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Functional neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027094/multimodal-functional-neuroimaging-by-simultaneous-bold-fmri-and-fiber-optic-calcium-recordings-and-optogenetic-control
#1
REVIEW
Franziska Albers, Lydia Wachsmuth, Timo Mauritz van Alst, Cornelius Faber
Recent developments of optogenetic tools and fluorescence-based calcium recording techniques enable the manipulation and monitoring of neural circuits on a cellular level. Non-invasive imaging of brain networks, however, requires the application of methods such as blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is commonly used for functional neuroimaging. While BOLD fMRI provides brain-wide non-invasive reading of the hemodynamic response, it is only an indirect measure of neural activity...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024925/defining-functioning-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-combination-of-a-novel-clustering-method-and-brain-spect-analysis
#2
Faget-Agius Catherine, Vincenti Aurélie, Guedj Eric, Michel Pierre, Richieri Raphaëlle, Alessandrini Marine, Auquier Pascal, Lançon Christophe, Boyer Laurent
This study aims to define functioning levels of patients with schizophrenia by using a method of interpretable clustering based on a specific functioning scale, the Functional Remission Of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale, and to test their validity regarding clinical and neuroimaging characterization. In this observational study, patients with schizophrenia have been classified using a hierarchical top-down method called clustering using unsupervised binary trees (CUBT). Socio-demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging SPECT perfusion data were compared between the different clusters to ensure their clinical relevance...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024845/intracerebral-stimulation-of-left-and-right-ventral-temporal-cortex-during-object-naming
#3
Line Bédos Ulvin, Jacques Jonas, Hélène Brissart, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Anne Thiriaux, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Louis Maillard
While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31.3% vs 13.6%). The highest proportions of positive naming sites were found in the left fusiform gyrus and occipito-temporal sulcus (47...
October 9, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024679/short-range-connections-in-the-developmental-connectome-during-typical-and-atypical-brain-maturation
#4
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Huiying Kang, John A Detre, Timothy P L Roberts, Hao Huang
The human brain is remarkably complex with connectivity constituting its basic organizing principle. Although long-range connectivity has been focused on in most research, short-range connectivity is characterized by unique and spatiotemporally heterogeneous dynamics from infancy to adulthood. Alterations in the maturational dynamics of short-range connectivity has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, especially diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made quantification of short-range connectivity possible in pediatric populations...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023452/functional-imaging-of-cognition-in-an-old-old-population-a-case-for-portable-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#5
Theodore J Huppert, Helmet Karim, Chia-Cheng Lin, Bader A Alqahtani, Susan L Greenspan, Patrick J Sparto
In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record brain activation during cognitive testing in older individuals (88±6yo; N = 19) living in residential care communities. This population, which is often associated with loss of personal independence due to physical or cognitive decline associated with aging, is also often under-represented in neuroscience research because of a limited means to participate in studies which often take place in large urban or university centers. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility and initial results using a portable 8-source by 4-detector fNIRS system to measure brain activity from participants within residential care community centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023182/potential-clinical-utility-of-multiple-system-atrophy-biomarkers
#6
Kurt A Jellinger
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), an adult-onset, fatal disorder of uncertain aetiology, characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic and motor dysfunctions, is an α-synucleinopathy with glioneuronal degeneration involving multiple parts of the nervous system. The clinical variants correlate with the morphological phenotypes of striatonigral degeneration (MSA-P), olivoponto-cerebellar atrophy (MSA-C), and mixed type MSA. Neuropathological hallmark is the deposition of aberrant α-synuclein in glia and neurons forming cytoplasmic inclusions that cause cell dysfunction/demise...
October 12, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021739/effect-of-error-augmentation-on-brain-activation-and-motor-learning-of-a-complex-locomotor-task
#7
Laura Marchal-Crespo, Lars Michels, Lukas Jaeger, Jorge López-Olóriz, Robert Riener
Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors-error amplification and random force disturbance-and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021168/functional-ultrasound-imaging-of-brain-activity-in-human-newborns
#8
Charlie Demene, Jérome Baranger, Miguel Bernal, Catherine Delanoe, Stéphane Auvin, Valérie Biran, Marianne Alison, Jérome Mairesse, Elisabeth Harribaud, Mathieu Pernot, Mickael Tanter, Olivier Baud
Functional neuroimaging modalities are crucial for understanding brain function, but their clinical use is challenging. Recently, the use of ultrasonic plane waves transmitted at ultrafast frame rates was shown to allow for the spatiotemporal identification of brain activation through neurovascular coupling in rodents. Using a customized flexible and noninvasive headmount, we demonstrate in human neonates that real-time functional ultrasound imaging (fUSI) is feasible by combining simultaneous continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) recording and ultrafast Doppler (UfD) imaging of the brain microvasculature...
October 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019461/translational-functional-neuroimaging-in-the-explanation-of-depression
#9
Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Stefan Borgwardt
Translation as a notion and procedure is deeply embodied in medical science and education. It includes the possibility to translate data across disciplines in order to improve diagnosis and treatment procedures. The evidence accumulated by means of translation serves as vehicle for reification of medical diagnoses. There are established promising post hoc correlations between the different types of clinical tools (interviews and inventories) on one hand and neuroscience on the other. Insofar the different kinds of measures represent statistical correlations which still need to be integrated into diagnostic standards and procedures but this, as a whole, is a step forward towards a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying psychopathology in general and depression in particular...
October 11, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017916/conflict-detection-and-resolution-rely-on-a-combination-of-common-and-distinct-cognitive-control-networks
#10
REVIEW
Qi Li, Guochun Yang, Zhenghan Li, Yanyan Qi, Michael Cole, Xun Liu
Cognitive control can be activated by stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts. However, whether cognitive control is domain-general or domain-specific remains unclear. To deepen the understanding of the functional organization of cognitive control networks, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) from 111 neuroimaging studies to examine brain activation in conflict-related tasks. We observed that fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks were commonly engaged by S-S and S-R conflicts, showing a domain-general pattern...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017915/the-neurobiology-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-theoretical-model
#11
REVIEW
Sally A Grace, Izelle Labuschagne, Ryan A Kaplan, Susan L Rossell
There has been an increase in neuroimaging research in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), yet little is known about the underlying neurobiological basis of the disorder. We aimed to provide a systematic overview of the literature on the neurobiology of BDD. Two reviewers undertook a search of three electronic research databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. The search consisted of synonyms commonly associated with BDD and methods to evaluate brain structure, function, and network organisation. Out of an initial yield of 175 articles, 19 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017899/a-brain-computer-interface-based-on-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-using-wavelet-transform-and-support-vector-machines
#12
Aya Khalaf, Matthew Sybeldon, Ervin Sejdic, Murat Akcakaya
BACKGROUND: Functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) is an ultrasound based neuroimaging technique used to assess neural activation that occurs during a cognitive task through measuring velocity of cerebral blood flow. NEW METHOD: The objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a 2-class and 3-class real-time BCI based on blood flow velocity in left and right middle cerebral arteries in response to mental rotation and word generation tasks. Statistical features based on a five-level wavelet decomposition were extracted from the fTCD signals...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993728/age-drives-distortion-of-brain-metabolic-vascular-and-cognitive-functions-and-the-gut-microbiome
#13
Jared D Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, George Chlipala, Robert P Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991719/neuroimaging-and-cognitive-functions-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Cettina Allone, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Patrizia Pollicino, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of refractory focal epilepsy. Neuroimaging researches have demonstrated structural abnormalities in several cerebral regions. Cognitive impairment has been frequently described as a potential comorbidity of long-term TLE. This review investigated the state of research regarding neuropsychological impairment and neuroimaging studies in TLE patients. Studies were found on PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, 412 publications were selected: only 20 articles met search criteria...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991686/period3-gene-in-disorder-of-consciousness-the-role-of-neuroimaging-in-understanding-the-relationship-between-genotype-and-sleep-a-brief-communication
#15
Gloria Bedini, Anna Bersano, Ludovico D'Incerti, Giorgio Marotta, Cristina Rosazza, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Silvana Franceschetti, Davide Sattin, Matilde Leonardi, Anna Nigri, Stefania Ferraro, Eugenio Agostino Parati
BACKGROUND: Several methodologies including neuroimaging and sleep evaluation are being developed to complement the clinical bedside examinations in patients with disorder of consciousness (DOC). Recently, we demonstrated a possible association between Period3 (Per3) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and functional impairment of DOC patients, speculating a possible role of this gene in sleep regulation. AIM: To assess whether the degree of structural and metabolic damage of the main brain areas involved in the sleep generation and homeostasis may influence the different outcome of DOC patients carrying the Per3(5/5) genotype in comparison to Per3(4/4) ones...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990857/the-role-of-regional-heterogeneity-in-age-related-differences-in-functional-hemispheric-asymmetry-an-fmri-study
#16
Jiamin Gladys Heng, Chiao-Yi Wu, Josephine Astrid Archer, Makoto Miyakoshi, Toshiharu Nakai, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen
Neuroimaging literature has documented age-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction in frontal regions during task performances. As most studies employed working memory paradigms, it is therefore less clear if this pattern of neural reorganization is constrained by working memory processes or it would also emerge in other cognitive domains which are predominantly lateralized. Using blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study used a homophone judgment task and a line judgment task to investigate age-related differences in functional hemispheric asymmetry in language and visuospatial processing respectively...
October 9, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988573/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-brain-neuroimaging-results-in-humans-and-animal-models
#17
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988134/dynamics-of-large-scale-electrophysiological-networks-a-technical-review
#18
REVIEW
George C O'Neill, Prejaas Tewarie, Diego Vidaurre, Lucrezia Liuzzi, Mark W Woolrich, Matthew J Brookes
For several years it has been argued that neural synchronisation is crucial for cognition. The idea that synchronised temporal patterns between different neural groups carries information above and beyond the isolated activity of these groups has inspired a shift in focus in the field of functional neuroimaging. Specifically, investigation into the activation elicited within certain regions by some stimulus or task has, in part, given way to analysis of patterns of co-activation or functional connectivity between distal regions...
October 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987904/bilateral-parietal-activations-for-complex-visual-spatial-functions-evidence-from-a-visual-spatial-construction-task
#19
Anna Seydell-Greenwald, Katrina Ferrara, Catherine E Chambers, Elissa L Newport, Barbara Landau
In this paper, we examine brain lateralization patterns for a complex visual-spatial task commonly used to assess general spatial abilities. Although spatial abilities have classically been ascribed to the right hemisphere, evidence suggests that at least some tasks may be strongly bilateral. For example, while functional neuroimaging studies show right-lateralized activations for some spatial tasks (e.g., line bisection), bilateral activations are often reported for others, including classic spatial tasks such as mental rotation...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987058/verbal-fluency-in-research-conducted-with-pet-technique-under-conditions-of-extended-cognitive-activation-with-the-use-of-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-fdg-tracer
#20
Ludmiła Zając-Lamparska, Monika Wiłkość, Anita Markowska, Ilona Paulina Laskowska-Levy, Marek Wróbel, Bogdan Małkowski
OBJECTIVES: Functional neuroimaging of the brain is a widely used method to study cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of the brain during performance of the tasks of phonemic and semantic fluency with the paced-overt technique in terms of prolonged activation of the brain. METHODS: The study included 17 patients aged 20-40 years who were treated in the past for Hodgkin'slymphoma, now in remission. Due to the type of task, the subjectswere divided into two groups...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
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