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Andrew M Kramer, J Evan Ward, Fred C Dobbs, Melissa L Pierce, John M Drake
Bivalves process large volumes of water, leading to their accumulation of bacteria, including potential human pathogens (e.g., vibrios). These bacteria are captured at low efficiencies when freely suspended in the water column, but they also attach to marine aggregates, which are captured with near 100% efficiency. For this reason, and because they are often enriched with heterotrophic bacteria, marine aggregates have been hypothesized to function as important transporters of bacteria into bivalves. The relative contribution of aggregates and unattached bacteria to the accumulation of these cells, however, is unknown...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Jennifer E Welsh, Caroline Liddell, Jaap VAN DER Meer, David W Thieltges
In parasites with complex life cycles the transmission of free-living infective stages can be influenced by ambient community diversity, in particular via predation. Here, we experimentally investigated whether parasite density and the presence of alternative prey can alter predation rates on free-living cercarial stages of a marine trematode by several non-host predators. All four predator species consumed increasing numbers of cercariae with an increase in cercarial density, indicating that the removal of cercariae by predators is effective over a range of natural densities as well as in the presence of alternative prey for a number of predators typical of marine ecosystems...
July 19, 2017: Parasitology
Alisha M Aagesen, Sureerat Phuvasate, Yi-Cheng Su, Claudia C Häse
The human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne illness in the USA, and infections with V. parahaemolyticus typically result from eating raw or undercooked oysters. V. parahaemolyticus has been shown to be highly resistant to oyster depuration, suggesting that the bacterium possesses specific mechanisms or factors for colonizing oysters and persisting during depuration. In this study, we characterized eight different V. parahaemolyticus strains for differences in resistance to oyster depuration, biofilm formation, and motility...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Xuefeng Wang, Lifei Wang, Xiaoping Jia, Donald A Jackson
Long-term spatiotemporal trends and health risk assessment of oyster arsenic levels in the coastal waters of northern South China Sea were investigated in order to help improve the quality and safety control and sustainable aquaculture for mollusks in China. Cultured oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) collected from the waters of 23 bays, harbors, and estuaries along the coast of northern South China Sea from 1989 to 2012 were examined for spatial patterns and long-term temporal trends of oyster arsenic levels...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kai Song, Yingxiang Li, Baoyu Huang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
The invertebrate innate immune system functions in immune defence and the stress response. However, knowledge of the genetic and evolutionary patterns of innate immune genes in Mollusca is limited, especially for oysters. Such information would help clarify how oysters adapt to pathogen-rich environments. Here, we characterized the genetic and evolutionary patterns of the innate immune genes in Crassostrea gigas, using population diversity analysis and evolution rates comparison. Innate immune genes have higher median nucleotide diversity than non-immune genes...
July 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Celina Abi-Khalil, Darren S Finkelstein, Genevieve Conejero, Justin Du Bois, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzon, Jean Luc Rolland
Exposure of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (A. catenella) was previously demonstrated to cause apoptosis of hemocytes in the oyster species Crassostrea gigas. In this work, a coumarin-labeled saxitoxin appeared to spread throughout the cytoplasm of the hemocytes. PSTs, including saxitoxin, were also shown to be directly responsible for inducing apoptosis in hemocytes, a process dependent on caspase activation and independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. A series of in vitro labelling and microscopy experiments revealed that STX and analogs there of induced nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine exposure, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation of hemocytes...
July 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Xuelin Zhao, Qi Li, Qian Meng, Chenyang Yue, Chengxun Xu
Taurine has been reported high amounts in marine animals to maintain osmotic balance between osmoformers and sea water. Approximately 80% of the total amino-acid content is taurine in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, an intertidal and euryhaline species. In this study, we cloned the two copies of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD), the key enzyme in taurine biosynthesis pathway, screened in oyster genome data. Sequentially, we compared the expression patterns of CgCSAD1 and CgCSAD2 under low salinity treatment (8‰ and 15‰) using different families from two populations...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wei Cong, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Xin-Chen Wang, Jian-Gang Ma, Xing-Quan Zhu, Guan-Jun Chen
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the water might be filtered through the gills of shellfish in the process of feeding, and can be concentrated in the digestive glands. Consumers might become infected through ingestion of the shellfish unless they are discharged or inactivated by the shellfish. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of T. gondii in market-sold oysters in China under natural conditions using a molecular approach. A total of 998 oysters were collected from markets in four cities (Weihai, Qingdao, Yantai and Rizhao) of Shandong province, eastern China...
July 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Denis Saulnier, Sophie De Decker, Delphine Tourbiez, Marie Agnès Travers
To enable the rapid and accurate identification of Vibrio splendidus-related and V. aestuarianus strains associated with Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas mortality, we developed a duplex Taqman real-time PCR assay and evaluated its efficacy. This technique proved to be rapid, sensitive, and specific and will be particularly valuable for epidemiologic studies.
July 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Chuanyan Yang, Qiang Gao, Chang Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhi Zhou, Changhao Gong, Anguo Zhang, Huan Zhang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to adapt the changing ambient conditions, and protect themselves from stress-induced injuries. In the present study, the expression profiles of mRNA transcripts in the haemocytes of oysters under heat stress were examined to reveal the possible mechanism of heat stress response. There were 23,315, 23,904, 23,123 and 23,672 transcripts identified in the haemocytes of oysters cultured at 25 °C for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h (designed as B, H6, H12, H24), respectively...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Stephanie M Grodeska, Jessica L Jones, Covadonga R Arias, William C Walton
The expansion of off-bottom aquaculture to the Gulf of Mexico has raised public health concerns for human health officials. High temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico are associated with high levels of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Routine desiccation practices associated with off-bottom aquaculture expose oysters to ambient air, allowing Vibrio spp. to proliferate in the closed oyster. Currently, there is limited research on the length of time needed for Vibrio spp. levels in desiccated oysters to return to background levels, defined as the levels found in oysters that remain continually submersed and not exposed to ambient air...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Andrew Loh, Un Hyuk Yim, Sung Yong Ha, Joon Geon An, Moonkoo Kim
After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m(3) of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Vahab Vaezzadeh, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Chui Wei Bong
The Straits of Malacca is one of the world's busiest shipping routes where frequent oil spills occur. Rapid development in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia is the other major source of petroleum pollution in this narrow waterway. In order to identify occurrence and origin of hydrocarbons in the Straits, mangrove oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) were collected from five sampling locations and analysed for n-alkanes and biomarkers. Soxhlet apparatus and two step column chromatography were used for extraction, purification and fractionation of the oysters...
July 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Sungmi Choi, Eunji Kim, Su-Kyoung Shin, Hana Yi
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated LPB0090T, was isolated from the Pacific oyster, Crassostreagigas, collected from the Yeongheung Island, Korea (37° 15' 16.1″ N; 126° 29' 46.5″ E). The complete genome sequence of LPB0090T (accession number CP017689) was 3 861 670 bp long with a DNA G+C content of 38.8 mol%. The genome included 3245 protein-coding genes and six copies of rRNA operons. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, LPB0090T was found to form an independent phyletic line within the genus Thalassotalea, with 94...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Muhammad Masood, Marie E Herberstein, David A Raftos, Sham V Nair
Ostreid herpes virus causes serious disease in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), but not in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). To investigate differences in disease progression, we injected oysters with double stranded RNA (dsRNA). dsRNA is known to mimic viral infection, and can evoke immune responses when Toll-like receptors detect the dsRNA, leading to the production of type 1 interferon and inflammation cytokines. The uptake and processing of dsRNA was tracked in gill and mantle tissue of Crassostrea gigas and Saccostrea glomerata after injection of fluorochrome labelled poly (I:C) dsRNA...
July 4, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Felicity Brake, Andreas Kiermeier, Tom Ross, Geoffrey Holds, Lina Landinez, Catherine McLeod
This paper reports a study of norovirus (NoV) GII distribution and persistence in Sydney rock oysters (SRO) (Saccostrea glomerata) located in an estuary after a pump station sewage overflow. SRO were strategically placed at six sites spanning the length of the estuary from the pump station to the sea. The spatial and temporal distribution of NoV, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in oysters was mapped after the contamination event. NoV GI and GII, HAV and E. coli were quantified for up to 48 days in oysters placed at six sites ranging from 0...
July 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
Yingxiang Li, Linlin Zhang, Tao Qu, Xueying Tang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Apoptosis is considered a crucial part of the host defense system in oysters according to previous reports; however, the exact process by which this occurs remains unclear. Besides, mitochondrial apoptosis is the primary method of apoptosis in vertebrate cells, but has been poorly studied in invertebrates and is quite controversial. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial apoptosis in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Notably, we show that most key elements involved in the vertebrate mitochondrial apoptosis pathway - including mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation - are also present in C...
July 6, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Laura Payton, Mickael Perrigault, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Anjara Marcel, Jean-Charles Massabuau, Damien Tran
RNA interference is a powerful method to inhibit specific gene expression. Recently, silencing target genes by feeding has been successfully carried out in nematodes, insects, and small aquatic organisms. A non-invasive feeding-based RNA interference is reported here for the first time in a mollusk bivalve, the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In this Trojan horse strategy, the unicellular alga Heterocapsa triquetra is the food supply used as a vector to feed oysters with Escherichia coli strain HT115 engineered to express the double-stranded RNA targeting gene...
July 3, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
E A V Burioli, M Prearo, M Houssin
Infections with Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) microvariants in young Pacific oysters are associated with massive mortality events and significant economic losses. Previous studies, focusing on few regions of the genome, have revealed the genomic diversity of these genotypes with respect to the reference type. We used a NGS process to sequence the whole genome of the OsHV-1 µVar in infected individuals, collected during mortality events in France and Ireland. The final genome length of OsHV-1 µVar was approximately 205kbp, shorter than the reference genotype and the overall genome organisation resembled herpes simplex viruses...
June 30, 2017: Virology
Chunyan Wang, Darioush Alidoust, Akihiro Isoda, Maosong Li
The effect of varied concentrations of thermal-treated oyster shells (TOS) on the suppression of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) uptake and translocation into the shoots of maize plants was examined. Maize plants were grown in Cd- and Cu-contaminated Andosol for 70 days. The concentration of mobile Cd (extracted with 1 M NH4NO3) decreased with increasing TOS applications, whereas an increase in the concentration of mobile Cu in soil resulted from cumulative TOS additions. The addition of 2% TOS had no prohibitive effects on Cd uptake in maize shoots, but the 4 and 8% TOS treatments decreased Cd accumulation in shoots by 41 and 59%, respectively...
July 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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