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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732249/evaluating-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-as-mediators-of-age-related-cognitive-decline
#1
Timothy J Hohman, Doug Tommet, Shawn Marks, Joey Contreras, Rich Jones, Dan Mungas
Age-related changes in cognition are partially mediated by the presence of neuropathology and neurodegeneration. This manuscript evaluates the degree to which biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, (AD) neuropathology and longitudinal changes in brain structure, account for age-related differences in cognition. Data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 1012) were analyzed, including individuals with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment. Parallel process mixed effects regression models characterized longitudinal trajectories of cognitive variables and time-varying changes in brain volumes...
July 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731439/antihypertensive-treatment-is-associated-with-mri-derived-markers-of-neurodegeneration-and-impaired-cognition-a-propensity-weighted-cohort-study
#2
Jodi D Edwards, Joel Ramirez, Brandy L Callahan, Sheldon W Tobe, Paul Oh, Courtney Berezuk, Krista Lanctôt, Walter Swardfager, Sean Nestor, Alexander Kiss, Stephen Strother, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral small vessel disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are common anti-hypertensive treatments, but have differential effects on cortical amyloid. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between anti-hypertensive treatment, brain volume, and cognition, using a propensity-weighted analysis to account for confounding by indication...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728912/electric-stimulation-of-the-right-temporo-parietal-junction-induces-a-task-specific-effect-in-deceptive-behaviors
#4
Yasuki Noguchi, Rei Oizumi
How the brain generates a lie is an important and unsolved issue in neuroscience. Previous studies indicated that mentalizing, the ability to understand and manipulate the mental states of others, plays a critical role in successful deception. Accordingly, recent neuroimaging studies reported deception-related activity in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), a brain region closely related to the mentalizing ability. Detailed functions of rTPJ in deception, however, remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated a causal relationship between rTPJ and deception using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS)...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726157/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-left-temporal-pole-restores-normal-visual-evoked-potential-habituation-in-interictal-migraineurs
#5
Francesca Cortese, Francesco Pierelli, Ilaria Bove, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Maurizio Evangelista, Armando Perrotta, Mariano Serrao, Vincenzo Parisi, Gianluca Coppola
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging data has implicated the temporal pole (TP) in migraine pathophysiology; the density and functional activity of the TP were reported to fluctuate in accordance with the migraine cycle. Yet, the exact link between TP morpho-functional abnormalities and migraine is unknown. Here, we examined whether non-invasive anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) ameliorates abnormal interictal multimodal sensory processing in patients with migraine. METHODS: We examined the habituation of visual evoked potentials and median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) before and immediately after 20-min anodal tDCS (2 mA) or sham stimulation delivered over the left TP in interictal migraineurs...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724204/gait-and-balance-impairment-after-acute-methanol-poisoning
#6
Kamila Peterová, Hana Brožová, Jiří Klempíř, Irena Lišková, Ondřej Bezdíček, Petr Ridzoň, Manuela Vaněčková, Sergej Zakharov, Daniela Pelclová, Michal Miovský, Evžen Růžička
Neurological sequelae including gait impairment were reported in survivors after methanol intoxication; however, no systematic study has been published so far. We aimed to analyse gait and balance impairment in a group of Czech methanol poisoning survivors. We examined 43 patients (age 46±13 years) 2-8 months after methanol poisoning and 43 healthy controls. Investigations contained a shortened version of Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), clinical tests of gait and balance including Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and gait analysis using GaitRite(®) system, neurological and neuropsychological examination, brain imaging, EMG and tests of alcohol consumption...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723654/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#7
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721930/pharmacoresistant-epileptic-eyelid-twitching-in-a-child-with-a-mutation-in-syngap1
#8
Tetsuya Okazaki, Yoshiaki Saito, Rika Hiraiwa, Shinji Saitoh, Masachika Kai, Kaori Adachi, Yoko Nishimura, Eiji Nanba, Yoshihiro Maegaki
SYNGAP1 gene mutation has been associated with epilepsy which is often drug resistant, with seizure types including eyelid myoclonia. However, detailed descriptions, including ictal video-EEG, have not been reported. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed recurrent epileptic eyelid twitching at 1 year and 5 months of age. Seizures gradually increased in frequency to more than 50 times per day and manifested with upward eye deviation, motion arrest, loss of consciousness, and eyelid twitching lasting for five seconds...
July 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721928/strategic-roadmap-for-an-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-biomarkers
#9
REVIEW
Giovanni B Frisoni, Marina Boccardi, Frederik Barkhof, Kaj Blennow, Stefano Cappa, Konstantinos Chiotis, Jean-Francois Démonet, Valentina Garibotto, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Anton Gietl, Oskar Hansson, Karl Herholz, Clifford R Jack, Flavio Nobili, Agneta Nordberg, Heather M Snyder, Mara Ten Kate, Andrea Varrone, Emiliano Albanese, Stefanie Becker, Patrick Bossuyt, Maria C Carrillo, Chiara Cerami, Bruno Dubois, Valentina Gallo, Ezio Giacobini, Gabriel Gold, Samia Hurst, Anders Lönneborg, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Niklas Mattsson, José-Luis Molinuevo, Andreas U Monsch, Urs Mosimann, Alessandro Padovani, Agnese Picco, Corinna Porteri, Osman Ratib, Laure Saint-Aubert, Charles Scerri, Philip Scheltens, Jonathan M Schott, Ida Sonni, Stefan Teipel, Paolo Vineis, Pieter Jelle Visser, Yutaka Yasui, Bengt Winblad
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be improved by the use of biological measures. Biomarkers of functional impairment, neuronal loss, and protein deposition that can be assessed by neuroimaging (ie, MRI and PET) or CSF analysis are increasingly being used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease in research studies and specialist clinical settings. However, the validation of the clinical usefulness of these biomarkers is incomplete, and that is hampering reimbursement for these tests by health insurance providers, their widespread clinical implementation, and improvements in quality of health care...
August 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721053/reduced-prefrontal-activation-during-verbal-fluency-task-in-chronic-insomnia-disorder-a-multichannel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#10
Jing-Jing Sun, Xiao-Min Liu, Chen-Yu Shen, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Gao-Xiang Sun, Kun Feng, Bo Xu, Xia-Jin Ren, Xiang-Yun Ma, Po-Zi Liu
PURPOSE: Daytime complaints such as memory and attention deficits and failure to accomplish daily tasks are common in insomnia patients. However, objective psychological tests to detect cognitive impairment are equivocal. Neural function associated with cognitive performance may explain the discrepancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of patients with chronic insomnia disorder (CID) using the noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique of multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in order to identify changes of neural function associated with cognitive performance...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719177/classics-in-neuroimaging-imaging-the-dopaminergic-pathway-with-pet
#11
Meghna Kanthan, Paul Cumming, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev
The success of positron emission tomography (PET) for observing molecular processes underlying brain function and disease is underpinned by radiotracer chemistry. From the earliest applications of PET to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and the abundance of neuroreceptors and transporters, to the more recent topic of dynamic neurochemical imaging, interrogation of brain dopamine in conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addictions has been a driving force that challenges the ingenuity of radiopharmaceutical scientists...
July 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#12
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716961/the-structural-basis-of-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#13
Joanes Grandjean, Valerio Zerbi, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Markus Rudina
Translational neuroimaging requires approaches and techniques that can bridge between multiple different species and disease states. One candidate method, which offers insights into the brain's functional connectivity (FC), is resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI). In both humans and non-human primates, patterns of functional connectivity (often referred to as the functional connectome) have been related to the underlying structural connectivity (structural connectome). Given the recent rise in pre-clinical neuroimaging of mouse models it is an important question whether the mouse functional connectome conforms to the underlying structural connectivity...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716715/functional-parcellation-using-time-courses-of-instantaneous-connectivity
#14
REVIEW
Erik S B van Oort, Maarten Mennes, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Vinod J Kumar, Nestor I Zaragoza Jimenez, Wolfgang Grodd, Christian F Doeller, Christian F Beckmann
Functional neuroimaging studies have led to understanding the brain as a collection of spatially segregated functional networks. It is thought that each of these networks is in turn composed of a set of distinct sub-regions that together support each network's function. Considering the sub-regions to be an essential part of the brain's functional architecture, several strategies have been put forward that aim at identifying the functional sub-units of the brain by means of functional parcellations. Current parcellation strategies typically employ a bottom-up strategy, creating a parcellation by clustering smaller units...
July 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716235/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-soft-signs-to-the-hard-science
#15
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Priyantha Herath, Rita Christopher, Pramod Kumar Pal
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms during the course of illness. Psychosis is one such commonly observed non-motor symptoms of PD. Although several studies based on neuroimaging, genetics, retinal imaging, and neuropsychological evaluations have explored the pathogenesis of psychosis in PD; exact neural correlates are yet to be understood. Identification of factors related to psychosis in PD is important, as psychosis has been reported to be associated with higher rates of mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placements...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715955/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-human-face-perception
#16
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Kendrick Kay, Jesse Gomez
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#17
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715518/early-accurate-diagnosis-and-early-intervention-in-cerebral-palsy-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#18
Iona Novak, Cathy Morgan, Lars Adde, James Blackman, Roslyn N Boyd, Janice Brunstrom-Hernandez, Giovanni Cioni, Diane Damiano, Johanna Darrah, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Linda S de Vries, Christa Einspieler, Michael Fahey, Darcy Fehlings, Donna M Ferriero, Linda Fetters, Simona Fiori, Hans Forssberg, Andrew M Gordon, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Mijna Hadders-Algra, Regina Harbourne, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Petra Karlsson, Lena Krumlinde-Sundholm, Beatrice Latal, Alison Loughran-Fowlds, Nathalie Maitre, Sarah McIntyre, Garey Noritz, Lindsay Pennington, Domenico M Romeo, Roberta Shepherd, Alicia J Spittle, Marelle Thornton, Jane Valentine, Karen Walker, Robert White, Nadia Badawi
Importance: Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. Objectives: To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714891/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-visual-hallucinations-in-lewy-body-disease-a-systematic-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Stefania Pezzoli, Annachiara Cagnin, Oliver Bandmann, Annalena Venneri
Patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) frequently experience visual hallucinations (VH), well-formed images perceived without the presence of real stimuli. The structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying VH in LBD are still unclear. The present review summarises the current literature on the neural correlates of VH in LBD, namely Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Following a systematic literature search, 56 neuroimaging studies of VH in PD and DLB were critically reviewed and evaluated for quality assessment...
July 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714580/differential-failure-to-deactivate-the-default-mode-network-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#20
Elena Rodríguez-Cano, Silvia Alonso-Lana, Salvador Sarró, Paloma Fernández-Corcuera, José M Goikolea, Eduard Vieta, Teresa Maristany, Raymond Salvador, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging studies have revealed evidence of brain functional abnormalities in bipolar depressive disorder (BDD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies to date have compared these two mood disorders directly. METHODS: Matched groups of 26 BDD type I patients, 26 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the n-back working memory task. A whole-brain ANOVA was used to compare the three groups and clusters of significant difference were examined further using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis...
July 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
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