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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141015/nematocytes-discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-anculeate-hemocyte-in-drosophila-falleni-and-drosophila-phalerata
#2
Julianna Bozler, Balint Z Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco
Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species' survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138931/rna-seq-analysis-reveals-the-distinctive-adaxial-abaxial-polarity-in-the-asymmetric-one-theca-stamen-of-canna-indica
#3
Xueyi Tian, Pu Zou, Mingzhi Miao, Zulin Ning, Jingping Liao
Proper establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity is essential for the development of lateral organs, while former researches were mostly focused on the polarity regulation in leaves, and little is known in stamens, especially in the asymmetric ones. Canna indica (Zingiberales: Cannaceae) is a widely cultivated ornamental plant and the representative species to study the evolutionary development of Zingiberales. The androecium of Canna indica comprises 3-4 petaloid staminodes and a fertile stamen (FS), which consists of a one-theca anther and a petaloid appendage...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134476/aminoglycoside-damage-and-hair-cell-regeneration-in-the-chicken-utricle
#4
Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel C Ellwanger, C Eduardo Corrales, Jennifer S Stone, Stefan Heller
In this study, we present a systematic characterization of hair cell loss and regeneration in the chicken utricle in vivo. A single unilateral surgical delivery of streptomycin caused robust decline of hair cell numbers in striolar as well as extrastriolar regions, which in the striola was detected very early, 6 h post-insult. During the initial 12 h of damage response, we observed global repression of DNA replication, in contrast to the natural, mitotic hair cell production in undamaged control utricles...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123099/spatio-temporally-separated-cortical-flows-and-spindle-geometry-establish-physical-asymmetry-in-fly-neural-stem-cells
#5
Chantal Roubinet, Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, Arnaud Monnard, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter, Clemens Cabernard
Asymmetric cell division, creating sibling cells with distinct developmental potentials, can be manifested in sibling cell size asymmetry. This form of physical asymmetry occurs in several metazoan cells, but the underlying mechanisms and function are incompletely understood. Here we use Drosophila neural stem cells to elucidate the mechanisms involved in physical asymmetry establishment. We show that Myosin relocalizes to the cleavage furrow via two distinct cortical Myosin flows: at anaphase onset, a polarity induced, basally directed Myosin flow clears Myosin from the apical cortex...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109240/deficiency-of-the-thyroid-hormone-transporter-mct8-in-neural-progenitors-impairs-cellular-processes-crucial-for-early-corticogenesis
#6
Pieter Vancamp, Marie-Anne Deprez, Michiel Remmerie, Veerle M Darras
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for establishing layered brain structures, a process called corticogenesis, by acting on transcriptional activity of numerous genes. In humans, deficiency of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), involved in cellular uptake of THs prior to their action, results in severe neurological abnormalities, known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome. While the brain lesions predominantly originate prenatally, it remains unclear how and when exactly MCT8 dysfunction affects cellular processes crucial for corticogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108019/stochastic-loss-and-gain-of-symmetric-divisions-in-the-c-elegans-epidermis-perturbs-robustness-of-stem-cell-number
#7
Dimitris Katsanos, Sneha L Koneru, Lamia Mestek Boukhibar, Nicola Gritti, Ritobrata Ghose, Peter J Appleford, Maria Doitsidou, Alison Woollard, Jeroen S van Zon, Richard J Poole, Michalis Barkoulas
Biological systems are subject to inherent stochasticity. Nevertheless, development is remarkably robust, ensuring the consistency of key phenotypic traits such as correct cell numbers in a certain tissue. It is currently unclear which genes modulate phenotypic variability, what their relationship is to core components of developmental gene networks, and what is the developmental basis of variable phenotypes. Here, we start addressing these questions using the robust number of Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal stem cells, known as seam cells, as a readout...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107550/a-parallel-adder-coordinates-mycobacterial-cell-cycle-progression-and-cell-size-homeostasis-in-the-context-of-asymmetric-growth-and-organization
#8
Michelle M Logsdon, Po-Yi Ho, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Kirill Richardson, Murat Cokol, Christopher M Sassetti, Ariel Amir, Bree B Aldridge
In model bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis, regulation of cell-cycle progression and cellular organization achieves consistency in cell size, replication dynamics, and chromosome positioning [1-3]. Mycobacteria elongate and divide asymmetrically, giving rise to significant variation in cell size and elongation rate among closely related cells [4, 5]. Given the physical asymmetry of mycobacteria, the models that describe coordination of cellular organization and cell-cycle progression in model bacteria are not directly translatable [1, 2, 6-8]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101473/tracking-maize-pollen-development-by-the-leaf-collar-method
#9
Kevin Begcy, Thomas Dresselhaus
An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant...
November 4, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097549/spindle-asymmetry-drives-non-mendelian-chromosome-segregation
#10
Takashi Akera, Lukáš Chmátal, Emily Trimm, Karren Yang, Chanat Aonbangkhen, David M Chenoweth, Carsten Janke, Richard M Schultz, Michael A Lampson
Genetic elements compete for transmission through meiosis, when haploid gametes are created from a diploid parent. Selfish elements can enhance their transmission through a process known as meiotic drive. In female meiosis, selfish elements drive by preferentially attaching to the egg side of the spindle. This implies some asymmetry between the two sides of the spindle, but the molecular mechanisms underlying spindle asymmetry are unknown. Here we found that CDC42 signaling from the cell cortex regulated microtubule tyrosination to induce spindle asymmetry and that non-Mendelian segregation depended on this asymmetry...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076090/analysis-of-erythropoiesis-using-imaging-flow-cytometry
#11
Theodosia Kalfa, Kathleen E McGrath
Erythroid maturation has been classically defined based on the remarkable changes visualized through microscopy. These involve the decrease in cell size, nuclear condensation and organelle loss, and include the final unique asymmetric division creating the short-lived nucleated pyrenocyte and the enucleate reticulocyte that matures into the red blood cell. Understanding the regulation of these processes has been challenging due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient numbers of cells, particularly of rare intermediates, to study by microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070608/stem-cells-aging-and-transcriptional-fingerprints
#12
REVIEW
Brice E Keyes, Elaine Fuchs
Stem cells are imbued with unique qualities. They have the capacity to propagate themselves through symmetric divisions and to divide asymmetrically to engender new cells that can progress to differentiate into tissue-specific, terminal cell types. Armed with these qualities, stem cells in adult tissues are tasked with replacing decaying cells and regenerating tissue after injury to maintain optimal tissue function. With increasing age, stem cell functional abilities decline, resulting in reduced organ function and delays in tissue repair...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069808/targeting-the-cancer-stem-cell-marker-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-to-circumvent-cisplatin-resistance-in-nsclc
#13
Lauren MacDonagh, Michael F Gallagher, Brendan Ffrench, Claudia Gasch, Eamon Breen, Steven G Gray, Siobhan Nicholson, Niamh Leonard, Ronan Ryan, Vincent Young, John J O'Leary, Sinead Cuffe, Stephen P Finn, Kenneth J O'Byrne, Martin P Barr
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for a large proportion of cancer deaths and is characterized by low treatment response rates and poor overall prognosis. In the absence of specific treatable mutations, cisplatin-based chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of this disease. Unfortunately, the development of resistance has become a major therapeutic challenge in the use of this cytotoxic drug. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying this resistance phenotype, may result in the development of novel agents that enhance sensitivity to cisplatin in lung cancer patients...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069448/asymmetric-cell-division-requires-specific-mechanisms-for-adjusting-global-transcription
#14
Adriana Mena, Daniel A Medina, José García-Martínez, Victoria Begley, Abhyudai Singh, Sebastián Chávez, Mari C Muñoz-Centeno, José E Pérez-Ortín
Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant...
October 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057401/a-model-of-cell-wall-dynamics-during-sporulation-in-bacillus-subtilis
#15
Li-Wei Yap, Robert G Endres
To survive starvation, Bacillus subtilis forms durable spores. After asymmetric cell division, the septum grows around the forespore in a process called engulfment, but the mechanism of force generation is unknown. Here, we derived a novel biophysical model for the dynamics of cell-wall remodeling during engulfment based on a balancing of dissipative, active, and mechanical forces. By plotting phase diagrams, we predict that sporulation is promoted by a line tension from the attachment of the septum to the outer cell wall, as well as by an imbalance in turgor pressures in the mother-cell and forespore compartments...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042443/mammalian-numb-protein-antagonizes-notch-by-controlling-postendocytic-trafficking-of-the-notch-ligand-delta-like-4
#16
Ximing Shao, Zhihao Ding, Ming Zhao, Ke Liu, Haiyan Sun, Juntao Chen, Xianming Liu, Yuzhen Zhang, Yang Hong, Huashun Li, Hongchang Li
The biological antagonism between the signaling proteins Numb and Notch has been implicated in the regulation of many developmental processes, especially in asymmetric cell division. Mechanistic studies show that Numb inactivates Notch via endocytosis and proteasomal degradation that directly reduce Notch protein levels at the cell surface. However, some aspects of how Numb antagonizes Notch remain unclear. Here, we report a novel mechanism in which Numb acts as a Notch antagonist by controlling the intracellular destination and stability of the Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) through a postendocytic-sorting process...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038504/the-contribution-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-replicative-age-to-the-variations-in-the-levels-of-trx2p-pdr5p-can1p-and-idh-isoforms
#17
Aglaia V Azbarova, Kseniia V Galkina, Maxim I Sorokin, Fedor F Severin, Dmitry A Knorre
Asymmetrical division can be a reason for microbial populations heterogeneity. In particular, budding yeast daughter cells are more vulnerable to stresses than the mothers. It was suggested that yeast mother cells could also differ from each other depending on their replicative age. To test this, we measured the levels of Idh1-GFP, Idh2-GFP, Trx2-GFP, Pdr5-GFP and Can1-GFP proteins in cells of the few first, most represented, age cohorts. Pdr5p and Can1p were selected because of the pronounced mother-bud asymmetry for these proteins distributions, Trx2p as indicator of oxidative stress...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032301/formation-of-asymmetric-vesicles-via-phospholipase-d-mediated-transphosphatidylation
#18
Rina Takaoka, Haruko Kurosaki, Hiroyuki Nakao, Keisuke Ikeda, Minoru Nakano
Most biomembranes have an asymmetric structure with regard to phospholipid distribution between the inner and outer leaflets of the lipid bilayers. Control of the asymmetric distribution plays a pivotal role in several cellular functions such as intracellular membrane fusion and cell division. The mechanism by which membrane asymmetry and its alteration function in these transformation processes is not yet clear. To understand the significance of membrane asymmetry on trafficking and metabolism of intracellular vesicular components, a system that experimentally reproduces the asymmetric nature of biomembranes is essential...
October 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030551/kif2-localizes-to-a-subdomain-of-cortical-endoplasmic-reticulum-that-drives-asymmetric-spindle-position
#19
Vlad Costache, Celine Hebras, Gerard Pruliere, Lydia Besnardeau, Margaux Failla, Richard R Copley, David Burgess, Janet Chenevert, Alex McDougall
Asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle is a fundamental process responsible for creating sibling cell size asymmetry; however, how the cortex causes the depolymerization of astral microtubules during asymmetric spindle positioning has remained elusive. Early ascidian embryos possess a large cortical subdomain of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that causes asymmetric spindle positioning driving unequal cell division. Here we show that the microtubule depolymerase Kif2 localizes to this subdomain of cortical ER...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020617/live-imaging-reveals-that-the-first-division-of-differentiating-human-embryonic-stem-cells-often-yields-asymmetric-fates
#20
Katharine Brown, Kyle M Loh, Roel Nusse
How do stem cells respond to signals to initiate differentiation? Here, we show that, despite uniform exposure to differentiation-inducing extracellular signals, individual human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) respond heterogeneously. To track how hESCs incipiently exit pluripotency, we established a system to differentiate hESCs as single cells and conducted live imaging to track their very first cell division. We followed the fate of their earliest daughters as they remained undifferentiated or differentiated toward the primitive streak (the earliest descendants of pluripotent cells)...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
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