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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325554/inscuteable-maintains-type-i-neuroblast-lineage-identity-via-numb-notch-signaling-in-the-drosophila-larval-brain
#1
Huanping An, Wanzhong Ge, Yongmei Xi, Xiaohang Yang
In the Drosophila larval brain, type I and type II neuroblasts (NBs) undergo a series of asymmetric divisions which give rise to distinct progeny lineages. The intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) exist only in type II NB lineages. In this study, we reveal a novel function of Inscuteable (Insc) that acts to maintain type I NB lineage identity. In insc type I NB clones of mosaic analyses with a repressible cell marker (MARCM), the formation of extra Deadpan (Dpn)(+) NB-like and GMC-like cells is observed. The lack of Insc leads to the defective localization and segregation of Numb during asymmetric cell division...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300142/late-assembly-of-the-vibrio-cholerae-cell-division-machinery-postpones-septation-to-the-last-10-of-the-cell-cycle
#2
Elisa Galli, Evelyne Paly, François-Xavier Barre
Bacterial cell division is a highly regulated process, which involves the formation of a complex apparatus, the divisome, by over a dozen proteins. In the few model bacteria in which the division process was detailed, divisome assembly occurs in two distinct steps: a few proteins, including the FtsZ tubulin-like protein, form a membrane associated contractile ring, the Z-ring, at ~30% of the cell cycle. The Z-ring serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of a second series of proteins, including integral membrane and periplasmic cell wall remodelling enzymes, at ~50% of the cell cycle...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285992/tissue-wide-mechanical-forces-influence-the-polarity-of-stomatal-stem-cells-in-arabidopsis
#3
Martin Bringmann, Dominique C Bergmann
Mechanical information is an important contributor to cell polarity in uni- and multicellular systems [1-3]. In planar tissues like the Drosophila wing, cell polarity reorients during growth as cells divide and reorganize [4]. In another planar tissue, the Arabidopsis leaf epidermis [5], polarized, asymmetric divisions of stomatal stem cells (meristemoid mother cells [MMCs]) are fundamental for the generation and patterning of multiple cell types, including stomata. The activity of key transcription factors, polarizing factors [6], and peptide signals [7] explains some local stomatal patterns emerging from the behavior of a few lineally related cells [6, 8-11]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285879/lineage-specification-from-prostate-progenitor-cells-requires-gata3-dependent-mitotic-spindle-orientation
#4
Maxwell E R Shafer, Alana H T Nguyen, Mathieu Tremblay, Sophie Viala, Mélanie Béland, Nicholas R Bertos, Morag Park, Maxime Bouchard
During prostate development, basal and luminal cell lineages are generated through symmetric and asymmetric divisions of bipotent basal cells. However, the extent to which spindle orientation controls division symmetry or cell fate, and the upstream factors regulating this process, are still elusive. We report that GATA3 is expressed in both prostate basal progenitor and luminal cells and that loss of GATA3 leads to a mislocalization of PRKCZ, resulting in mitotic spindle randomization during progenitor cell division...
March 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274196/asymmetric-cellular-memory-in-bacteria-exposed-to-antibiotics
#5
Roland Mathis, Martin Ackermann
BACKGROUND: The ability to form a cellular memory and use it for cellular decision-making could help bacteria to cope with recurrent stress conditions. We analyzed whether bacteria would form a cellular memory specifically if past events are predictive of future conditions. We worked with the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus where past events are expected to only be informative for one of the two cells emerging from division, the sessile cell that remains in the same microenvironment and does not migrate...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268050/breaking-symmetry-asymmetric-histone-inheritance-in-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Jing Xie, Matthew Wooten, Vuong Tran, Xin Chen
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) gives rise to two daughter cells with distinct fates. ACD is widely used during development and by many types of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. ACD can be regulated by extrinsic cues, such as signaling molecules, as well as by intrinsic factors, such as organelles and cortex proteins. The recent discovery of asymmetric histone inheritance during stem cell ACD has revealed another intrinsic mechanism by which ACD produces two distinct daughters. In this review we discuss these findings in the context of cell-cycle regulation, as well as other studies of ACD, to begin understanding the underlying mechanisms and biological relevance of this phenomenon...
March 4, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265057/auxin-response-cell-autonomously-controls-ground-tissue-initiation-in-the-early-arabidopsis-embryo
#7
Barbara K Möller, Colette A Ten Hove, Daoquan Xiang, Nerys Williams, Lorena González López, Saiko Yoshida, Margot Smit, Raju Datla, Dolf Weijers
Plant organs are typically organized into three main tissue layers. The middle ground tissue layer comprises the majority of the plant body and serves a wide range of functions, including photosynthesis, selective nutrient uptake and storage, and gravity sensing. Ground tissue patterning and maintenance in Arabidopsis are controlled by a well-established gene network revolving around the key regulator SHORT-ROOT (SHR). In contrast, it is completely unknown how ground tissue identity is first specified from totipotent precursor cells in the embryo...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262489/compartmentalization-of-er-bound-chaperone-confines-protein-deposit-formation-to-the-aging-yeast-cell
#8
Juha Saarikangas, Fabrice Caudron, Rupali Prasad, David F Moreno, Alessio Bolognesi, Martí Aldea, Yves Barral
In order to produce rejuvenated daughters, dividing budding yeast cells confine aging factors, including protein aggregates, to the aging mother cell. The asymmetric inheritance of these protein deposits is mediated by organelle and cytoskeletal attachment and by cell geometry. Yet it remains unclear how deposit formation is restricted to the aging lineage. Here, we show that selective membrane anchoring and the compartmentalization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane confine protein deposit formation to aging cells during division...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255714/imaging-asymmetric-t-cell-division
#9
Mirren Charnley, Sarah M Russell
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) controls cell fate decisions in model organisms such as Drosophila and C. elegans and has recently emerged as a mediator of T cell fate and hematopoiesis. The most appropriate methods for assessing ACD in T cells are still evolving. Here we describe the methods currently applied to monitor and measure ACD of developing and activated T cells. We provide an overview of approaches for capturing cells in the process of cytokinesis in vivo, ex vivo, or during in vitro culture. We provide methods for in vitro fixed immunofluorescent staining and for time-lapse analysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253358/epithelial-stem-cells-are-formed-by-small-particles-released-from-particle-producing-cells
#10
Wuyi Kong, Xiao Ping Zhu, Xiu Juan Han, Mu Nuo, Hong Wang
Recent spatiotemporal report demonstrated that epidermal stem cells have equal potential to divide or differentiate, with no asymmetric cell division observed. Therefore, how epithelial stem cells maintain lifelong stem-cell support still needs to be elucidated. In mouse blood and bone marrow, we found a group of large cells stained strongly for eosin and containing coiled-tubing-like structures. Many were tightly attached to each other to form large cellular clumps. After sectioning, these large cell-clumps were composed of not cells but numerous small particles, however with few small "naked" nuclei...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247957/how-can-zygotes-segregate-entire-parental-genomes-into-distinct-blastomeres-the-zygote-metaphase-revisited
#11
Aspasia Destouni, Joris R Vermeesch
Zygote cytokinesis produces two symmetric blastomeres, which contain one copy of each parental genome. Contrary to this dogma, we recently discovered that mammalian zygotes can spontaneously segregate entire parental genomes into different blastomeres and coined this novel form of genome segregation heterogoneic division. The molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of blastomeres with different parental genomes during the first mitotic cycle remain to be elucidated. Here, we speculate on which parental genome asymmetries could provide a mechanistic foundation for these remarkable zygote divisions...
March 1, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247045/regulation-of-the-balance-between-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-germ-line-stem-cells
#12
Ramya Singh, Dave Hansen
In many animals, reproductive fitness is dependent upon the production of large numbers of gametes over an extended period of time. This level of gamete production is possible due to the continued presence of germ line stem cells. These cells can produce two types of daughter cells, self-renewing daughter cells that will maintain the stem cell population and differentiating daughter cells that will become gametes. A balance must be maintained between the proliferating self-renewing cells and those that differentiate for long-term gamete production to be maintained...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245922/an-hdac1-rpd3-poised-circuit-balances-continual-self-renewal-and-rapid-restriction-of-developmental-potential-during-asymmetric-stem-cell-division
#13
Derek H Janssens, Danielle C Hamm, Lucas Anhezini, Qi Xiao, Karsten H Siller, Sarah E Siegrist, Melissa M Harrison, Cheng-Yu Lee
How the developmental potential of differentiating stem cell progeny becomes rapidly and stably restricted following asymmetric stem cell division is unclear. In the fly larval brain, earmuff (erm) uniquely functions to restrict the developmental potential of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) generated by asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells (neuroblasts). Here we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase Hdac1/Rpd3 functions together with self-renewal transcriptional repressors to maintain the erm immature INP enhancer in an inactive but poised state in neuroblasts...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236972/regulation-of-cell-polarity-by-par-1-mark-kinase
#14
Youjun Wu, Erik E Griffin
PAR-1/MARK kinases are conserved serine/threonine kinases that are essential regulators of cell polarity. PAR-1/MARK kinases localize and function in opposition to the anterior PAR proteins to control the asymmetric distribution of factors in a wide variety polarized cells. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that control the localization and activity of PAR-1/MARK kinases, including their antagonistic interactions with the anterior PAR proteins. We focus on the role PAR-1 plays in the asymmetric division of the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, in the establishment of the anterior/posterior axis in the Drosophila oocyte and in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231465/time-specific-effects-of-spindle-positioning-on-embryonic-progenitor-pool-composition-and-adult-neural-stem-cell-seeding
#15
Sven Falk, Stéphane Bugeon, Jovica Ninkovic, Gregor-Alexander Pilz, Maria Pia Postiglione, Harold Cremer, Jürgen A Knoblich, Magdalena Götz
The developmental mechanisms regulating the number of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are largely unknown. Here we show that the cleavage plane orientation in murine embryonic radial glia cells (RGCs) regulates the number of aNSCs in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE). Randomizing spindle orientation in RGCs by overexpression of Insc or a dominant-negative form of Lgn (dnLgn) reduces the frequency of self-renewing asymmetric divisions while favoring symmetric divisions generating two SNPs. Importantly, these changes during embryonic development result in reduced seeding of aNSCs...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223353/sap1-is-a-replication-initiation-factor-essential-for-the-assembly-of-pre-replicative-complex-in-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#16
Ling Guan, Peng He, Fang Yang, Yuan Zhang, Yunfei Hu, Jienv Ding, Yu Hua, Yi Zhang, Qiong Ye, Jiazhi Hu, Tao Wang, Changwen Jin, Daochun Kong
A central step in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotes is the assembly of pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) at late M and early G1 phase of the cell cycles. Since 1973, four proteins or protein complexes, including cell division control protein 6 (Cdc6)/Cdc18, minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM), origin recognition complex (ORC), and Cdt1, are known components of the pre-RC. Previously, we reported that a non-ORC protein binds to the essential element delta 9 of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA replication origin ARS3001...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220297/what-roles-do-colon-stem-cells-and-gap-junctions-play-in-the-left-and-right-location-of-origin-of-colorectal-cancers
#17
James E Trosko, Heinz-Josef Lenz
This "Commentary" examines an important clinical observation that right-sided colorectal cancers appear less treatable than the left-sided cancers. The concepts of (a) the "initiation/promotion/progression" process, (b) the stem cell hypothesis, (c) the role gap junctional intercellular communication, (d) cancer cells lacking GJIC either because of the non-expression of connexin genes or of non-functional gap junction proteins, and (e) the role of the microbiome in promoting initiated colon stem cells to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically are examined to find an explanation...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218902/retinoic-acid-directs-breast-cancer-cell-state-changes-through-regulation-of-tet2-pkc%C3%AE-pathway
#18
M-J Wu, M R Kim, Y-S Chen, J-Y Yang, C-J Chang
The key molecular mechanism governing the cancer cell state (stem cell-like state vs differentiation state) to control the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool remains elusive. This study provides the first evidence showing that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces the interaction and chromatin recruitment of a novel RARβ-TET2 complex to epigenetically activate a specific cohort of gene targets, including MiR-200c. TET2-activated miR-200c further targets and suppresses PKCζ, a cell polarity protein that has a pivotal role in directing asymmetric division of mammalian stem cells to sustain the stem cell pool...
February 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211915/structure-of-the-shr-scr-heterodimer-bound-to-the-bird-idd-transcriptional-factor-jkd
#19
Yoshinori Hirano, Masahiro Nakagawa, Tomoe Suyama, Kohji Murase, Maya Shirakawa, Seiji Takayama, Tai-Ping Sun, Toshio Hakoshima
The plant-specific GAI, RGA and SCR (GRAS) family proteins play critical roles in plant development and signalling. Two GRAS proteins, SHORT-ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR), cooperatively direct asymmetric cell division and the patterning of root cell types by transcriptional control in conjunction with BIRD/INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) transcription factors, although precise details of these specific interactions and actions remain unknown. Here, we present the crystal structures of the SHR-SCR binary and JACKDAW (JKD)/IDD10-SHR-SCR ternary complexes...
February 17, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209613/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-directs-self-renewal-symmetric-cell-division-of-hterthigh-prostate-cancer-stem-cells
#20
Kai Zhang, Yanjing Guo, Xue Wang, Huifang Zhao, Zhongzhong Ji, Chaping Cheng, Li Li, Yuxiang Fang, Dawei Xu, Helen He Zhu, Wei-Qiang Gao
Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) drive cancer progression and recurrence. Self-renewal expansion of CSC is achieved through symmetric cell division, yet how external stimuli affect intracellular regulatory programs of CSC division modes and stemness remains obscure. Here we report that hTERThigh prostate cancer (PCa) cells exhibit CSC properties, including a stem cell-associated gene expression signature, long term tumor-propagating capacity and epithelial-to-mensenchymal transition (EMT). In promoting the self-renewal symmetric division of hTERThigh PCa cells, WNT3a dramatically decreased the ratio of hTERThigh PCa cells undergoing asymmetric division...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
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