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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782871/neuralized1a-regulates-asymmetric-division-in-mouse-lewis-lung-carcinoma-cells
#1
Liangsheng Kong, Jingyuan Li, Yongli Liu, Zhiwei Sun, Shixia Zhou, Junling Tang, Ting Ye, Jianyu Wang, H Rosie Xing
Asymmetric division (ASD), the unique characteristic of normal stem cells, is regarded as a stemness marker when applied to the study of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the role of ASD in the self-renewal of CSCs and its regulation remain largely unknown. Here, we first established a mouse Lewis lung carcinoma CSC cell line that could undergo asymmetric division (LLC-ASD cells) derived from the parental mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cancer cells (LLC-Parental cells). In vitro assessment of stemness by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis of stem cell markers, clonogenic assay (p < 0...
May 18, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#2
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779894/epigenetic-regulation-by-baf-complexes-limits-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-by-suppressing-wnt-signaling-in-late-embryonic-development
#3
Huong Nguyen, Cemil Kerimoglu, Mehdi Pirouz, Linh Pham, Kamila A Kiszka, Godwin Sokpor, M Sadman Sakib, Joachim Rosenbusch, Ulrike Teichmann, Rho H Seong, Anastassia Stoykova, Andre Fischer, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
During early cortical development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide symmetrically to expand the progenitor pool, whereas, in later stages, NSCs divide asymmetrically to self-renew and produce other cell types. The timely switch from such proliferative to differentiative division critically determines progenitor and neuron numbers. However, the mechanisms that limit proliferative division in late cortical development are not fully understood. Here, we show that the BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes restrict proliferative competence and promote neuronal differentiation in late corticogenesis...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778912/alcohol-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-neuro2a-cells-via-promoting-the-asymmetric-cell-division-through-down-regulation-of-the-expression-of-centrosome-protein-j
#4
Tao Xu, Shan-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Mei Xu, Shuai Zhao, Kai-Heng Zhu, Wei-Wei Zhang, Ling-Li Zhao
Alcohol can decrease cell proliferation in neural cells. The proliferation of neural cells can be inhibited by the asymmetric division of neural progenitor cells. However, whether alcohol inhibits cell proliferation through inducing cell asymmetric division is not yet clear. Here, we reported that the percentage of asymmetric division was increased in alcohol-treated Neuro2a cells owing to the impaired-spindle orientation. Meanwhile, the expression of Centrosome protein-J (CPAP) which plays an important role in spindle orientation was reduced in Neuro2a cells...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772025/shape-shifting-trypanosomes-flagellar-shortening-followed-by-asymmetric-division-in-trypanosoma-congolense-from-the-tsetse-proventriculus
#5
Lori Peacock, Christopher Kay, Mick Bailey, Wendy Gibson
Trypanosomatids such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma are digenetic, single-celled, parasitic flagellates that undergo complex life cycles involving morphological and metabolic changes to fit them for survival in different environments within their mammalian and insect hosts. According to current consensus, asymmetric division enables trypanosomatids to achieve the major morphological rearrangements associated with transition between developmental stages. Contrary to this view, here we show that the African trypanosome Trypanosoma congolense, an important livestock pathogen, undergoes extensive cell remodelling, involving shortening of the cell body and flagellum, during its transition from free-swimming proventricular forms to attached epimastigotes in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762894/what-is-a-stem-cell
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan M W Slack
The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division...
May 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761930/multiple-phosphorylation-sites-on-%C3%AE-tubulin-are-essential-and-contribute-to-the-biogenesis-of-basal-bodies-in-tetrahymena
#7
Ewa Joachimiak, Maria Jerka-Dziadosz, Łucja Krzemień-Ojak, Ewa Wacławek, Katarzyna Jedynak, Paulina Urbanska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Hanna Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna Fabczak, Jacek Gaertig, Dorota Wloga
The mechanisms that regulate γ-tubulin, including its post-translational modifications, are poorly understood. γ-Tubulin is important for the duplication of centrioles and structurally similar basal bodies (BBs), organelles which contain a ring of nine triplet microtubules. The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila carries hundreds of cilia in a single cell and provides an excellent model to specifically address the role of γ-tubulin in the BBs assembly and maintenance. The genome of Tetrahymena contains a single γ-tubulin gene...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757604/a-symmetric-molecule-produced-by-mycobacteria-generates-cell-length-asymmetry-during-cell-division-and-thereby-cell-length-heterogeneity
#8
Nagaraja Mukkayyan, Deepti Sharan, Parthasarathi Ajitkumar
Diadenosine polyphosphates, Ap(2-7)A, which contain two adenosines in a 5',5' linkage through phosphodiester bonds involving 2-7 phosphates, regulate diverse cellular functions in all the organisms, from bacteria to humans, under normal and stress conditions. We had earlier reported consistent occurrence of asymmetric constriction during division (ACD) in 20-30% of dividing mycobacterial cells in culture, irrespective of different growth media, implying exogenous action of some factor of mycobacterial origin...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755732/recent-advances-in-understanding-oogenesis-interactions-with-the-cytoskeleton-microtubule-organization-and-meiotic-spindle-assembly-in-oocytes
#9
REVIEW
Florence L Marlow
Maternal control of development begins with production of the oocyte during oogenesis. All of the factors necessary to complete oocyte maturation, meiosis, fertilization, and early development are produced in the transcriptionally active early oocyte. Active transcription of the maternal genome is a mechanism to ensure that the oocyte and development of the early embryo begin with all of the factors needed for successful embryonic development. To achieve the maximum maternal store, only one functional cell is produced from the meiotic divisions that produce the oocyte...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753017/size-matters-aurora-a-controls-drosophila-larval-development
#10
Lucie Vaufrey, Christine Balducci, René Lafont, Claude Prigent, Stéphanie Le Bras
In metazoans, organisms arising from a fertilized egg, the embryo will develop through multiple series of cell divisions, both symmetric and asymmetric, leading to differentiation. Aurora A is a serine threonine kinase highly involved in such divisions. While intensively studied at the cell biology level, its function in the development of a whole organism has been neglected. Here we investigated the pleiotropic effect of Aurora A loss-of-function in Drosophila larval early development. We report that Aurora A is required for proper larval development timing control through direct and indirect means...
May 9, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752953/do-cells-sense-time-by-number-of-divisions
#11
Z Schuss, K Tor, D Holcman
Can the cell's perception of time be expressed through the length of the shortest telomere? To address this question, we analyze an asymmetric random walk that models telomere length for each division that can decrease by a fixed length a or, if recognized by a polymerase, it increases by a fixed length b ≫ a. Our analysis of the model reveals two phases, first, a determinist drift of the length toward a quasi-equilibrium state, and second, persistence of the length near an attracting state for the majority of divisions...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748033/predominant-asymmetrical-stem-cell-fate-outcome-limits-the-rate-of-niche-succession-in-human-colonic-crypts
#12
Craig Stamp, Anze Zupanic, Ashwin Sachdeva, Elizabeth A Stoll, Daryl P Shanley, John C Mathers, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Rakesh Heer, Benjamin D Simons, Doug M Turnbull, Laura C Greaves
Stem cell (SC) dynamics within the human colorectal crypt SC niche remain poorly understood, with previous studies proposing divergent hypotheses on the predominant mode of SC self-renewal and the rate of SC replacement. Here we use age-related mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects to trace clonal lineages within human colorectal crypts across the adult life-course. By resolving the frequency and size distribution of OXPHOS-deficient clones, quantitative analysis shows that, in common with mouse, long-term maintenance of the colonic epithelial crypt relies on stochastic SC loss and replacement mediated by competition for limited niche access...
April 25, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745002/helicobacter-pylori-shows-asymmetric-and-polar-cell-divisome-assembly-associated-with-dna-replisome
#13
Mohammad Kamran, Priyanka Dubey, Vijay Verma, Santanu Dasgupta, Suman K Dhar
DNA replication and cell division are two fundamental processes in the life cycle of a cell. Majority of the prokaryotic cells undergo division by means of binary fission in coordination with replication of the genome. Both processes, specially their coordination, are poorly understood in Helicobacter pylori. Here, we studied the cell divisome assembly and the subsequent processes of membrane and peptidoglycan syntheses in the bacterium. To our surprise, we found the cell divisome assembly to be polar, as well-corroborated by the asymmetric membrane and peptidoglycan synthesis at the poles...
May 9, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742423/cdk5-inhibition-resolves-pka-camp-independent-activation-of-creb1-signaling-in-glioma-stem-cells
#14
Subhas Mukherjee, Carol Tucker-Burden, Emily Kaissi, Austin Newsam, Hithardhi Duggireddy, Monica Chau, Changming Zhang, Bhakti Diwedi, Manali Rupji, Sandra Seby, Jeanne Kowalski, Jun Kong, Renee Read, Daniel J Brat
Cancer stem cells promote neoplastic growth, in part by deregulating asymmetric cell division and enhancing self-renewal. To uncover mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets in glioma stem cell (GSC) self-renewal, we performed a genetic suppressor screen for kinases to reverse the tumor phenotype of our Drosophila brain tumor model and identified dCdk5 as a critical regulator. CDK5, the human ortholog of dCdk5 (79% identity), is aberrantly activated in GBMs and tightly aligned with both chromosome 7 gains and stem cell markers affecting tumor-propagation...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731305/disumo-like-interacts-with-rna-binding-proteins-and-affects-cell-cycle-progression-during-maize-embryogenesis
#15
Junyi Chen, Kamila Kalinowska, Benedikt Müller, Julia Mergner, Rainer Deutzmann, Claus Schwechheimer, Ulrich Z Hammes, Thomas Dresselhaus
Embryogenesis in flowering plants is initiated by an asymmetric zygote division, generating two daughter cells that are the precursors of different cell lineages. Little is known about the molecular players regulating activation and progression of zygote development, establishment of asymmetry, and the plant-specific process of cell-plate formation. Here, we report the function of the ubiquitin-like modifier DiSUMO-LIKE (DSUL) for early embryo development in maize. Introducing a DSUL-RNAi construct by sperm cells affects cytokinesis generating non-separated zygotic daughter nuclei or multinucleate embryonic cells lacking cell plates...
April 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724757/pi-4-5-p-2-forms-dynamic-cortical-structures-and-directs-actin-distribution-as-well-as-polarity-in-c-elegans-embryos
#16
Melina J Scholze, Kévin S Barbieux, Alessandro De Simone, Mathilde Boumasmoud, Camille C N Süess, Ruijia Wang, Pierre Gönczy
Asymmetric division is crucial for embryonic development and stem cell lineages. In the one-cell C. elegans embryo, a contractile cortical actomyosin network contributes to asymmetric division by segregating PAR proteins to discrete cortical domains. Here, we discovered that the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) localizes to polarized dynamic structures in C. elegans zygotes, distributing in a PAR-dependent manner along the anterior-posterior (A-P) embryonic axis. PIP2 cortical structures overlap with F-actin, and coincide with the actin regulators RHO-1, CDC-42 as well as ECT-2...
May 3, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707696/clonal-bifurcation-of-foxp3-expression-visualized-in-thymocytes-and-t-cells
#17
Bonnie Yen, Katherine T Fortson, Nyanza J Rothman, Nicholas Arpaia, Steven L Reiner
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for suppressing autoimmunity and inflammation mediated by conventional T cells. To be useful, some Tregs should have overlapping specificity with relevant self-reactive or pathogen-specific clones. Whether matching recognition between Tregs and non-Tregs might arise through stochastic or deterministic mechanisms has not been addressed. We tested the hypothesis that some Tregs that arise in the thymus or that are induced during Ag-driven expansion of conventional CD4+ T cells might be clonally related to non-Tregs by virtue of asymmetric Foxp3 induction during cell division...
April 1, 2018: ImmunoHorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704374/-research-progress-on-the-asymmetric-division-in-mammalian-oocytes
#18
Jun Yu Zhang, Shan Lv, Hui Min Niu, An Min Lei
The mammalian oocyte maturation process consists of two consecutive asymmetric divisions, and produces three daughter cells of vastly different sizes: one larger egg cell and two smaller polar bodies. Asymmetric division is a typical feature of mammalian oocyte meiosis that results in a highly polar egg cell. The mitosis of the cell after fertilization exhibits restored symmetric division, but the polarity characteristics formed during meiosis of oocytes are preserved and affect the polarity of early embryos...
April 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701802/a2-type-cyclin-is-required-for-the-asymmetric-entry-division-in-rice-stomatal-development
#19
Xiaoxiao Qu, Min Yan, Junjie Zou, Min Jiang, Kezhen Yang, Jie Le
In rice, and other major cereal grass crops, stomata are arranged in linear files that parallel to the long growth axis of leaves. Each stomatal unit comprises two dumbbell-shaped guard cells flanked by two subsidiary cells. These morphological and developmental characteristics enable grass stomata response to environmental changes more efficiently. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their cyclin partners coordinate the cell proliferation and differentiation during the development of multicellular organisms...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688794/spindle-assembly-checkpoint-strength-is-linked-to-cell-fate-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#20
Abigail R Gerhold, Vincent Poupart, Jean-Claude Labbé, Paul S Maddox
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mitotic regulator that preserves genome stability by monitoring kinetochore-microtubule attachments and blocking anaphase onset until chromosome bi-orientation is achieved. Despite its central role in maintaining mitotic fidelity, the ability of the SAC to delay mitotic exit in the presence of kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects (SAC "strength") appears to vary widely. How different cellular aspects drive this variation remains largely unknown...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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