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asymmetric cell division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899667/bhlh-o-proteins-balance-the-self-renewal-and-differentiation-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells-by-regulating-earmuff-expression
#1
Xiaosu Li, Rui Chen, Sijun Zhu
Balancing self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells requires differential expression of self-renewing factors in two daughter cells generated from the asymmetric division of the stem cells. In Drosophila type II neural stem cell (or neuroblast, NB) lineages, the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix-Orange (bHLH-O) family proteins, including Deadpan (Dpn) and E(spl) proteins, is required for maintaining the self-renewal and identity of type II NBs, whereas the absence of these self-renewing factors is essential for the differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) generated from type II NBs...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894084/tbx3-dependent-amplifying-stem-cell-progeny-drives-interfollicular-epidermal-expansion-during-pregnancy-and-regeneration
#2
Ryo Ichijo, Hiroki Kobayashi, Saori Yoneda, Yui Iizuka, Hirokazu Kubo, Shigeru Matsumura, Satsuki Kitano, Hitoshi Miyachi, Tetsuya Honda, Fumiko Toyoshima
The skin surface area varies flexibly in response to body shape changes. Skin homeostasis is maintained by stem cells residing in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. However, how the interfollicular epidermal stem cells response to physiological body shape changes remains elusive. Here, we identify a highly proliferative interfollicular epidermal basal cell population in the rapidly expanding abdominal skin of pregnant mice. These cells express Tbx3 that is necessary for their propagation to drive skin expansion...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887414/progressive-polarity-loss-and-luminal-collapse-disrupt-tissue-organization-in-carcinoma
#3
Ruba Halaoui, Carlis Rejon, Sudipa June Chatterjee, Joseph Szymborski, Sarkis Meterissian, William J Muller, Atilla Omeroglu, Luke McCaffrey
Epithelial cancers (carcinoma) account for 80%-90% of all cancers. The development of carcinoma is associated with disrupted epithelial organization and solid ductal structures. The mechanisms underlying the morphological development of carcinoma are poorly understood, but it is thought that loss of cell polarity is an early event. Here we report the characterization of the development of human breast lesions leading to carcinoma. We identified a unique mechanism that generates solid ducts in carcinoma through progressive loss of polarity and collapse of the luminal architecture...
September 8, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887017/establishment-and-activity-of-the-d-quadrant-organizer-in-the-marine-gastropod-crepidula-fornicata
#4
Jonathan Q Henry, Deirdre C Lyons, Kimberly J Perry, Chen Cornelia Osborne
During development in metazoan embryos, the fundamental embryonic axes are established by organizing centers that influence the fates of nearby cells. Among the spiralians, a large and diverse branch of protostome metazoans, studies have shown that an organizer sets up the dorsal-ventral axis, which arises from one of the four basic cell quadrants during development (the dorsal, D quadrant). Studies in a few species have also revealed variation in terms of how and when the D quadrant and the organizer are established...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851710/notch-signaling-patterns-neurogenic-ectoderm-and-regulates-the-asymmetric-division-of-neural-progenitors-in-sea-urchin-embryos
#5
Dan O Mellott, Jordan Thisdelle, Robert D Burke
We have examined regulation of neurogenesis by Delta/Notch signaling in sea urchin embryos. At gastrulation neural progenitors enter S-phase coincident with expression of Sp-SoxC. We used a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) containing GFP knocked into the Sp-SoxC locus to label neural progenitors. Live imaging and immunolocalizations indicate that Sp-SoxC-expressing cells divide producing pairs of adjacent cells expressing GFP. Over an interval of about 6 h, one cell fragments, undergoes apoptosis, and expresses high levels of activated Caspase3...
August 29, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846070/proteasome-activity-regulates-cd8-t-lymphocyte-metabolism-and-fate-specification
#6
Christella E Widjaja, Jocelyn G Olvera, Patrick J Metz, Anthony T Phan, Jeffrey N Savas, Gerjan de Bruin, Yves Leestemaker, Celia R Berkers, Annemieke de Jong, Bogdan I Florea, Kathleen Fisch, Justine Lopez, Stephanie H Kim, Daniel A Garcia, Stephen Searles, Jack D Bui, Aaron N Chang, John R Yates, Ananda W Goldrath, Hermen S Overkleeft, Huib Ovaa, John T Chang
During an immune response, CD8+ T lymphocytes can undergo asymmetric division, giving rise to daughter cells that exhibit distinct tendencies to adopt terminal effector and memory cell fates. Here we show that "pre-effector" and "pre-memory" cells resulting from the first CD8+ T cell division in vivo exhibited low and high rates of endogenous proteasome activity, respectively. Pharmacologic reduction of proteasome activity in CD8+ T cells early during differentiation resulted in acquisition of terminal effector cell characteristics, whereas enhancement of proteasome activity conferred attributes of memory lymphocytes...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840245/centromere-dynamics-in-male-and-female-germ-cells
#7
Elaine M Dunleavy, Caitríona M Collins
In sexually reproducing organisms the germ line is the cellular lineage that gives rise to gametes. All germ cells originate from germline stem cells that divide asymmetrically to generate gonial pre-cursors, which are amplified in number by mitotic divisions, undergo meiosis and eventually differentiate into mature gametes (haploid eggs and sperm). Information transmitted with gametes is inherited by offspring, and potentially by subsequent generations, instructing in organismal development and beyond. Meiosis comprises one round of DNA replication, followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation; homologous chromosomes segregate in the first division (meiosis I) and sister chromatids segregate in the second division (meiosis II)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839200/physical-determinants-of-asymmetric-cell-divisions-in-the-early-development-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Rolf Fickentscher, Matthias Weiss
Asymmetric cell divisions are of fundamental importance for the development of multicellular organisms, e.g. for the generation of founder cells. Prime examples are asymmetric cell divisions in germline precursors during the early embryogenesis of the transparent roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the major developmental model organisms. However, due to a lack of quantitative data it has remained unclear how frequent unequal daughter cell sizes emerge in the worm's early embryogenesis, and whether these originate from sterical or biochemical cues...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838935/noise-in-a-phosphorelay-drives-stochastic-entry-into-sporulation-in-bacillus-subtilis
#9
Jonathan R Russell, Matthew T Cabeen, Paul A Wiggins, Johan Paulsson, Richard Losick
Entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is governed by a phosphorelay in which phosphoryl groups from a histidine kinase are successively transferred via relay proteins to the response regulator Spo0A. Spo0A~P, in turn, sets in motion events that lead to asymmetric division and activation of the cell-specific transcription factor σ(F), a hallmark for entry into sporulation. Here, we have used a microfluidics-based platform to investigate the activation of Spo0A and σ(F) in individual cells held under constant, sporulation-inducing conditions...
August 24, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829410/live-imaging-of-primary-cerebral-cortex-cells-using-a-2d-culture-system
#10
Bruna Soares Landeira, Jéssica Alves de Medeiros Araújo, Timm Schroeder, Ulrich Müller, Marcos R Costa
During cerebral cortex development, progenitor cells undergo several rounds of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions to generate new progenitors or postmitotic neurons. Later, some progenitors switch to a gliogenic fate, adding to the astrocyte and oligodendrocyte populations. Using time-lapse video-microscopy of primary cerebral cortex cell cultures, it is possible to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the mode of cell division and cell cycle parameters of progenitor cells. Similarly, the fate of postmitotic cells can be examined using cell-specific fluorescent reporter proteins or post-imaging immunocytochemistry...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827395/cytoskeletal-variations-in-an-asymmetric-cell-division-support-diversity-in-nematode-sperm-size-and-sex-ratios
#11
Ethan S Winter, Anna Schwarz, Gunar Fabig, Jessica L Feldman, André Pires-daSilva, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Penny L Sadler, Diane C Shakes
Asymmetric partitioning is an essential component of many developmental processes. As spermatogenesis concludes, sperm are streamlined by discarding unnecessary cellular into cellular wastebags called residual bodies (RBs). During nematode spermatogenesis, this asymmetric partitioning event occurs shortly after anaphase II, and both microtubules and actin partition into a central RB. Here we use fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate and compare the intermediate steps of RB formation in C...
August 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827097/unipotent-progenitors-contribute-to-the-generation-of-sensory-cell-types-in-the-nervous-system-of-the-cnidarian-nematostella-vectensis
#12
Henriette Busengdal, Fabian Rentzsch
Nervous systems often consist of a large number of different types of neurons which are generated from neural stem and progenitor cells by a series of symmetric and asymmetric divisions. The origin and early evolution of these neural progenitor systems is not well understood. Here we use a cnidarian model organism, Nematostella vectensis, to gain insight into the generation of neural cell type diversity in a non-bilaterian animal. We identify NvFoxQ2d as a transcription factor that is expressed in a population of spatially restricted, proliferating ectodermal cells that are derived from NvSoxB(2)-expressing neural progenitor cells...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826971/mathematical-modeling-of-spatiotemporal-protein-localization-patterns-in-c-crescentus-bacteria-a-mechanism-for-asymmetric-ftsz-ring-positioning
#13
Blerta Shtylla
We examine the localization patterns of ParA, ParB, PopZ, and MipZ, which are key division proteins in C. crescentus bacteria. While Par and PopZ proteins have been implicated in the physical segregation of the replicated chromosome, MipZ dimers control the placement of the cell division plane by preventing FtsZ proteins from assembling into a Z-ring. MipZ proteins generate bipolar gradients that are sensitive to Par protein localization, however, it is not understood how the MipZ gradient is shaped so as to allow for the correct Z-ring placement during asymmetric cell division in C...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821747/the-integration-of-g%C3%AE-and-mapk-signaling-cascade-in-zygote-development
#14
Guo-Liang Yuan, Hong-Ju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
Cells respond to many signals with a limited number of signaling components. Heterotrimeric G proteins and MAPK cascades are universally used by eukaryotic cells to transduce signals in various developmental processes or stress responses by activating different effectors. MAPK cascade is integrated with G proteins by scaffold protein during plant immunity. However, the molecular relationship between G proteins and MAPK modules in plant development is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis Gβ protein AGB1 interacts with MPK3 and 6, MKK4 and 5, as well as the regulatory domains of YODA (YDA), the upstream MEKK of MKK4/5...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821654/wnt9a-can-influence-cell-fates-and-neural-connectivity-across-the-radial-axis-of-the-developing-cochlea
#15
Vidhya Munnamalai, Ulrike J Sienknecht, R Keith Duncan, M Katie Scott, Ankita Thawani, Kristen N Fantetti, Nadia M Atallah, Deborah J Biesemeier, Kuhn H Song, Kirsten Luethy, Eric Traub, Donna M Fekete
Vertebrate hearing organs manifest cellular asymmetries across the radial axis that underlie afferent versus efferent circuits between the inner ear and the brain. Thus, understanding the molecular control of patterning across this axis has important functional implications. Radial axis patterning begins before the cells become postmitotic, and is likely linked to the onset of asymmetric expression of secreted factors adjacent to the sensory primordium. This study explores one such asymmetrically-expressed gene, Wnt9a, that becomes restricted to the neural edge of the avian auditory organ, the basilar papilla, by embryonic day (E) 5...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814645/zygotic-genome-activation-occurs-shortly-after-fertilization-in-maize
#16
Junyi Chen, Nicholas Strieder, Nadia G Krohn, Philippe Cyprys, Stefanie Sprunck, Julia C Engelmann, Thomas Dresselhaus
The formation of a zygote via the fusion of an egg and sperm cell and its subsequent asymmetric division (ACD) herald the start of the plant's life cycle. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is thought to occur gradually, with the initial steps of zygote and embryo development being primarily maternally controlled, and subsequent steps being governed by the zygotic genome. Here, using maize (Zea mays) as a model plant system, we determined the timing of zygote development and generated RNA-Seq transcriptome profiles of gametes, zygotes, and apical and basal daughter cells...
August 16, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807882/control-of-nucleus-positioning-in-mouse-oocytes
#17
REVIEW
Maria Almonacid, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-center nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794059/evolution-and-development-of-monocot-stomata
#18
Paula J Rudall, Elisabeth D Chen, Erin Cullen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaves of monocots are typically linear with parallel venation, though a few taxa have broad leaves. Studies of stomatal patterning and development in monocots required updating in the context of rapidly improving knowledge of both the phylogenetic and development-genetic context of monocots that facilitate studies of character evolution. METHODS: We used an existing microscope-slide collection to obtain data on stomatal structure across all the major monocot clades, including some species with relatively broad leaves...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768824/aladin-is-required-for-the-production-of-fertile-mouse-oocytes
#19
Sara Carvalhal, Michelle Stevense, Katrin Koehler, Ronald Naumann, Angela Huebner, Rolf Jessberger, Eric R Griffis
Asymmetric cell divisions depend upon the precise placement of the spindle apparatus. In mammalian oocytes, spindles assemble close to the cell's center but chromosome segregation takes place at the cell periphery where half of the chromosomes are expelled into small, non-developing polar bodies at anaphase. By dividing so asymmetrically, most of the cytoplasmic content within the oocyte is preserved, which is critical for successful fertilization and early development. Recently, we determined that the nucleoporin ALADIN participates in spindle assembly in somatic cells, and we have also shown that female mice homozygously null for ALADIN are sterile...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766983/lkb1-ampk-modulates-nutrient-induced-changes-in-the-mode-of-division-of-intestinal-epithelial-crypt-cells-in-mice
#20
Katherine Blackmore, Weinan Zhou, Megan J Dailey
Nutrient availability influences intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation and tissue growth. Increases in food result in a greater number of epithelial cells, villi height and crypt depth. We investigated whether this nutrient-driven expansion of the tissue is the result of a change in the mode of intestinal epithelial stem cell division and if LKB1-AMPK signaling plays a role. We utilized in vivo and in vitro experiments to test this hypothesis. C57BL/6J mice were separated into four groups and fed varying amounts of chow for 18 h: (1) ad libitum, (2) 50% of their average daily intake (3) fasted or (4) fasted for 12 h and refed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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