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Functional neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528447/a-single-bout-of-endurance-exercise-modulates-eeg-microstates-temporal-features
#1
Jérôme N Spring, Miralena I Tomescu, Jérôme Barral
Electrical neuroimaging is a promising method to explore the spontaneous brain function after physical exercise. The present study aims to investigate the effect of acute physical exercise on the temporal dynamic of the resting brain activity captured by the four conventional map topographies (microstates) described in the literature, and to associate these brain changes with the post-exercise neuromuscular function. Twenty endurance-trained subjects performed a 30-min biking task at 60% of their maximal aerobic power followed by a 10 km all-out time trial...
May 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528357/cerebellar-gray-matter-alterations-in-huntington-disease-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#2
Paula C de Azevedo, Rachel P Guimarães, Camila C Piccinin, Luiza G Piovesana, Lidiane S Campos, Juliana R Zuiani, Eliza M Tamashiro, Giordanna Pinheiro, Augusto C Amato-Filho, Fernando Cendes, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Anelyssa D'Abreu
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies in Huntington disease (HD) have suggested a role for the cerebellum. Our goal was to perform a detailed evaluation of cerebellar morphology. We performed the Unified HD rating scale (UHDRS) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) in 26 HD patients and 26 healthy controls. We created a two-sample test to analyze cerebellar gray matter (GM) differences between groups and another to correlate GM alterations with UHDRS and MOCA, corrected for age, expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, and disease duration using the spatially unbiased atlas template (SUIT)-SPM-toolbox which preserves anatomical detailing...
May 20, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527230/imaging-and-neuropsychological-correlates-of-white-matter-lesions-in-different-subtypes-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review
#3
Charlene L M Lam, Jenny Yiend, Tatia M C Lee
BACKGROUND: White matter lesions (WML) are prevalent in older adults. The association between WML and cognition in different subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is inconsistent in the literature. OBJECTVES: We aim to provide a systematic review on the impact of WML in different subtypes of MCI, and discuss the recent findings on white matter plasticity. METHODS: We reviewed peer-reviewed articles from January 2011 to August 2016 and identified 12 studies investigating the association between WML and subtypes of MCI with both neuroimaging and cognitive measures...
May 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527084/neurobiology-of-chronicization
#4
Gian Camillo Manzoni, Marco Russo, Arens Taga, Paola Torelli
In the past few years, research on chronicization of headache has focussed primarily on migraine, even though there are other types of primary headache that over time can turn into chronic forms. Only a minority of migraine sufferers will develop a chronic condition, with attacks that are likely to vary in their clinical features. As a result, in chronic migraine the specific diagnostic criteria for this headache type do not always exhibit the typical features of migraine. Among the factors that play a major role in favouring chronicization are a high frequency of migraine attacks since the beginning, overuse of symptomatic medication and onset of depression or arterial hypertension...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523216/foresight-beats-hindsight-the-neural-correlates-underlying-motor-preparation-in-the-pro-anti-cue-paradigm
#5
Franziska Emmerling, Felix Duecker, Tom A de Graaf, Teresa Schuhmann, Jos J Adam, Alexander T Sack
BACKGROUND: Human motor behaviors are characterized by both, reactive and proactive mechanisms. Yet, studies investigating the neural correlates of motor behavior almost exclusively focused on reactive motor processes. Here, we employed the pro-/anti-cue motor preparation paradigm to systematically study proactive motor control in an imaging environment. In this paradigm, either pro- or anti-cues are presented in a blocked design. Four fingers (two from each hand) are mapped onto four visual target locations...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521281/functional-connectivity-in-incarcerated-male-adolescents-with-psychopathic-traits
#6
Sandra Thijssen, Kent A Kiehl
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
May 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519903/functional-neuroimaging-offers-insights-into-delirium-pathophysiology-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Lucy Haggstrom, Robert Welschinger, Gideon A Caplan
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review describes the current functional neuroimaging literature in delirium, discusses pathophysiological implications of these results and highlights areas for further study. METHODS: In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, an extensive search of medical databases was undertaken, identifying eighteen studies of variable quality and design suitable for inclusion. RESULTS: Functional neuroimaging has highlighted significant abnormalities during delirium, with disturbances in cerebral haemodynamics and functional connectivity potentially playing a key role in delirium pathophysiology...
May 18, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517947/intolerance-of-uncertainty-predicts-increased-striatal-volume
#8
M Justin Kim, Jin Shin, James M Taylor, Alison M Mattek, Samantha J Chavez, Paul J Whalen
Oversensitivity to uncertain future threat is usefully conceptualized as intolerance of uncertainty (IU). Neuroimaging studies of IU to date have largely focused on its relationship with brain function, but few studies have documented the association between IU and the quantitative properties of brain structure. Here, we examined potential gray and white-matter brain structural correlates of IU from 61 healthy participants. Voxel-based morphometric analysis highlighted a robust positive correlation between IU and striatal volume, particularly the putamen...
May 18, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516827/bold-activation-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-late-life-depression-and-comparison-participants
#9
Akshya Vasudev, Michael J Firbank, Joseph S Gati, Emily Ionson, Alan J Thomas
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex's (vMPFC) role in regulating emotions in late life depression (LLD) remains unclarified. We assessed vMPFC activation in an emotional valence blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) task and related the findings to extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Sixteen participants with mild to moderate LLD were compared to 14 similar aged comparison participants. Participants in the scanner viewed words matched for length and arousal, indicated the perceived valence by pressing one of the three buttons i...
May 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516431/a-comparison-of-neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-major-depression-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-is-there-a-common-cause
#10
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Basant K Puri
There is copious evidence of abnormalities in resting-state functional network connectivity states, grey and white matter pathology and impaired cerebral perfusion in patients afforded a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, major depression or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (myalgic encephalomyelitis). Systemic inflammation may well be a major element explaining such findings. Inter-patient and inter-illness variations in neuroimaging findings may arise at least in part from regional genetic, epigenetic and environmental variations in the functions of microglia and astrocytes...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514892/single-case-cognitive-neuropsychology-in-the-age-of-big-data
#11
Jared Medina, Simon Fischer-Baum
Historically, single-case studies of brain-damaged individuals have contributed substantially to our understanding of cognitive processes. However, the role of single-case cognitive neuropsychology has diminished with the proliferation of techniques that measure neural activity in humans. Instead, large-scale informatics approaches in which data are gathered from hundreds of neuroimaging studies have become popular. It has been claimed that utilizing these informatics approaches can address problems found in single imaging studies...
May 17, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513186/initially-intact-neural-responses-to-pain-in-autism-are-diminished-during-sustained-pain
#12
Michelle D Failla, Estephan J Moana-Filho, Greg K Essick, Grace T Baranek, Baxter P Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
Pain assessments typically depend on self-report of the pain experience. Yet, in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, this can be an unreliable due to communication difficulties. Importantly, observations of behavioral hypo- and hyperresponsivity to pain suggest altered pain sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroimaging may provide insight into mechanisms underlying pain behaviors. The neural pain signature reliably responds to painful stimulation and is modulated by other outside regions, affecting the pain experience...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509681/neuroimaging-as-a-tool-to-study-the-sources-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-huntington-s-disease
#13
Clara Garcia-Gorro, Estela Camara, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. There is great variability regarding the prominence and evolution of each type of clinical sign. One possible source of phenotypic heterogeneity could be the more prominent degeneration of specific brain circuits. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent neuroimaging studies that have analysed the relationship between brain changes and motor, cognitive and psychiatric alterations in Huntington's disease...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509324/three-dimensional-neurosonography-a-novel-field-in-fetal-medicine
#14
Michał Lipa, Ritsuko Kimata Pooh, Mirosław Wielgoś
Neurosonography is a promising technique for prenatal diagnosis, combining features of ultrasound imaging with fetal neurology. The brain is a three-dimensional structure, therefore observing brain structure in the three basic planes (sagittal, coronal and axial) is mandatory. The anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture may serve as acoustic ultrasound windows in the transvaginal brain scan, allowing to obtain high-resolution neuroimages of the intracranial structures. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound combined with the transvaginal brain approach provides detailed and sophisticated neuroimages...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507232/energy-landscape-analysis-of-neuroimaging-data
#15
Takahiro Ezaki, Takamitsu Watanabe, Masayuki Ohzeki, Naoki Masuda
Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but their use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506806/selective-associative-phonagnosia-after-right-anterior-temporal-stroke
#16
Simona Luzzi, Michela Coccia, Gabriele Polonara, Carlo Reverberi, Gabriella Ceravolo, Mauro Silvestrini, Fabio Fringuelli, Sara Baldinelli, Leandro Provinciali, Guido Gainotti
We report the case of a 48 year old men who developed a selective impairment in famous voice recognition after ischemic stroke in right subcortical structures (lenticular nucleus and head of the caudate) and right anterior temporal lobe. He underwent fibrinolytic treatment. During the following days he progressively recovered and was discharged without neurological focal sign. Patent foramen ovale was found. When he got back to his house he noticed that he was unable to recognize the voice of his favoured singers and needed to ask who was the singer to his relatives...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506488/perioperative-functional-neuroimaging-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-brain-areas
#17
C Mellerio, S Charron, S Lion, P Roca, G Kuchcinski, L Legrand, M Edjlali, O Naggara, J-F Meder, J Pallud, C Oppenheim
Surgical resection of gliomas involving eloquent brain areas must be maximal in order to improve patients' survival, and safe to prevent postoperative impairments. Therefore, the precise spatial relationship between the lesion and eloquent brain areas needs to be established. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are robust methods with increasing indications in neurosurgery for past decade. The aim of this review article is not only to pinpoint the major limitations of these methods in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, but also to detail practical aspects associated with the main paradigms routinely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to discuss recent validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging results with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505977/hippocampal-and-clinical-trajectories-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-suspected-non-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#18
Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Shinichiro Nakajima, Fernando Caravaggio, Yusuke Iwata, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) characterizes individuals showing neurodegeneration (e.g., hypometabolism) without amyloid-β (Aβ). Findings from previous studies regarding clinical and structural trajectories of SNAP are inconsistent. Using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were categorized into four groups: amyloid positive with hypometabolism (Aβ+ND+), amyloid only (Aβ+ND-), neither amyloid nor hypometabolism (Aβ-ND-), and SNAP (Aβ-ND+)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504911/the-value-of-sharing-information-a-neural-account-of-information-transmission
#19
Elisa C Baek, Christin Scholz, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Emily B Falk
Humans routinely share information with one another. What drives this behavior? We used neuroimaging to test an account of information selection and sharing that emphasizes inherent reward in self-reflection and connecting with other people. Participants underwent functional MRI while they considered personally reading and sharing New York Times articles. Activity in neural regions involved in positive valuation, self-related processing, and taking the perspective of others was significantly associated with decisions to select and share articles, and scaled with preferences to do so...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503485/surgical-approaches-for-symptomatic-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-of-the-thalamus-and-brainstem
#20
Dale Ding, Robert M Starke, R Webster Crowley, Kenneth C Liu
OBJECTIVE: Surgical resection of thalamic and brainstem cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) is associated with significant operative morbidity, but it may be outweighed, in some cases, by the neurological damage from recurrent hemorrhage in these eloquent areas. The goals of this retrospective cohort study are to describe the technical nuances of surgical approaches and determine the postoperative outcomes for CCMs of the thalamus and brainstem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed an institutional database of patients harboring thalamic or brainstem CCMs, who underwent surgical resection from 2010 to 2014...
March 2017: Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
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