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Functional neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684645/challenges-in-pediatric-neuroimaging
#1
REVIEW
Matthew J Barkovich, Yi Li, Rahul S Desikan, A James Barkovich, Duan Xu
Pediatric neuroimaging is challenging due the rapid structural, metabolic, and functional changes that occur in the developing brain. A specially trained team is needed to produce high quality diagnostic images in children, due to their small physical size and immaturity. Patient motion, cooperation and medical condition dictate the methods and equipment used. A customized approach tailored to each child's age and functional status with the appropriate combination of dedicated staff, imaging hardware, and software is key; these range from low-tech techniques, such as feed and swaddle, to specialized small bore MRI scanners, MRI compatible incubators and neonatal head coils...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684465/an-asymptotic-theory-for-cross-correlation-between-auto-correlated-sequences-and-its-application-on-neuroimaging-data
#2
Yunyi Zhou, Chenyang Tao, Wenlian Lu, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity is among the most important tools to study brain. The correlation coefficient, between time series of different brain areas, is the most popular method to quantify functional connectivity. Correlation coefficient in practical use assumes the data to be temporally independent. However, the time series data of brain can manifest significant temporal auto-correlation. NEW METHOD: A widely applicable method is proposed for correcting temporal auto-correlation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682814/neural-correlates-of-processing-emotional-prosody-in-unipolar-depression
#3
Katharina Koch, Sophia Stegmaier, Lena Schwarz, Michael Erb, Maren Reinl, Klaus Scheffler, Dirk Wildgruber, Thomas Ethofer
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a biased emotion perception. In the auditory domain, MDD patients have been shown to exhibit attenuated processing of positive emotions expressed by speech melody (prosody). So far, no neuroimaging studies examining the neural basis of altered processing of emotional prosody in MDD are available. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining the emotion bias in MDD during evaluation of happy, neutral, and angry prosodic stimuli on a five-point Likert scale during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
April 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681793/autonomic-and-brain-morphological-predictors-of-stress-resilience
#4
REVIEW
Luca Carnevali, Julian Koenig, Andrea Sgoifo, Cristina Ottaviani
Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience . Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681724/predicting-alzheimer-s-disease-cognitive-assessment-via-robust-low-rank-structured-sparse-model
#5
Jie Xu, Cheng Deng, Xinbo Gao, Dinggang Shen, Heng Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with slow onset, which could result in the deterioration of the duration of persistent neurological dysfunction. How to identify the informative longitudinal phenotypic neuroimaging markers and predict cognitive measures are crucial to recognize AD at early stage. Many existing models related imaging measures to cognitive status using regression models, but they did not take full consideration of the interaction between cognitive scores. In this paper, we propose a robust low-rank structured sparse regression method (RLSR) to address this issue...
August 2017: IJCAI: Proceedings of the Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681331/nocebo-effects-and-experimental-models-in-visceral-pain
#6
Sigrid Elsenbruch, Franziska Labrenz
Despite its clinical relevance and the potential to extend insights into the processing and modulation of pain derived from investigations of placebo phenomena, the nocebo effect has received comparably little attention over the past decades. Research from experimental and clinical studies is only beginning to unravel the behavioral, functional, and psychoneurobiological mechanisms underlying the nocebo effect. Herein, we summarize current evidence regarding nocebo effects in the field of pain, with a particular emphasis on visceral pain...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681324/expectancy-modulation-of-opioid-neurotransmission
#7
Marta Pecina, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Expectancies are powerful modulators of cognitive and emotional experiences, as well as the neurobiological responses linked to these processes. In medicine, placebo effects are a clear example of how expectancies activate opioid neurotransmission in a treatment context, leading to the experience of analgesia and the improvement of emotional states, among other symptoms. Molecular neuroimaging techniques using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective μ-opioid receptor tracer [11 C]carfentanil have significantly contributed to our understanding of the neurobiological systems involved in the formation of placebo effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680789/neurophysiological-differences-in-the-adolescent-brain-following-a-single-night-of-restricted-sleep-a-7t-fmri-study
#8
Jennifer L Robinson, Stephen A Erath, Rajesh K Kana, Mona El-Sheikh
Sleep deprivation in youth has garnered international attention in recent years, as correlational studies have demonstrated significant relationships between lack of sleep and detrimental behavioral and academic outcomes. However, no study to date has systematically examined the neurophysiological consequences of a single night of sleep restriction (i.e., 4 h) in adolescents using ultra-high field functional neuroimaging. Much of what we know regarding the neural consequences of sleep deprivation has come from the adult literature, and among those studies, the majority use region of interest (ROI) approaches, thus disregarding the dynamic mechanisms that may subserve the behavioral effects of sleep restriction...
April 7, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680185/a-dual-process-perspective-on-advances-in-cognitive-science-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Kristen P Lindgren, Christian S Hendershot, Jason J Ramirez, Edward Bernat, Mauricio Rangel-Gomez, Kirsten P Peterson, James G Murphy
There is a tremendous global and national (US) burden associated with alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Further, of the mental health disorders, AUD has the widest treatment gap. Thus, there is a critical need for improved understanding of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of AUD. The application of cognitive science to the study of AUD has a longstanding history of attempting to meet this need. In this selective review, we identified and focused on four domains of recent (i.e., in the last decade) applications of cognitive science to the study of AUD: implicit cognitive biases, executive function, behavioral economic approaches to alcohol decision making, and functional connectivity neuroimaging...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678759/what-s-what-in-auditory-cortices
#10
Chrysa Retsa, Pawel J Matusz, Jan W H Schnupp, Micah M Murray
Distinct anatomical and functional pathways are postulated for analysing a sound's object-related ('what') and space-related ('where') information. It remains unresolved to which extent distinct or overlapping neural resources subserve specific object-related dimensions (i.e. who is speaking and what is being said can both be derived from the same acoustic input). To address this issue, we recorded high-density auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) while participants selectively attended and discriminated sounds according to their pitch, speaker identity, uttered syllable ('what' dimensions) or their location ('where')...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673965/a-review-on-neuroimaging-studies-of-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-early-brain-development
#11
REVIEW
Wei Gao, Karen Grewen, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Anqi Qiu, Andrew Salzwedel, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore
The past decades witnessed a surge of interest in neuroimaging study of normal and abnormal early brain development. Structural and functional studies of normal early brain development revealed massive structural maturation as well as sequential, coordinated, and hierarchical emergence of functional networks during the infancy period, providing a great foundation for the investigation of abnormal early brain development mechanisms. Indeed, studies of altered brain development associated with either genetic or environmental risks emerged and thrived...
April 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673784/visual-texture-agnosia-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Yuka Oishi, Toru Imamura, Tatsuo Shimomura, Kyoko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging and some clinical studies have reported that the ventral visual pathway is relevant for visual texture recognition. Although a variety of visual deficits have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), visual material identification and texture recognition have not been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate visual texture recognition in patients with AD and DLB and to clarify the relationship between visual texture recognition and various visuoperceptual functions...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673650/differential-recruitment-of-brain-networks-in-single-digit-addition-and-multiplication-evidence-from-eeg-oscillations-in-theta-and-lower-alpha-bands
#13
Lihan Wang, John Q Gan, Li Zhang, Haixian Wang
Previous neuroimaging research investigating dissociation between single-digit addition and multiplication has suggested that the former placed more reliance on the visuo-spatial processing whereas the latter on the verbal processing. However, there has been little exploration into the disassociation in spatio-temporal dynamics of the oscillatory brain activity in specific frequency bands during the two arithmetic operations. To address this issue, the electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded from 19 participants engaged in a delayed verification arithmetic task...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673580/the-long-term-effects-of-cocaine-use-on-cognitive-functioning-a-systematic-critical-review
#14
REVIEW
Kirsten M Frazer, Qwynten Richards, Diana R Keith
BACKGROUND: The predominant view of chronic cocaine use maintains that it causes a broad range of cognitive deficits. However, concerns about the possibly deleterious impact of cocaine on cognitive functioning have yet to be thoroughly vetted. This review addresses the impact of cocaine use on such cognitive domains as executive function, memory, language, and psychomotor speed. Additionally, relevant neuroimaging data is considered to understand the neural basis underlying cocaine-related effects on cognitive functioning...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673531/using-positron-emission-tomography-in-revealing-the-mystery-of-general-anesthesia-study-design-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Harry Scheinin, Emilee C Alkire, Annalotta Scheinin, Michael T Alkire, Oskari Kantonen, Jaakko Långsjö
Functional neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the cornerstones for studying the central nervous system effects of general anesthetics and anesthesia mechanisms. General anesthesia offers a unique and safe way to directly manipulate consciousness, and can thus be used as a powerful research tool to study the neurobiology of human consciousness. In this chapter, we will address the possibilities of PET imaging in revealing the mysteries of general anesthesia and anesthetic induced unconsciousness and summarize some of the recent advancements in the field...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673476/personalized-neuroscience-common-and-individual-specific-features-in-functional-brain-networks
#16
Theodore D Satterthwaite, Cedric H Xia, Danielle S Bassett
Despite the translational promise of non-invasive neuroimaging, its practical application to individuals has remained largely elusive. In this issue of Neuron, Gratton et al. (2018) present data from nine highly sampled adult humans and demonstrate that functional brain networks are in large part composed of individual-specific features that are stable over time. Such data represent a critical prerequisite for the development of new diagnostics and personalized interventions for neuropsychiatric illnesses.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673146/predictors-of-response-to-ketamine-in-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#17
Carola Rong, Caroline Park, Joshua D Rosenblat, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Hannah Zuckerman, Dominika Fus, Yena L Lee, Zihang Pan, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Danielle S Cha, Leanna M W Lui, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a priority. In keeping with this view, the present narrative review aims to identify the pretreatment predictors of response to ketamine in TRD as part of MDD and BD. METHOD: Electronic search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672678/aberrant-occipital-dynamics-differentiate-hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#18
Alex I Wiesman, Jennifer O'Neill, Mackenzie S Mills, Kevin R Robertson, Howard S Fox, Susan Swindells, Tony W Wilson
Combination antiretroviral therapies have revolutionized the treatment of HIV infection, and many patients now enjoy a lifespan equal to that of the general population. However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a major health concern, with between 30% and 70% of all HIV-infected patients developing cognitive impairments during their life time. One important feature of HAND is visuo-perceptual deficits, but the systems-level neural dynamics underlying these impairments are poorly understood...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670045/what-we-know-about-the-brain-structure-function-relationship
#19
REVIEW
Karla Batista-García-Ramó, Caridad Ivette Fernández-Verdecia
How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained only considering the anatomical substrate. This involves complex and controversial aspects of the neuroscience field and that the methods and methodologies to obtain structural and functional connectivity are not always rigorously applied...
April 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#20
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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