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asymmetric cell division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434166/antibody-uptake-assay-in-the-embryonic-zebrafish-forebrain-to-study-notch-signaling-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vivo
#1
Kai Tong, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing cell. Radial glia in the embryonic zebrafish forebrain are an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms regulating ACD of stem cells in vertebrates, especially for live imaging concerning in vivo molecular and cellular dynamics. Due to the current difficulty in expressing fluorescent reporter-tagged proteins at physiological levels in zebrafish for live imaging, we have developed an antibody uptake assay to label proteins in live embryonic zebrafish forebrain with high specificity...
April 23, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418611/ectopic-expression-of-the-transcription-factor-mafb-in-basal-keratinocytes-induces-hyper-proliferation-and-perturbs-epidermal-homeostasis
#2
Masashi Miyai, Yukino Tsunekage, Michiko Saito, Kenji Kohno, Kenzo Takahashi, Kohsuke Kataoka
Mammalian epidermis is composed of four morphologically and functionally distinct layers of keratinocytes. The innermost basal layer consists of proliferating self-renewing keratinocytes, which also undergo asymmetric cell division to differentiate into post-mitotic suprabasal cells throughout life. Control of the balance between growth and differentiation of basal cells is important for epidermal homeostasis to prevent skin disorders including malignancies; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411198/correction-egfl6-regulates-the-asymmetric-division-maintenance-and-metastasis-of-aldh-ovarian-cancer-cells
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409315/molecular-programs-underlying-asymmetric-stem-cell-division-and-their-disruption-in-malignancy
#4
Subhas Mukherjee, Daniel J Brat
Asymmetric division of stem cells is a highly conserved and tightly regulated process by which a single stem cell produces two unequal daughter cells. One retains its stem cell identity while the other becomes specialized through a differentiation program and loses stem cell properties. Coordinating these events requires control over numerous intra- and extracellular biological processes and signaling networks. In the initial stages, critical events include the compartmentalization of fate determining proteins within the mother cell and their subsequent passage to the appropriate daughter cell in order to direct their destiny...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409314/regulation-of-asymmetric-cell-division-in-mammalian-neural-stem-and-cancer-precursor-cells
#5
Mathieu Daynac, Claudia K Petritsch
Stem and progenitor cells are characterized by their abilities to self-renew and produce differentiated progeny. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is achieved through control of cell division mode, which can be either asymmetric or symmetric. Failure to properly control cell division mode may result in premature depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool or abnormal growth and impaired differentiation. In many tissues, including the brain, stem cells and progenitor cells undergo asymmetric cell division through the establishment of cell polarity...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409313/extracellular-regulation-of-the-mitotic-spindle-and-fate-determinants-driving-asymmetric-cell-division
#6
Prestina Smith, Mark Azzam, Lindsay Hinck
Stem cells use mode of cell division, symmetric (SCD) versus asymmetric (ACD), to balance expansion with self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells with different cell fates. Studies in model organisms have identified intrinsic mechanisms that govern this process, which involves partitioning molecular components between daughter cells, frequently through the regulation of the mitotic spindle. Research performed in vertebrate tissues is revealing both conservation of these intrinsic mechanisms and crucial roles for extrinsic cues in regulating the frequency of these divisions...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409311/symmetry-does-not-come-for-free-cellular-mechanisms-to-achieve-a-symmetric-cell-division
#7
Damian Dudka, Patrick Meraldi
During mitosis cells can divide symmetrically to proliferate or asymmetrically to generate tissue diversity. While the mechanisms that ensure asymmetric cell division have been extensively studied, it is often assumed that a symmetric cell division is the default outcome of mitosis. Recent studies, however, imply that the symmetric nature of cell division is actively controlled, as they reveal numerous mechanisms that ensure the formation of equal-sized daughter cells as cells progress through cell division...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409310/asymmetries-and-symmetries-in-the-mouse-oocyte-and-zygote
#8
Agathe Chaigne, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
Mammalian oocytes grow periodically after puberty thanks to the dialogue with their niche in the follicle. This communication between somatic and germ cells promotes the accumulation, inside the oocyte, of maternal RNAs, proteins and other molecules that will sustain the two gamete divisions and early embryo development up to its implantation. In order to preserve their stock of maternal products, oocytes from all species divide twice minimizing the volume of their daughter cells to their own benefit. For this, they undergo asymmetric divisions in size where one main objective is to locate the division spindle with its chromosomes off-centred...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#9
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409308/asymmetries-in-cell-division-cell-size-and-furrowing-in-the-xenopus-laevis-embryo
#10
Jean-Pierre Tassan, Martin Wühr, Guillaume Hatte, Jacek Kubiak
Asymmetric cell divisions produce two daughter cells with distinct fate. During embryogenesis, this mechanism is fundamental to build tissues and organs because it generates cell diversity. In adults, it remains crucial to maintain stem cells. The enthusiasm for asymmetric cell division is not only motivated by the beauty of the mechanism and the fundamental questions it raises, but has also very pragmatic reasons. Indeed, misregulation of asymmetric cell divisions is believed to have dramatic consequences potentially leading to pathogenesis such as cancers...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409307/asymmetric-localization-and-distribution-of-factors-determining-cell-fate-during-early-development-of-xenopus-laevis
#11
Radek Sindelka, Monika Sidova, Pavel Abaffy, Mikael Kubista
Asymmetric division is a property of eukaryotic cells that is fundamental to the formation of higher life forms. Despite its importance, the mechanism behind it remains elusive. Asymmetry in the cell is induced by polarization of cell fate determinants that become unevenly distributed among progeny cells. So far dozens of determinants have been identified. Xenopus laevis is an ideal system to study asymmetric cell division during early development, because of the huge size of its oocytes and early-stage blastomeres...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409306/asymmetric-divisions-in-oogenesis
#12
Szczepan M Bilinski, Jacek Z Kubiak, Malgorzata Kloc
In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409305/drosophila-melanogaster-neuroblasts-a-model-for-asymmetric-stem-cell-divisions
#13
Emmanuel Gallaud, Tri Pham, Clemens Cabernard
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a fundamental mechanism to generate cell diversity, giving rise to daughter cells with different developmental potentials. ACD is manifested in the asymmetric segregation of proteins or mRNAs, when the two daughter cells differ in size or are endowed with different potentials to differentiate into a particular cell type (Horvitz and Herskowitz, Cell 68:237-255, 1992). Drosophila neuroblasts, the neural stem cells of the developing fly brain, are an ideal system to study ACD since this system encompasses all of these characteristics...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409304/the-midbody-and-its-remnant-in-cell-polarization-and-asymmetric-cell-division
#14
Christian Pohl
The midbody is a protein-dense assembly that forms during cytokinesis when the actomyosin ring constricts around bundling central spindle microtubules. After its initial description by Walther Flemming in the late nineteenth century and its rediscovery through electron microscopy in the 1960s and 1970s, its ultrastructural organization and the sequential recruitment of its molecular constituents has only been elucidated in the past decade. Recently, it has become clear that the midbody can serve as a polarity cue during asymmetric cell division, cell polarization, and spindle orientation by coordinating cytoskeletal organization, vesicular transport, and localized cortical cues...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409303/size-matters-how-c-elegans-asymmetric-divisions-regulate-apoptosis
#15
Jerome Teuliere, Gian Garriga
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death used by metazoans to eliminate abnormal cells, control cell number, and shape the development of organs. The use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for the study of apoptosis has led to important insights into how cells die and how their corpses are removed. Eighty percent of these apoptotic cell deaths occur during nervous system development and in daughters of neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically. Pioneering work defined a conserved apoptosis pathway that is initiated in C...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409302/asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo-multiple-steps-to-generate-cell-size-asymmetry
#16
Anne Pacquelet
The first division of the one-cell C. elegans embryo has been a fundamental model in deciphering the mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division. Polarization of the one-cell zygote is induced by a signal from the sperm centrosome and results in the asymmetric distribution of PAR proteins. Multiple mechanisms then maintain PAR polarity until the end of the first division. Once asymmetrically localized, PAR proteins control several essential aspects of asymmetric division, including the position of the mitotic spindle along the polarity axis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409301/wnt-signaling-polarizes-c-elegans-asymmetric-cell-divisions-during-development
#17
Arielle Koonyee Lam, Bryan T Phillips
Asymmetric cell division is a common mode of cell differentiation during the invariant lineage of the nematode, C. elegans. Beginning at the four-cell stage, and continuing throughout embryogenesis and larval development, mother cells are polarized by Wnt ligands, causing an asymmetric inheritance of key members of a Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway termed the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway. The resulting daughter cells are distinct at birth with one daughter cell activating Wnt target gene expression via β-catenin activation of TCF, while the other daughter displays transcriptional repression of these target genes...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409300/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-determinants-linking-spindle-pole-fate-spindle-polarity-and-asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-budding-yeast-s-cerevisiae
#18
Marco Geymonat, Marisa Segal
The budding yeast S. cerevisiae is a powerful model to understand the multiple layers of control driving an asymmetric cell division. In budding yeast, asymmetric targeting of the spindle poles to the mother and bud cell compartments respectively orients the mitotic spindle along the mother-bud axis. This program exploits an intrinsic functional asymmetry arising from the age distinction between the spindle poles-one inherited from the preceding division and the other newly assembled. Extrinsic mechanisms convert this age distinction into differential fate...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409299/spatiotemporal-models-of-the-asymmetric-division-cycle-of-caulobacter-crescentus
#19
Kartik Subramanian, John J Tyson
The spatial localization of proteins within the cytoplasm of bacteria is an underappreciated but critical aspect of cell cycle regulation for many prokaryotes. In Caulobacter crescentus-a model organism for the study of asymmetric cell reproduction in prokaryotes-heterogeneous localization of proteins has been identified as the underlying cause of asymmetry in cell morphology, DNA replication, and cell division. However, significant questions remain. Firstly, the mechanisms by which proteins localize in the organelle-free prokaryotic cytoplasm remain obscure...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409298/modeling-asymmetric-cell-division-in-caulobacter-crescentus-using-a-boolean-logic-approach
#20
Ismael Sánchez-Osorio, Carlos A Hernández-Martínez, Agustino Martínez-Antonio
Caulobacter crescentus is a model organism for the study of asymmetric division and cell type differentiation, as its cell division cycle generates a pair of daughter cells that differ from one another in their morphology and behavior. One of these cells (called stalked) develops a structure that allows it to attach to solid surfaces and is the only one capable of dividing, while the other (called swarmer) develops a flagellum that allows it to move in liquid media and divides only after differentiating into a stalked cell type...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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