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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932297/dynamic-self-organisation-of-haematopoiesis-and-a-symmetric-cell-division
#1
Marthe Måløy, Frode Måløy, Per Jakobsen, Bjørn Olav Brandsdal
A model of haematopoiesis that links self-organisation with symmetric and asymmetric cell division is presented in this paper. It is assumed that all cell divisions are completely random events, and that the daughter cells resulting from symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions are, in general, phenotypically identical, and still, the haematopoietic system has the flexibility to self-renew, produce mature cells by differentiation, and regenerate undifferentiated and differentiated cells when necessary, due to self-organisation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930326/cell-size-and-growth-regulation-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-apical-stem-cell-niche
#2
Lisa Willis, Yassin Refahi, Raymond Wightman, Benoit Landrein, José Teles, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson
Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3-4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930094/cancer-stem-cell-hypothesis-for-therapeutic-innovation-in-clinical-oncology-taking-the-root-out-not-chopping-the-leaf
#3
Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Lamech M Mwapagha, Nasir Al-Awwad, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923906/cd4-t-cell-effector-commitment-coupled-to-self-renewal-by-asymmetric-cell-divisions
#4
Simone A Nish, Kyra D Zens, Radomir Kratchmarov, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, William C Adams, Yen-Hua Chen, Bonnie Yen, Nyanza J Rothman, Avinash Bhandoola, Hai-Hui Xue, Donna L Farber, Steven L Reiner
Upon infection, an activated CD4(+) T cell produces terminally differentiated effector cells and renews itself for continued defense. In this study, we show that differentiation and self-renewal arise as opposing outcomes of sibling CD4(+) T cells. After influenza challenge, antigen-specific cells underwent several divisions in draining lymph nodes (LN; DLNs) while maintaining expression of TCF1. After four or five divisions, some cells silenced, whereas some cells maintained TCF1 expression. TCF1-silenced cells were T helper 1-like effectors and concentrated in the lungs...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911812/cytoskeleton-dynamics-control-the-first-asymmetric-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-zygote
#5
Yusuke Kimata, Takumi Higaki, Tomokazu Kawashima, Daisuke Kurihara, Yoshikatsu Sato, Tomomi Yamada, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Frederic Berger, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
The asymmetric cell division of the zygote is the initial and crucial developmental step in most multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, whether zygote polarity is inherited from the preexisting organization in the egg cell or reestablished after fertilization has remained elusive. How dynamically the intracellular organization is generated during zygote polarization is also unknown. Here, we used a live-cell imaging system with Arabidopsis zygotes to visualize the dynamics of the major elements of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs), and actin filaments (F-actins), during the entire process of zygote polarization...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894248/crystal-structure-of-murein-tripeptide-amidase-mpaa-from-escherichia-coli-o157-at-2-6-%C3%A3-resolution
#6
Yinliang Ma, Guohui Bai, Yaqi Cui, Jing Zhao, Zenglin Yuan, Xiuhua Liu
Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential component of the cell wall, and undergoes reconstruction by various PG hydrolases during cell growth, development and division. The murein- tripeptide (Mtp) amidase MpaA belongs to PG hydrolase family and is responsible for cleaving the γ-D-Glu-meso-Dap amide bond in the Mtp released during PG turnover. The current paper reports the crystal structure of MpaA from Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 at 2.6 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit consists of two protein molecules and each monomer represents the common α/β fold of metallo-carboxypeptidases (MCP)...
November 28, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891124/a-novel-cell-type-enables-b-subtilis-to-escape-from-unsuccessful-sporulation-in-minimal-medium
#7
Hervé Joël Defeu Soufo
Sporulation is the most enduring survival strategy developed by several bacterial species. However, spore development of the model organism Bacillus subtilis has mainly been studied by means of media or conditions optimized for the induction of sporogenesis. Here, I show that during prolonged growth during stationary phase in minimal medium, B. subtilis undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces small and round-shaped, DNA containing cells. In contrast to wild-type cells, mutants harboring spo0A or spoIIIE/sftA double mutations neither sporulate nor produce this special cell type, providing evidence that the small round cells emerge from the abortion of endospore formation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885983/klp10a-a-stem-cell-centrosome-enriched-kinesin-balances-asymmetries-in-drosophila-male-germline-stem-cell-division
#8
Cuie Chen, Mayu Inaba, Zsolt G Venkei, Yukiko M Yamashita
Asymmetric stem cell division is often accompanied by stereotypical inheritance of the mother and daughter centrosomes. However, it remains unknown whether and how stem cell centrosomes are uniquely regulated and how this regulation may contribute to stem cell fate. Here we identify Klp10A, a microtubule-depolymerizing kinesin of the kinesin-13 family, as the first protein enriched in the stem cell centrosome in Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs). Depletion of klp10A results in abnormal elongation of the mother centrosomes in GSCs, suggesting the existence of a stem cell-specific centrosome regulation program...
November 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872278/reconstitution-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteostasis-network-highlights-essential-cofactor-interactions-with-chaperone-dnak
#9
Tania J Lupoli, Allison Fay, Carolina Adura, Michael S Glickman, Carl F Nathan
During host infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters several types of stress that impair protein integrity, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chemotherapy. The resulting protein aggregates can be resolved or degraded by molecular machinery conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. Eukaryotic Hsp104/Hsp70 and their bacterial homologs ClpB/DnaK are ATP-powered chaperones that restore toxic protein aggregates to a native folded state. DnaK is essential in Mycobacterium smegmatis, and ClpB is involved in asymmetrically distributing damaged proteins during cell division as a mechanism of survival in Mtb, commending both proteins as potential drug targets...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872203/molecular-mechanisms-of-asymmetric-divisions-in-mammary-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Angela Santoro, Thalia Vlachou, Manuel Carminati, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Marina Mapelli
Stem cells have the remarkable ability to undergo proliferative symmetric divisions and self-renewing asymmetric divisions. Balancing of the two modes of division sustains tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Asymmetric divisions of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) and sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells served as prototypes to learn what we consider now principles of asymmetric mitoses. They also provide initial evidence supporting the notion that aberrant symmetric divisions of stem cells could correlate with malignancy...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870831/asymmetric-division-coordinates-collective-cell-migration-in-angiogenesis
#11
Guilherme Costa, Kyle I Harrington, Holly E Lovegrove, Donna J Page, Shilpa Chakravartula, Katie Bentley, Shane P Herbert
The asymmetric division of stem or progenitor cells generates daughters with distinct fates and regulates cell diversity during tissue morphogenesis. However, roles for asymmetric division in other more dynamic morphogenetic processes, such as cell migration, have not previously been described. Here we combine zebrafish in vivo experimental and computational approaches to reveal that heterogeneity introduced by asymmetric division generates multicellular polarity that drives coordinated collective cell migration in angiogenesis...
November 21, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852437/cell-wall-remodeling-drives-engulfment-during-bacillus-subtilis-sporulation
#12
Nikola Ojkic, Javier López-Garrido, Kit Pogliano, Robert G Endres
When starved, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms durable spores for survival. Sporulation initiates with an asymmetric cell division, creating a large mother cell and a small forespore. Subsequently, the mother cell membrane engulfs the forespore in a phagocytosis-like process. However, the force generation mechanism for forward membrane movement remains unknown. Here, we show that membrane migration is driven by cell wall remodeling at the leading edge of the engulfing membrane, with peptidoglycan synthesis and degradation mediated by penicillin binding proteins in the forespore and a cell wall degradation protein complex in the mother cell...
November 17, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851952/shape-transformation-of-the-nuclear-envelope-during-closed-mitosis
#13
Qian Zhu, Fan Zheng, Allen P Liu, Jin Qian, Chuanhai Fu, Yuan Lin
The nuclear envelope (NE) in lower eukaryotes such as Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes large morphology changes during closed mitosis. However, which physical parameters are important in governing the shape evolution of the NE, and how defects in the dividing chromosomes/microtubules are reflected in those parameters, are fundamental questions that remain unresolved. In this study, we show that improper separation of chromosomes in genetically deficient cells leads to membrane tethering or asymmetric division in contrast to the formation of two equal-sized daughter nuclei in wild-type cells...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843459/tumor-budding-micropapillary-pattern-and-polyploidy-giant-cancer-cells-in-colorectal-cancer-current-status-and-future-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Shiwu Zhang, Dan Zhang, Zhengduo Yang, Xipeng Zhang
We previously reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCGs) induced by CoCl2 could form through endoreduplication or cell fusion. A single PGCC formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. PGCCs are also the key contributors to the cellular atypia and associate with the malignant grade of tumors. PGCCs have the properties of cancer stem cells and produce daughter cells via asymmetric cell division. Compared with diploid cancer cells, these daughter cells express less epithelial markers and acquire mesenchymal phenotype with importance in cancer development and progression...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825447/plant-development-suppression-the-key-to%C3%A2-asymmetric-cell-fate
#15
Stuart A Casson
A new study shows that SPEECHLESS determines cell fate in the stomatal lineage but is inherited equally by daughter cells following an asymmetric cell division. The polarity determinant BASL acts as a MAPK scaffold, targeting SPEECHLESS for degradation in the larger daughter cell.
November 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825067/cells-walls-and-endless-forms
#16
REVIEW
Marie Monniaux, Angela Hay
A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve...
November 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821529/introduction-to-provocative-questions-in-left-right-asymmetry
#17
Michael Levin, Amar J S Klar, Ann F Ramsdell
Left-right asymmetry is a phenomenon that has a broad appeal-to anatomists, developmental biologists and evolutionary biologists-because it is a morphological feature of organisms that spans scales of size and levels of organization, from unicellular protists, to vertebrate organs, to social behaviour. Here, we highlight a number of important aspects of asymmetry that encompass several areas of biology-cell-level, physiological, genetic, anatomical and evolutionary components-and that are based on research conducted in diverse model systems, ranging from single cells to invertebrates to human developmental disorders...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815895/image-cytofluorometry-for-the-quantification-of-ploidy-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-cancer-cells
#18
Laura Senovilla, Yohann Demont, Juliette Humeau, Norma Bloy, Guido Kroemer
One of the mechanisms of cancer-associated genomic instability involves a transient phase of polyploidization, in most cases tetraploidization, followed by asymmetric divisions and chromosome loss. Increases in ploidy are consistently accompanied by the activation of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, resulting in the translocation of calreticulin to the outer surface of the plasma membrane where it stimulates anticancer immune responses. Conversely, immunoselection leads to a coordinated reduction in ploidy, ER stress, and calreticulin exposure...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815300/prions-chaperones-and-proteostasis-in-yeast
#19
Tatiana A Chernova, Keith D Wilkinson, Yury O Chernoff
Prions are alternatively folded, self-perpetuating protein isoforms involved in a variety of biological and pathological processes. Yeast prions are protein-based heritable elements that serve as an excellent experimental system for studying prion biology. The propagation of yeast prions is controlled by the same Hsp104/70/40 chaperone machinery that is involved in the protection of yeast cells against proteotoxic stress. Ribosome-associated chaperones, proteolytic pathways, cellular quality-control compartments, and cytoskeletal networks influence prion formation, maintenance, and toxicity...
November 4, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803106/egfl6-regulates-the-asymmetric-division-maintenance-and-metastasis-of-aldh-ovarian-cancer-cells
#20
Shoumei Bai, Patrick Ingram, Yu-Chih Chen, Ning Deng, Alex Pearson, Yashar Niknafs, Patrick O'Hayer, Yun Wang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Elisa Boscolo, Joyce Bischoff, Euisik Yoon, Ronald J Buckanovich
Little is known about the factors that regulate the asymmetric division of cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Here, we demonstrate that EGFL6, a stem cell regulatory factor expressed in ovarian tumor cells and vasculature, regulates ALDH(+) ovarian CSC. EGFL6 signaled at least in part via the oncoprotein SHP2 with concomitant activation of ERK. EGFL6 signaling promoted the migration and asymmetric division of ALDH(+) ovarian CSC. As such, EGFL6 increased not only tumor growth but also metastasis. Silencing of EGFL6 or SHP2 limited numbers of ALDH(+) cells and reduced tumor growth, supporting a critical role for EGFL6/SHP2 in ALDH(+) cell maintenance...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Research
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