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asymmetric cell division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331068/a-fixed-partial-emt-triggers-carcinogenesis-whereas-asymmetrical-division-of-hybrid-emt-cells-drives-cancer-progression
#1
EDITORIAL
Evgeny V Denisov, Vladimir M Perelmuter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323121/the-endogenous-grp78-interactome-in-human-head-and-neck-cancers-a-deterministic-role-of-cell-surface-grp78-in-cancer-stemness
#2
Hsin-Ying Chen, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Kun-Yi Chien, Yun-Shien Lee, Guo-Rung You, Ann-Joy Cheng
Cell surface glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, was suggested to be a cancer stem cell marker, but the influence of this molecule on cancer stemness is poorly characterized. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometry platform to detect the endogenous interactome of GRP78 and investigated its role in cancer stemness. The interactome results showed that cell surface GRP78 associates with multiple molecules. The influence of cell population heterogeneity of head and neck cancer cell lines (OECM1, FaDu, and BM2) according to the cell surface expression levels of GRP78 and the GRP78 interactome protein, Progranulin, was investigated...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304868/further-characterization-of-adult-sheep-ovarian-stem-cells-and-their-involvement-in-neo-oogenesis-and-follicle-assembly
#3
Hiren Patel, Deepa Bhartiya, Seema Parte
BACKGROUND: Stem cells in the ovary comprise of two distinct populations including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and slightly bigger progenitors termed ovarian stem cells (OSCs). They are lodged in ovary surface epithelium (OSE) and are expected to undergo neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle (PF) assembly in adult ovaries. The ovarian stem cells express follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors and are directly activated by FSH resulting in formation of germ cell nests (GCN) in vitro...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295957/the-depalmitoylase-apt1-directs-the-asymmetric-partitioning-of-notch-and-wnt-signaling-during-cell-division
#4
Ewa Stypulkowski, Irfan A Asangani, Eric S Witze
Asymmetric cell division results in two distinctly fated daughter cells. A molecular hallmark of asymmetric division is the unequal partitioning of cell fate determinants. We have previously established that growth factor signaling promotes protein depalmitoylation to foster polarized protein localization, which, in turn, drives migration and metastasis. We report protein palmitoylation as a key mechanism for the asymmetric partitioning of the cell fate determinants Numb and β-catenin through the activity of the depalmitoylating enzyme APT1...
January 2, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288127/structural-characterization-of-spoiiiab-sporulation-essential-protein-in-bacillus-subtilis
#5
N Zeytuni, K A Flanagan, L J Worrall, S C Massoni, A H Camp, N C J Strynadka
Endospore formation in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates in response to nutrient depletion and involves a series of morphological changes that result in the creation of a dormant spore. Early in this developmental process, the cell undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces the larger mother cell and smaller forespore, the latter destined to become the mature spore. The mother cell septal membrane then engulfs the forespore, at which time an essential channel, the so-called feeding-tube apparatus, is thought to cross both membranes to create a direct conduit between the cells...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282284/moesin-is-involved-in-polarity-maintenance-and-cortical-remodelling-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#6
Namal Abeysundara, Andrew J Simmonds, Sarah C Hughes
An intact actomyosin network is essential for anchoring polarity proteins to the cell cortex and maintaining cell size asymmetry during asymmetric cell division of Drosophila neuroblasts. However, the mechanisms that control changes in actomyosin dynamics during asymmetric cell division remain unclear. We find that the actin-binding protein, Moesin, is essential for neuroblast proliferation and mitotic progression in the developing brain. During metaphase, phosphorylated Moesin (p-Moesin) is enriched at the apical cortex and loss of Moesin leads to defects in apical polarity maintenance and cortical stability...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262371/asymmetric-flows-in-the-intercellular-membrane-during-cytokinesis
#7
Vidya V Menon, S S Soumya, Amal Agarwal, Sundar R Naganathan, Mandar M Inamdar, Anirban Sain
Eukaryotic cells undergo shape changes during their division and growth. This involves flow of material both in the cell membrane and in the cytoskeletal layer beneath the membrane. Such flows result in redistribution of phospholipid at the cell surface and actomyosin in the cortex. Here we focus on the growth of the intercellular surface during cell division in a Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. The growth of this surface leads to the formation of a double-layer of separating membranes between the two daughter cells...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260307/emerging-roles-for-sphingolipids-in-cellular-aging
#8
REVIEW
Pushpendra Singh, Rong Li
Aging is a gradual loss of physiological functions as organisms' progress in age. Although aging in multicellular organisms is complex, some fundamental mechanisms and pathways may be shared from the single cellular yeast to human. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been established model system for aging studies. A yeast cell divides asymmetrically to produce two cells that differ in size and age. The one that is smaller coming from bud is a newborn cell that with a full replicative potential head irrespective of the replicative age of its mother-the larger cell from which the bud grows out before division...
December 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241545/the-germline-linker-histone-dbigh1-and-the-translational-regulator-bam-form-a-repressor-loop-essential-for-male-germ-stem-cell-differentiation
#9
Albert Carbonell, Salvador Pérez-Montero, Paula Climent-Cantó, Oscar Reina, Fernando Azorín
Drosophila spermatogenesis constitutes a paradigmatic system to study maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of adult stem cell lineages. Each Drosophila testis contains 6-12 germ stem cells (GSCs) that divide asymmetrically to produce gonialblast cells that undergo four transit-amplifying (TA) spermatogonial divisions before entering spermatocyte differentiation. Mechanisms governing these crucial transitions are not fully understood. Here, we report the essential role of the germline linker histone dBigH1 during early spermatogenesis...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239688/compromising-asymmetric-stem-cell-division-in-drosophila-central-brain-revisiting-the-connections-with-tumorigenesis
#10
Ana Carmena
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is an essential process during development for generating cell diversity. In addition, a more recent connection between ACD, cancer and stem cell biology has opened novel and highly intriguing venues in the field. This connection between compromised ACD and tumorigenesis was first demonstrated using Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs) more than a decade ago and, over the past years, it has also been established in vertebrate stem cells. Here, focusing on Drosophila larval brain NBs, and in light of results recently obtained in our lab, we revisit this connection emphasizing two main aspects: 1) the differences in tumor suppressor activity of different ACD regulators and 2) the potential relevance of environment and temporal window frame for compromised ACD-dependent induction of tumor-like overgrowth...
December 14, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234044/a-reduced-cell-based-phase-model-for-tissue-polarity-alignment-through-global-anisotropic-cues
#11
Kaori Sugimura, Hiroshi Kori
Ordered polarity alignment of cell populations plays vital roles in biology, such as in hair follicle alignment and asymmetric cell division. Although cell polarity is uniformly oriented along a tissue axis in many tissues, its mechanism is not well understood. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework to understand the generic dynamical properties of polarity alignment in interacting cellular units, where each cell is described by a reaction-diffusion system, and the cells further interact with one another through the contacting surfaces between them...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232694/hyperbranched-poly-%C3%AF%C2%B5-lysine-substrate-presenting-the-laminin-sequence-yigsr-induces-the-formation-of-spheroids-in-adult-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#12
Valeria Perugini, Steve T Meikle, Anna L Guildford, Matteo Santin
Unlike the fibroblast-like cells formed upon monolayer culture of human mesenchymal stem cells, the natural stem cell niche of the bone marrow and other types of tissues favours the formation of 3-dimensional (3D) cell clusters. The structuring and biological activity of these clusters are regulated by the contacts established by cells with both the basement membrane and neighbour cells and results in their asymmetric division and the consequent maintenance of both a stem population and a committed progeny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228898/the-asymmetric-cell-division-machinery-in-the-spiral-cleaving-egg-and-embryo-of-the-marine-annelid-platynereis-dumerilii
#13
Aron B Nakama, Hsien-Chao Chou, Stephan Q Schneider
BACKGROUND: Over one third of all animal phyla utilize a mode of early embryogenesis called 'spiral cleavage' to divide the fertilized egg into embryonic cells with different cell fates. This mode is characterized by a series of invariant, stereotypic, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) that generates cells of different size and defined position within the early embryo. Astonishingly, very little is known about the underlying molecular machinery to orchestrate these ACDs in spiral-cleaving embryos...
December 11, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228576/comparison-of-tumor-biology-of-two-distinct-cell-sub-populations-in-lung-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Jianyu Wang, Zhiwei Sun, Yongli Liu, Liangsheng Kong, Shixia Zhou, Junlin Tang, Hongmei Rosie Xing
Characterization of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain indirect and qualitative, especially the ability of CSCs to undergo asymmetric cell division for self renewal and differentiation, a unique property of cells of stem origin. It is partly due to the lack of stable cellular models of CSCs. In this study, we developed a new approach for CSC isolation and purification to derive a CSC-enriched cell line (LLC-SE). By conducting five consecutive rounds of single cell cloning using the LLC-SE cell line, we obtained two distinct sub-population of cells within the Lewis lung cancer CSCs that employed largely symmetric division for self-renewal (LLC-SD) or underwent asymmetric division for differentiation (LLC-ASD)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212015/opposing-post-transcriptional-control-of-inr-by-fmrp-and-lin-28-adjusts-stem-cell-based-tissue-growth
#15
Arthur Luhur, Kasun Buddika, Ishara Surangi Ariyapala, Shengyao Chen, Nicholas Samuel Sokol
Although the intrinsic mechanisms that control whether stem cells divide symmetrically or asymmetrically underlie tissue growth and homeostasis, they remain poorly defined. We report that the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) limits the symmetric division, and resulting expansion, of the stem cell population during adaptive intestinal growth in Drosophila. The elevated insulin sensitivity that FMRP-deficient progenitor cells display contributes to their accelerated expansion, which is suppressed by the depletion of insulin-signaling components...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204833/the-macula-flava-of-the-human-vocal-fold-as-a-stem-cell-microenvironment
#16
Kiminori Sato
1. There is growing evidence to suggest that the cells in the maculae flavae are tissue stem cells of the human vocal fold and maculae flavae are a candidate for a stem cell niche. 2. The latest research shows that the cells in the human maculae flavae are involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices that are essential for the viscoelasticity in the human vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue, and considered to be important cells in the growth, development, and aging of the human vocal fold mucosa...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186307/ultrastructure-and-development-of-non-contiguous-stomatal-clusters-and-helicocytic-patterning-in-begonia
#17
Paula J Rudall, Adele C M Julier, Catherine A Kidner
Background and Aims: Helicocytic stomata are characterized by an inward spiral of mesogenous cells surrounding a central stomatal pore. They represent a relatively rare feature that occurs in some drought-tolerant angiosperm species. In some Begonia species with thick leaves, the stomata are not only helicocytic but also clustered into groups that are spaced apart by at least one cell. This paper presents a detailed ontogenetic study of this characteristic non-contiguous stomatal patterning in a developmental and phylogenetic context...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185419/activation-of-discs-large-by-apkc-aligns-the-mitotic-spindle-to-the-polarity-axis-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#18
Ognjen Golub, Brett Wee, Rhonda A Newman, Nicole M Paterson, Kenneth E Prehoda
Asymmetric division generates cellular diversity by producing daughter cells with different fates. In animals, the mitotic spindle aligns with Par complex polarized fate determinants, ensuring that fate determinant cortical domains are bisected by the cleavage furrow. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that couple spindle orientation to polarity during asymmetric cell division of Drosophila neuroblasts. We find that the tumor suppressor Discs large (Dlg) links the Par complex component atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) to the essential spindle orientation factor GukHolder (GukH)...
November 29, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183946/an-asymmetric-attraction-model-for-the-diversity-and-robustness-of-cell-arrangement-in-nematodes
#19
Kazunori Yamamoto, Akatsuki Kimura
During early embryogenesis in animals, cells are arranged into a species-specific pattern in a robust manner. Diverse cell arrangement patterns are observed, even among close relatives. In the present study, we evaluated the mechanisms by which the diversity and robustness of cell arrangements are achieved in developing embryos. We successfully reproduced various patterns of cell arrangements observed in various nematode species in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos by altering the eggshell shapes. The findings suggest that the observed diversity of cell arrangements can be explained by differences in the eggshell shape...
December 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178162/cover-image-volume-233-number-3-march-2018
#20
Meng-Hao Pan, Fei Wang, Yujie Lu, Feng Tang, Xing Duan, Yu Zhang, Bo Xiong, Shao-Chen Sun
Cover: The cover image, by Meng-Hao Pan et al., is based on the Original Research Article, FHOD1 regulates cytoplasmic actin-based spindle migration for mouse oocyte asymmetric cell division, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.26099.
March 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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