microenvironment or niche. Recent studies using metabolomics technologies reveal that metabolic regulation plays an essential role in HSC maintenance. Metabolic pathways provide energy and building blocks for other factors functioning at steady state and in stress...
July 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535522/restenosis-in-hemodialytic-fistulas-and-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-vascular-disease-two-pathologies-driven-by-metakaryotic-stem-cells
#15
Gianandrea Pasquinelli, William G Thilly, Elena V Gostjeva, Paola Todeschini, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) exacerbating vascular disease poses a major challenge to nephrology. Surgically placed vascular fistulas, as an aid to hemodialysis prior to kidney transplant, have extended many lives, while post-surgical restenosis closure of the fistula by smooth muscle cells affects many lives. When post-surgical restenosis is developed, palliative measures are almost always surgical: there are no effective drug treatments. In this study, we offer a testable hypothesis that effects of CKD on widely distributed vascular diseases and the phenomenon of fistula restenosis are both driven by the pathologic creation of non-dividing smooth muscle cells via asymmetric division of exponentially increasing metakaryotic stem cells...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533229/intrinsic-regulation-of-enteroendocrine-fate-by-numb
#16
Jérémy Sallé, Louis Gervais, Benjamin Boumard, Marine Stefanutti, Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition...
May 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526136/emerging-mechanisms-and-roles-for-asymmetric-cytokinesis
#17
C Thieleke-Matos, D S Osório, A X Carvalho, E Morais-de-Sá
Cytokinesis completes cell division by physically separating the contents of the mother cell between the two daughter cells. This event requires the highly coordinated reorganization of the cytoskeleton within a precise window of time to ensure faithful genomic segregation. In addition, recent progress in the field highlighted the importance of cytokinesis in providing particularly important cues in the context of multicellular tissues. The organization of the cytokinetic machinery and the asymmetric localization or inheritance of the midbody remnants is critical to define the spatial distribution of mechanical and biochemical signals...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525300/regulation-of-cell-polarity-in-motility-and-cell-division-in-myxococcus-xanthus
#18
Dominik Schumacher, Lotte Søgaard-Andersen
Rod-shaped Myxococcus xanthus cells are polarized with proteins asymmetrically localizing to specific positions. This spatial organization is important for regulation of motility and cell division and changes over time. Dedicated protein modules regulate motility independent of the cell cycle, and cell division dependent on the cell cycle. For motility, a leading-lagging cell polarity is established that is inverted during cellular reversals. Establishment and inversion of this polarity are regulated hierarchically by interfacing protein modules that sort polarized motility proteins to the correct cell poles or cause their relocation between cell poles during reversals akin to a spatial toggle switch...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517109/the-studies-of-para-and-parb-dynamics-reveal-asymmetry-of-chromosome-segregation-in-mycobacteria
#19
Katarzyna Ginda, Isabella Santi, Djenet Bousbaine, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Dagmara Jakimowicz, John McKinney
Active segregation of bacterial chromosomes usually involves the action of ParB proteins, which bind in proximity of chromosomal origin (oriC) regions forming nucleoprotein complexes - segrosomes. Newly duplicated segrosomes are moved either uni- or bidirectionally by the action of ATPases - ParA proteins. In Mycobacterium smegmatis the oriC region is located in an off-centred position and newly replicated segrosomes are segregated toward cell poles. The elimination of M. smegmatis ParA and/or ParB leads to chromosome segregation defects...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507175/a-mutation-in-the-bhlh-domain-of-the-spch-transcription-factor-uncovers-a-br-dependent-mechanism-for-stomatal-development
#20
Alberto de Marcos, Anaxi Houbaert, Magdalena Triviño, Dolores Delgado, Mar Martín-Trillo, Eugenia Russinova, Carmen Fenoll, Montaña Mena
The asymmetric cell divisions necessary for stomatal lineage initiation and progression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) require the function of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Mutants lacking SPCH do not produce stomata or lineages. Here, we isolated a new spch-5 allele carrying a point mutation in the bHLH domain that displayed normal growth, but had an extremely low number of sometimes clustered stomata in the leaves, whereas the hypocotyls did not have any stomata...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
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