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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102174/modeling-dynamics-of-mutants-in-heterogeneous-stem-cell-niche
#1
Leili Shahriyari, Ali Mahdipour Shirayeh
Studying the stem cell (SC) niche architecture is a crucial step for investigating the process of oncogenesis and obtaining an effective stem cell therapy for various cancers. Recently, it has been observed that there are two groups of SCs in the SC niche collaborating with each other to maintain tissue homeostasis: border stem cells (BSCs), which are responsible in controlling the number of non-stem cells as well as stem cells, and central stem cells (CeSCs), which regulate the SC niche. Here, we develop a bi-compartmental stochastic model for the SC niche to study the spread of mutants within the niche...
January 19, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095473/the-asymmetric-cell-division-regulators-par3-scribble-and-pins-gpsm2-are-not-essential-for-erythroid-development-or-enucleation
#2
Christina B Wölwer, Nathan Gödde, Luke B Pase, Imogen A Elsum, Krystle Y B Lim, Faruk Sacirbegovic, Carl R Walkley, Sarah Ellis, Shigeo Ohno, Fumio Matsuzaki, Sarah M Russell, Patrick O Humbert
Erythroid enucleation is the process by which the future red blood cell disposes of its nucleus prior to entering the blood stream. This key event during red blood cell development has been likened to an asymmetric cell division (ACD), by which the enucleating erythroblast divides into two very different daughter cells of alternate molecular composition, a nucleated cell that will be removed by associated macrophages, and the reticulocyte that will mature to the definitive erythrocyte. Here we investigated gene expression of members of the Par, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 asymmetric cell division complexes in erythroid cells, and functionally tested their role in erythroid enucleation in vivo and ex vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095111/increased-numb-protein-expression-predicts-poor-clinical-outcomes-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#3
Zhenguo Liu, Canqiao Luo, Weixiong Yang, Kefeng Wang, Chuang Hu, Jianyong Zou, Hua Zhu, Liwu Fu, Jing Nie, Chao Cheng
Numb is a protein whose asymmetric segregation during cell division determines cell fate and has numerous functions relevant to multiple fields of study, including developmental neurobiology and cancer biology. Little is known about the role of Numb in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histological esophageal carcinoma in Asian populations. In this study, we focused on the expression and biological functions of Numb in the context of ESCC. From analysis of tissue microarrays with 212 patients, it was found that Numb was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues compared to corresponding non-cancerous tissues...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087627/inhibition-of-cell-polarity-establishment-in-stomatal-asymmetric-cell-division-using-the-chemical-compound-bubblin
#4
Yumiko Sakai, Shigeo S Sugano, Takashi Kawase, Makoto Shirakawa, Yu Imai, Yusuke Kawamoto, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Tomoo Shimada
Stem-cell polarization is a crucial step in asymmetric cell division, which is a universal system for generating cellular diversity in multicellular organisms. Several conventional genetics studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell polarization in plants, but it remains largely unknown. In plants, stomata, which are valves for gas exchange, are generated through several rounds of asymmetric divisions. In this study, we identified and characterized a chemical compound that affects stomatal stem-cell polarity...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075662/centriolin-a-centriole-appendage-protein-regulates-peripheral-spindle-migration-and-asymmetric-division-in-mouse-meiotic-oocytes
#5
Tian-Yi Sun, Hai-Yang Wang, Jung-Woo Kwon, Bao Yuan, In-Won Lee, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim
Unlike somatic cells mitosis, germ cell meiosis consists of two consecutive rounds of division that segregate homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids, respectively. The meiotic oocyte is characterized by an absence of centrioles and asymmetric division. Centriolin is a relatively novel centriolar protein that functions in mitotic cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Here, we explored the function of centriolin in meiosis and showed that it is localized to meiotic spindles and concentrated at the spindle poles and midbody during oocyte meiotic maturation...
January 11, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063383/push-pull-strategy-in-the-regulation-of-postembryonic-root-development
#6
REVIEW
Goh Choe, Ji-Young Lee
Unlike animals, plants continue to grow throughout their lives. The stem cell niche, protected in meristems of shoots and roots, enables this process. In the root, stem cells produce precursors for highly organized cell types via asymmetric cell divisions. These precursors, which are "transit-amplifying cells," actively divide for several rounds before entering into differentiation programs. In this review, we highlight positive feedback regulation between shoot- and root-ward signals during the postembryonic root growth, which is reminiscent of a "push-pull strategy" in business parlance...
January 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049718/patterns-of-organelle-ontogeny-through-a-cell-cycle-revealed-by-whole-cell-reconstructions-using-3d-electron-microscopy
#7
Louise Hughes, Samantha Borrett, Katie Towers, Tobias Starborg, Sue Vaughan
The major mammalian bloodstream form of the African sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei multiplies rapidly and it is important to understand how these cells divide. Organelle inheritance involves complex spatiotemporal re-arrangements to ensure correct distribution to daughter cells. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used to reconstruct whole individual cells at different stages of the cell cycle to give an unprecedented temporal, spatial and quantitative view of organelle division, inheritance and abscission in a eukaryotic cell...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049657/the-ectocarpus-immediate-upright-gene-encodes-a-member-of-a-novel-family-of-cysteine-rich-proteins-that-have-an-unusual-distribution-across-the-eukaryotes
#8
Nicolas Macaisne, Fuli Liu, Delphine Scornet, Akira F Peters, Agnieszka Lipinska, Marie-Mathilde Perrineau, Antoine Henry, Martina Strittmatter, Susana M Coelho, J Mark Cock
The sporophyte generation of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. exhibits an unusual pattern of development compared to the majority of brown algae. The first cell division is symmetrical and the apical/basal axis is established late in development. In the IMMEDIATE UPRIGHT mutant the initial cell undergoes an asymmetric division to immediately establish the apical/basal axis. We provide evidence which suggests that this phenotype corresponds to the ancestral state of the sporophyte. The IMM gene encodes a protein of unknown function, containing a repeated motif also found in the EsV-1-7 gene of the Ectocarpus virus...
January 3, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035666/roles-and-regulations-of-hippo-signaling-during-preimplantation-mouse-development
#9
REVIEW
Hiroshi Sasaki
During preimplantation development, mouse embryos form two types of cells, the trophoectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), by the early blastocyst stage. This process does not require maternal factors localized in the zygotes, and embryos self-organize at the blastocyst stage through intercellular communications. In terms of the mechanisms of cell fate specification, three historical models have been proposed: the positional model, and the original and newer versions of the polarity model. Recent studies have revealed that the intercellular Hippo signaling pathway plays a central role in the specification of the first cell fates...
December 30, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031480/cd70-cd27-signaling-promotes-blast-stemness-and-is-a-viable-therapeutic-target-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Carsten Riether, Christian M Schürch, Elias D Bührer, Magdalena Hinterbrandner, Anne-Laure Huguenin, Sabine Hoepner, Inti Zlobec, Thomas Pabst, Ramin Radpour, Adrian F Ochsenbein
Aberrant proliferation, symmetric self-renewal, increased survival, and defective differentiation of malignant blasts are key oncogenic drivers in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Stem cell gene signatures predict poor prognosis in AML patients; however, with few exceptions, these deregulated molecular pathways cannot be targeted therapeutically. In this study, we demonstrate that the TNF superfamily ligand-receptor pair CD70/CD27 is expressed on AML blasts and AML stem/progenitor cells. CD70/CD27 signaling in AML cells activates stem cell gene expression programs, including the Wnt pathway, and promotes symmetric cell divisions and proliferation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011580/replication-fork-passage-drives-asymmetric-dynamics-of-a-critical-nucleoid-associated-protein-in-caulobacter
#11
Rodrigo Arias-Cartin, Genevieve S Dobihal, Manuel Campos, Ivan V Surovtsev, Bradley Parry, Christine Jacobs-Wagner
In bacteria, chromosome dynamics and gene expression are modulated by nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), but little is known about how NAP activity is coupled to cell cycle progression. Using genomic techniques, quantitative cell imaging, and mathematical modeling, our study in Caulobacter crescentus identifies a novel NAP (GapR) whose activity over the cell cycle is shaped by DNA replication. GapR activity is critical for cellular function, as loss of GapR causes severe, pleiotropic defects in growth, cell division, DNA replication, and chromosome segregation...
December 23, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996089/regulation-of-mitotic-spindle-orientation-during-epidermal-stratification
#12
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Jun Zhou
The epidermis is a stratified epithelium that serves as a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and prevents water loss. Epidermal stratification is tightly controlled during embryogenesis. Progenitor cells in the developing epidermis undergo both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions to balance the growth of the skin surface area against the generation of differentiated cell layers. Therefore, understanding the relationship between oriented divisions of progenitor cells and the development and stratification of the epidermis is of paramount importance in the field of skin biology and pathology...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991556/kif2a-regulates-the-spindle-assembly-and-the-metaphase-i-anaphase-i-transition-in-mouse-oocyte
#13
Ming-Huang Chen, Yu Liu, Ya-Long Wang, Rui Liu, Bai-Hui Xu, Fei Zhang, Fei-Ping Li, Lin Xu, Yan-Hong Lin, Shu-Wen He, Bao-Qiong Liao, Xian-Pei Fu, Xiao-Xue Wang, Xiang-Jun Yang, Hai-Long Wang
KIF2A, a member of the kinesin-13 family, has been reported to play a role in spindle assembly in mitosis. However, its function in mammalian meiosis remains unknown. In this research, we examined the expression, localization and function of KIF2A during mouse oocyte meiosis. KIF2A was expressed in some key stages in mouse oocyte meiosis. Immunofluorescent staining showed that KIF2A distributed in the germinal vesicle at the germinal vesicle stage and as the spindle assembling after meiosis resumption, KIF2A gradually accumulated to the entire spindle...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988974/the-quick-and-the-dead-microbial-demography-at-the-yeast-thermal-limit
#14
Colin S Maxwell, Paul M Magwene
The niche of microorganisms is determined by where their populations can expand. Populations can fail to grow because of high death or low birth rates, but these are challenging to measure in microorganisms. We developed a novel technique that enables single cell measurement of age-structured birth and death rates in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and used this method to study responses to heat stress in a genetically diverse panel of strains. We find that individual cells show significant heterogeneity in their rates of birth and death during heat stress...
December 18, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978481/division-modes-and-physical-asymmetry-in-cerebral-cortex-progenitors
#15
REVIEW
Delphine Delaunay, Ayano Kawaguchi, Colette Dehay, Fumio Matsuzaki
Neural stem cells go through a sequence of timely regulated gene expression and pattern of division mode to generate diverse neurons during brain development. During vertebrate cerebral cortex development, neural stem cells begin with proliferative symmetric divisions, subsequently undergo neurogenic asymmetric divisions, and finally gliogenic divisions. In this review, we explore the relationship between stem cell versus neural fate specification and the division mode. Specifically, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms of asymmetric divisions, division mode, and developmental progression of neural progenitor identity...
December 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975272/vertebrate-embryonic-cleavage-pattern-determination
#16
Andrew Hasley, Shawn Chavez, Michael Danilchik, Martin Wühr, Francisco Pelegri
The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965322/superficial-cells-are-self-renewing-chondrocyte-progenitors-which-form-the-articular-cartilage-in-juvenile-mice
#17
Lei Li, Phillip T Newton, Thibault Bouderlique, Marie Sejnohova, Tomas Zikmund, Elena Kozhemyakina, Meng Xie, Jan Krivanek, Jozef Kaiser, Hong Qian, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Andrew B Lassar, Matthew L Warman, Björn Barenius, Igor Adameyko, Andrei S Chagin
Articular cartilage has little regenerative capacity. Recently, genetic lineage tracing experiments have revealed chondrocyte progenitors at the articular surface. We further characterized these progenitors by using in vivo genetic approaches. Histone H2B-green fluorescent protein retention revealed that superficial cells divide more slowly than underlying articular chondrocytes. Clonal genetic tracing combined with immunohistochemistry revealed that superficial cells renew their number by symmetric division, express mesenchymal stem cell markers, and generate chondrocytes via both asymmetric and symmetric differentiation...
December 13, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932297/dynamic-self-organisation-of-haematopoiesis-and-a-symmetric-cell-division
#18
Marthe Måløy, Frode Måløy, Per Jakobsen, Bjørn Olav Brandsdal
A model of haematopoiesis that links self-organisation with symmetric and asymmetric cell division is presented in this paper. It is assumed that all cell divisions are completely random events, and that the daughter cells resulting from symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions are, in general, phenotypically identical, and still, the haematopoietic system has the flexibility to self-renew, produce mature cells by differentiation, and regenerate undifferentiated and differentiated cells when necessary, due to self-organisation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930326/cell-size-and-growth-regulation-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-apical-stem-cell-niche
#19
Lisa Willis, Yassin Refahi, Raymond Wightman, Benoit Landrein, José Teles, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson
Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3-4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930094/cancer-stem-cell-hypothesis-for-therapeutic-innovation-in-clinical-oncology-taking-the-root-out-not-chopping-the-leaf
#20
Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Lamech M Mwapagha, Nasir Al-Awwad, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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