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Functional neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453996/broca-s-region-a-causal-role-in-implicit-processing-of-grammars-with-crossed-non-adjacent-dependencies
#1
Julia Uddén, Martin Ingvar, Peter Hagoort, Karl Magnus Petersson
Non-adjacent dependencies are challenging for the language learning machinery and are acquired later than adjacent dependencies. In this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, we show that participants successfully discriminated between grammatical and non-grammatical sequences after having implicitly acquired an artificial language with crossed non-adjacent dependencies. Subsequent to transcranial magnetic stimulation of Broca's region, discrimination was impaired compared to when a language-irrelevant control region (vertex) was stimulated...
April 25, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453478/functional-reserve-experience-participating-in-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-is-associated-with-gender-and-functional-independence-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Courtney Berezuk, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Joel Ramirez, Anthony C Ruocco, Jodi D Edwards, Brandy L Callahan, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease may be explained by gender differences in IADL involvement. OBJECTIVE: We introduce a novel theoretical construct, termed functional reserve, and empirically examine gender differences in IADL experience as a proxy of this reserve. METHODS: We cross-sectionally examined men (n = 502) and women (n = 340) with MCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449262/predictive-mechanisms-linking-brain-opioids-to-chronic-pain-vulnerability-and-resilience
#3
REVIEW
Anthony Kenneth Peter Jones, Christopher Andrew Brown
Chronic pain is a major global healthcare problem that is currently inadequately treated. In addition, the current use of opioids for treatment has reached far beyond the paucity of evidence for long-term benefits relative to risks. Benefit-risk models for opioid and non-opioid treatments would benefit from a rational, mechanism-based understanding of neuroplastic and neurochemical contributions to chronic pain. Here we evaluate the findings and limitations of representative research investigating brain neuroplasticity and neurochemistry in chronic pain...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#4
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446254/functional-neuroimaging-of-sex-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-depression
#5
K D Young, J Bodurka, W C Drevets
BACKGROUND: Females are more likely than males to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of autobiographical memory (AM) recall between males and females diagnosed with MDD. AM overgenerality is a persistent cognitive deficit in MDD, the magnitude of which is correlated with depressive severity only in females. Delineating the neurobiological correlates of this deficit may elucidate the nature of sex-differences in the diathesis for developing MDD...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446211/spontaneous-migraine-attack-causes-alterations-in-default-mode-network-connectivity-a-resting-state-fmri-case-report
#6
Andrea Edit Edes, Lajos Rudolf Kozak, Mate Magyar, Terezia Zsombok, Gyongyi Kokonyei, Gyorgy Bagdy, Gabriella Juhasz
BACKGROUND: Although migraine is one of the most investigated neurologic disorders, we do not have a perfect neuroimaging biomarker for its pathophysiology. One option to improve our knowledge is to study resting-state functional connectivity in and out of headache pain. However, our understanding of the functional connectivity changes during spontaneous migraine attack is partial and incomplete. CASE PRESENTATION: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging we assessed a 24-year old woman affected by migraine without aura at two different times: during a spontaneous migraine attack and in interictal phase...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446207/memory-is-preserved-in-older-adults-taking-at1-receptor-blockers
#7
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
BACKGROUND: Prior work suggests that some but not all antihypertensive treatments may benefit cognition and risk for Alzheimer's disease, independent of stroke. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been highlighted as one antihypertensive drug class that may confer greatest benefit. METHODS: The participants comprised 1626 nondemented adults, aged 55-91 years, recruited from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites. Three groups were compared: ARB users (HTN-ARBs), other antihypertensive drug users (HTN-Other), and normotensives...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445742/beyond-the-bereitschaftspotential-action-preparation-behind-cognitive-functions
#8
REVIEW
F Di Russo, M Berchicci, C Bozzacchi, R L Perri, S Pitzalis, D Spinelli
Research on preparatory brain processes taking place before acting shows unexpected connections with cognitive processing. From 50 years, we know that motor-related brain activity can be measured by electrocortical recordings 1-3s before voluntary actions. This readiness potential has been associated with increasing excitably of premotor and motor areas and directly linked to the kinematic of the upcoming action. Now we know that the mere motor preparation is only one function of a more complex preparatory activity...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445740/right-brain-left-brain-in-depressive-disorders-clinical-and-theoretical-implications-of-behavioral-electrophysiological-and-neuroimaging-findings
#9
REVIEW
Gerard E Bruder, Jonathan W Stewart, Patrick J McGrath
The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444633/distributed-representations-of-action-sequences-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-a-recurrent-neural-network-approach
#10
Danesh Shahnazian, Clay B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been the subject of intense debate over the past 2 decades, but its specific computational function remains controversial. Here we present a simple computational model of ACC that incorporates distributed representations across a network of interconnected processing units. Based on the proposal that ACC is concerned with the execution of extended, goal-directed action sequences, we trained a recurrent neural network to predict each successive step of several sequences associated with multiple tasks...
April 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443017/premature-brain-aging-in-baboons-resulting-from-moderate-fetal-undernutrition
#11
Katja Franke, Geoffrey D Clarke, Robert Dahnke, Christian Gaser, Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Matthias Schwab, Peter W Nathanielsz
Contrary to the known benefits from a moderate dietary reduction during adulthood on life span and health, maternal nutrient reduction during pregnancy is supposed to affect the developing brain, probably resulting in impaired brain structure and function throughout life. Decreased fetal nutrition delivery is widespread in both developing and developed countries, caused by poverty and natural disasters, but also due to maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, pregnancy in women over 35 years of age, placental insufficiency, or multiples...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443010/enhanced-functional-connectivity-between-the-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-after-acupuncture-at-yanglingquan-gb34-in-right-hemispheric-subcortical-stroke-patients-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#12
Yanzhe Ning, Kuangshi Li, Caihong Fu, Yi Ren, Yong Zhang, Hongwei Liu, Fangyuan Cui, Yihuai Zou
Increasing neuroimaging researches in stroke rehabilitation had revealed the neural mechanisms of rehabilitation therapy. However, little was known about the neural mechanisms of acupuncture therapy in subcortical stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of functional connectivity (FC) between the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s) after acupuncture intervention in right subcortical stroke patients. Twenty right-hemispheric subcortical stroke patients and 20 healthy subjects were recruited to undergo one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442537/age-related-reversals-in-neural-recruitment-across-memory-retrieval-phases
#13
Jaclyn H Ford, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Over the last several decades, neuroimaging research has identified age-related neural changes that occur during cognitive tasks. These changes are used to help researchers identify functional changes that contribute to age-related impairments in cognitive performance. One commonly reported example of such a change is an age-related decrease in recruitment of posterior sensory regions coupled with an increased recruitment of prefrontal regions across multiple cognitive tasks. This shift is often described as a compensatory recruitment of prefrontal regions due to age-related sensory processing deficits in posterior regions...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442352/the-effect-of-regulatory-mode-on-procrastination-bi-stable-parahippocampus-connectivity-with-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-and-anterior-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Chenyan Zhang, Yan Ni, Tingyong Feng
Previous research has elucidated that procrastination can be influenced by regulatory mode orientations. However, the neural mechanism of regulatory modes affecting procrastination is not well understood. To address this question, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to test the influence of two regulatory modes (assessment and locomotion) on procrastination. The behavioral results showed that procrastination was positively correlated with assessment orientation but negatively correlated with locomotion orientation...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441884/targeting-neuronal-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-with-nicotine-evidence-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#15
Jason Smucny, Jason R Tregellas
Patients with schizophrenia self-administer nicotine at rates higher than is self-administered for any other psychiatric illness. Although the reasons are unclear, one hypothesis suggests that nicotine is a form of 'self-medication' in order to restore normal levels of nicotinic signaling and target abnormalities in neuronal function associated with cognitive processes. This brief review discusses evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia patients that nicotinic agonists may effectively target dysfunctional neuronal circuits in the illness...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440815/15q11-2-cnv-affects-cognitive-structural-and-functional-correlates-of-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia
#16
M O Ulfarsson, G B Walters, O Gustafsson, S Steinberg, A Silva, O M Doyle, M Brammer, D F Gudbjartsson, S Arnarsdottir, G A Jonsdottir, R S Gisladottir, G Bjornsdottir, H Helgason, L M Ellingsen, J G Halldorsson, E Saemundsen, B Stefansdottir, L Jonsson, V K Eiriksdottir, G R Eiriksdottir, G H Johannesdottir, U Unnsteinsdottir, B Jonsdottir, B B Magnusdottir, P Sulem, U Thorsteinsdottir, E Sigurdsson, D Brandeis, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Stefansson, K Stefansson
Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439530/using-cognitive-training-studies-to-unravel-the-mechanisms-by-which-the-approximate-number-system-supports-symbolic-math-ability
#17
Stephanie Bugden, Nicholas K DeWind, Elizabeth M Brannon
A picture is emerging that preverbal nonsymbolic numerical representations derived from the approximate number system (ANS) play an important role in mathematical development and sustained mathematical thinking. Functional imaging studies are revealing developmental trends in how the brain represents number. We propose that combining behavioral and neuroimaging techniques with cognitive training approaches will help identify the fundamental relationship between the ANS and symbolic mathematics. Understanding this relationship should ultimately benefit educators by providing ways to harness the ANS and hopefully improve math readiness in young children...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439519/structured-illumination-diffuse-optical-tomography-for-noninvasive-functional-neuroimaging-in-mice
#18
Matthew D Reisman, Zachary E Markow, Adam Q Bauer, Joseph P Culver
Optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging has been a powerful tool for capturing functional brain hemodynamics in rodents. Recent wide field-of-view implementations of OIS have provided efficient maps of functional connectivity from spontaneous brain activity in mice. However, OIS requires scalp retraction and is limited to superficial cortical tissues. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) techniques provide noninvasive imaging, but previous DOT systems for rodent neuroimaging have been limited either by sparse spatial sampling or by slow speed...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439231/informing-the-structure-of-executive-function-in-children-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-data
#19
Róisín McKenna, T Rushe, Kate A Woodcock
The structure of executive function (EF) has been the focus of much debate for decades. What is more, the complexity and diversity provided by the developmental period only adds to this contention. The development of executive function plays an integral part in the expression of children's behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional capabilities. Understanding how these processes are constructed during development allows for effective measurement of EF in this population. This meta-analysis aims to contribute to a better understanding of the structure of executive function in children...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439103/brain-age-predicts-mortality
#20
J H Cole, S J Ritchie, M E Bastin, M C Valdés Hernández, S Muñoz Maniega, N Royle, J Corley, A Pattie, S E Harris, Q Zhang, N R Wray, P Redmond, R E Marioni, J M Starr, S R Cox, J M Wardlaw, D J Sharp, I J Deary
Age-associated disease and disability are placing a growing burden on society. However, ageing does not affect people uniformly. Hence, markers of the underlying biological ageing process are needed to help identify people at increased risk of age-associated physical and cognitive impairments and ultimately, death. Here, we present such a biomarker, 'brain-predicted age', derived using structural neuroimaging. Brain-predicted age was calculated using machine-learning analysis, trained on neuroimaging data from a large healthy reference sample (N=2001), then tested in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N=669), to determine relationships with age-associated functional measures and mortality...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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