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Functional neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458188/robust-is-not-necessarily-reliable-from-within-subjects-fmri-contrasts-to-between-subjects-comparisons
#1
Zachary P Infantolino, Katherine R Luking, Colin L Sauder, John J Curtin, Greg Hajcak
Advances in cognitive and affective neuroscience come largely from within-subjects comparisons, in which the functional significance of neural activity is determined by contrasting two or more experimental conditions. Clinical and social neuroscience studies have attempted to leverage between-subject variability in such condition differences to better understand psychopathology and other individual differences. Shifting from within-to between-subjects comparisons requires that measures have adequate internal consistency to function as individual difference variables...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458187/mri-techniques-to-measure-arterial-and-venous-cerebral-blood-volume
#2
Jun Hua, Peiying Liu, Tae Kim, Manus Donahue, Swati Rane, J Jean Chen, Qin Qin, Seong-Gi Kim
The measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been the topic of numerous neuroimaging studies. To date, however, most in vivo imaging approaches can only measure CBV summed over all types of blood vessels, including arterial, capillary and venous vessels in the microvasculature (i.e. total CBV or CBVtot). As different types of blood vessels have intrinsically different anatomy, function and physiology, the ability to quantify CBV in different segments of the microvascular tree may furnish information that is not obtainable from CBVtot, and may provide a more sensitive and specific measure for the underlying physiology...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456646/an-experimental-rabbit-model-of-symptomatic-cerebral-vasospasm-with-in-vivo-neuroimaging-assessment-and-ex-vivo-histological-validation
#3
Yunchang Mo, Luping Huang, Linbi Chen, Michael Veronesi, Yiyi Shi, Sijia Chen, Linli Peng, Leping Zhou, Yonglin Pu, Junlu Wang
Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a severe complication that occurs following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been used to evaluate brain injury following SAH in humans. The present study was designed to assess a rabbit model of symptomatic CVS (SCVS) and the utility of MRA in evaluating SCVS in rabbits. Japanese white rabbits (n=24) were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: A sham group and a SAH group. Neurological scores were evaluated for 7 days following SAH...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456134/parietal-control-network-activation-during-memory-tasks-may-be-associated-with-the-co-occurrence-of-externally-and-internally-directed-cognition-a-cross-function-meta-analysis
#4
Hongkeun Kim
Functional neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval consistently indicated the activation of the precuneus (PCU), mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), and lateral intraparietal sulcus (latIPS) regions. Although studies typically interpreted these activations in terms of memory retrieval processes, resting-state functional connectivity data indicate that these regions are part of the frontoparietal control network, suggesting a more general, cross-functional role. In this regard, this study proposes a novel hypothesis which suggests that the parietal control network plays a strong role in accommodating the co-occurrence of externally directed cognition (EDC) and internally directed cognition (IDC), which are typically antagonistic to each other...
March 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455860/a-social-interactive-neuroscience-approach-to-understanding-the-developing-brain
#5
Elizabeth Redcay, Katherine Rice Warnell
From birth onward, social interaction is central to our everyday lives. Our ability to seek out social partners, flexibly navigate and learn from social interactions, and develop social relationships is critically important for our social and cognitive development and for our mental and physical health. Despite the importance of our social interactions, the neurodevelopmental bases of such interactions are underexplored, as most research examines social processing in noninteractive contexts. We begin this chapter with evidence from behavioral work and adult neuroimaging studies demonstrating how social-interactive context fundamentally alters cognitive and neural processing...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455363/predicting-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-domain-adaptive-cross-site-evaluation
#6
Runa Bhaumik, Ashish Pradhan, Soptik Das, Dulal K Bhaumik
The advances in neuroimaging methods reveal that resting-state functional fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent data sharing projects help us replicating the robustness of these biomarkers in different acquisition conditions or preprocessing steps across larger numbers of individuals or sites. It is necessary to validate the previous results by using data from multiple sites by diminishing the site variations. We investigated partial least square regression (PLS), a domain adaptive method to adjust the effects of multicenter acquisition...
February 17, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455223/sialidosis-type-i-presenting-with-a-novel-mutation-and-advanced-neuroimaging-features
#7
Murat Gultekin, Ruslan Bayramov, Cagatay Karaca, Niyazi Acer
Sialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by neuraminidase gene (NEU1) mutation and a deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. The aim of this study was to examine the sialidosis type 1 brain using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI in comparison to 3 controls. The patients gene analysis identified compound heterozygous mutation in the NEU1 that is shown to be associated with the sialidosis type 1. In this very rarely seen case, we found volume changes in different brain structures...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455100/hypofunction-of-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-depression-during-verbal-fluency-task-a-multi-channel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Tomomi Akiyama, Michihiko Koeda, Yoshiro Okubo, Mahito Kimura
BACKGROUND: Previous functional neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated frontotemporal dysfunction, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, while patients perform working memory and language comprehension tasks. Recent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies have shown frontotemporal hypofunction in depression by verbal fluency task, but the regions of impairment affecting respective depressive symptoms still remain unclear. We investigated frontotemporal function during word production task in depression with multi-channel NIRS...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453111/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-therapeutic-complications-long-term-neurological-and-neuroimaging-follow-up
#9
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi
PURPOSE: To understand the long-term neurological outcomes and chronological changes of brain MRIs in patients with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). METHODS: From December 2000 to May 2016, 29 patients diagnosed with FIRES were collected retrospectively. The demographic distribution, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and treatment methodology were described. Follow-up clinical outcomes and chronological evolution of neuroimaging findings were analyzed...
February 6, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450935/community-violence-exposure-correlates-with-smaller-gray-matter-volume-and-lower-iq-in-urban-adolescents
#10
Oisin Butler, Xiao-Fei Yang, Corinna Laube, Simone Kühn, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Adolescents' exposure to community violence is a significant public health issue in urban settings and has been associated with poorer cognitive performance and increased risk for psychiatric illnesses, including PTSD. However, no study to date has investigated the neural correlates of community violence exposure in adolescents. Sixty-five healthy adolescents (age = 14-18 years; 36 females, 29 males) from moderate- to high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles reported their violence exposure, parents' education level, and free/reduced school lunch status (socio-economic status, SES), and underwent structural neuroimaging and intelligence testing...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450484/neurological-manifestations-among-us-government-personnel-reporting-directional-audible-and-sensory-phenomena-in-havana-cuba
#11
Randel L Swanson, Stephen Hampton, Judith Green-McKenzie, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, M Sean Grady, Ragini Verma, Rosette Biester, Diana Duda, Ronald L Wolf, Douglas H Smith
Importance: From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. Objective: To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba...
February 15, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#12
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448128/hubs-in-the-human-fetal-brain-network
#13
Marion I van den Heuvel, Elise Turk, Janessa H Manning, Jasmine Hect, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Sonia S Hassan, Roberto Romero, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Moriah E Thomason
Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging...
February 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448074/a-probabilistic-approach-to-discovering-dynamic-full-brain-functional-connectivity-patterns
#14
REVIEW
Jeremy R Manning, Xia Zhu, Theodore L Willke, Rajesh Ranganath, Kimberly Stachenfeld, Uri Hasson, David M Blei, Kenneth A Norman
Recent research shows that the covariance structure of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data - commonly described as functional connectivity - can change as a function of the participant's cognitive state (for review see (Turk-Browne, 2013)). Here we present a Bayesian hierarchical matrix factorization model, termed hierarchical topographic factor analysis (HTFA), for efficiently discovering full-brain networks in large multi-subject neuroimaging datasets. HTFA approximates each subject's network by first re-representing each brain image in terms of the activities of a set of localized nodes, and then computing the covariance of the activity time series of these nodes...
February 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446352/deep-learning-for-hybrid-eeg-fnirs-brain-computer-interface-application-to-motor-imagery-classification
#15
Antonio Maria Chiarelli, Pierpaolo Croce, Arcangelo Merla, Filippo Zappasodi
OBJECTIVE: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) refers to procedures that
 link the central nervous system to a device. BCI was historically performed using
 Electroencephalography (EEG). In the last years, encouraging results were obtained
 by combining EEG with other neuroimaging technologies, such as functional Near
 Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). A crucial step of BCI is brain state classication
 from recorded signal features. Deep Articial Neural Networks (DNNs) recently
 reached unprecedented complex classication outcomes...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445828/the-neural-circuits-of-number-and-letter-copying-an-fnirs-study
#16
Christina Artemenko, Andra Coldea, Mojtaba Soltanlou, Thomas Dresler, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Ann-Christine Ehlis
In our daily lives, we are constantly exposed to numbers and letters. However, it is still under debate how letters and numbers are processed in the brain, while information on this topic would allow for a more comprehensive understanding of, for example, known influences of language on numerical cognition or neural circuits shared by numerical cognition and language processing. Some findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between numbers and letters, with numbers being represented in the right and letters in the left hemisphere, while the opposing view suggests a shared neural network...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443053/neuroimaging-field-methods-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-neuroimaging-to-study-global-child-development-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Kaja K Jasińska, Sosthène Guei
Portable neuroimaging approaches provide new advances to the study of brain function and brain development with previously inaccessible populations and in remote locations. This paper shows the development of field functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging to the study of child language, reading, and cognitive development in a rural village setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Innovation in methods and the development of culturally appropriate neuroimaging protocols allow a first-time look into the brain's development and children's learning outcomes in understudied environments...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442378/-shine-bright-like-a-diamond-is-research-on-high-functioning-adhd-at-last-entering-the-mainstream
#18
EDITORIAL
Klaus-Peter Lesch
The paper by Greven and colleagues (this issue) is intensifying discussion how research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be moved away from the deficit-focused view to a concept, which is oriented towards resources a patient might be able to recruit to function at a high-level despite impairments. To promote understanding of high-functioning (HF)-ADHD, more longitudinal studies are required employing neuropsychologic, neuroimaging and neurobiologic approaches, with focus on compensatory mechanisms during fronto-striatal-amygdala maturation and adult plasticity as well as epigenetic modification marker screening strategies to identify homoeostatic processes of resilience in endophenotypic traits related to coping styles of target groups...
March 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441669/hiv-ageing-cognition-and-neuroimaging-at-4-year-follow-up
#19
B I Haynes, M Pitkanen, R Kulasegaram, S J Casey, M Schutte, K Towgood, B Peters, G J Barker, M D Kopelman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis of accelerated cognitive ageing in HIV-positive individuals using longitudinal assessment of cognitive performance and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We assessed a broad cognitive battery and quantitative MRI metrics [voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)] in asymptomatic HIV-positive men who have sex with men (15 aged 20-40 years and 15 aged ≥ 50 years), and HIV-seronegative matched controls (nine aged 20-40 years and 16 aged ≥ 50 years)...
February 14, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441041/altered-brain-functional-connectome-in-migraine-with-and-without-restless-legs-syndrome-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#20
Fu-Chi Yang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Ai-Ling Hsu, Jong-Ling Fuh, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Hung-Wen Kao, Ching-Po Lin, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Background: Migraine is frequently comorbid with restless legs syndrome (RLS), both displaying functional connectivity (FC) alterations in multiple brain networks, although the neurological basis of this association is unknown. Methods: We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and network-wise analysis of FC in migraine patients with and without RLS and healthy controls (CRL). Network-based statistics (NBS) and composite FC matrix analyses were performed to identify the patterns of FC changes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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