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Giuseppa Di Bella, Gianluca Pizzullo, Giuseppe Daniel Bua, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Antonello Santini, Salvatore Giacobbe
The nickel, chromium, arsenic, cadmium, and lead content have been evaluated, by ICP-MS, in digestive gland of the amphiatlantic gastropod Stramonita haemastoma, sampled along the highly anthropized Gulf of Milazzo (Central Mediterranean). Concentrations notably higher than those reported in literature for other Mediterranean Muricidae have been recorded. The results also indicated a different impact in different sites, according to distribution and typology of human activities, whilst recorded seasonal variations might relate with rapid metabolic response...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yong Hyun Kim, Eui-Gil Jung, Kook-Il Han, Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Hyoun-Su Lee, Wan Jong Kim, Man-Deuk Han
The aim of this study was to determine, using murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, the immunomodulatory effect of extracellular β-glucan isolated from Pleurotus eryngii (PEBG) and its sulfated derivative (PEBG-S) on signaling molecules implicated in host innate immunity. β-Glucan was extracted and purified from the mycelial culture using optimal medium concentrations. It was then chemically converted to its sulfated form. Monosaccharide composition of β-glucan was characterized with p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester-derivatized sugars through highperformance liquid chromatography analysis...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Qijun Yin, Wen-Xiong Wang
Despite the environmental concerns regarding nickel (Ni) especially in China, it has received little attention in aquatic animals due to its comparatively weak toxicity. In the present study, we explored the bioaccumulation, biokinetics, and subcellular distribution of Ni in an estuarine oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. We demonstrated that Ni represented a new pattern of bioaccumulation in oysters characterized by rapid elimination and low dissolved uptake. The waterborne uptake rate constant and dietary assimilation efficiency were 0...
November 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
D F Mello, N M Danielli, F Curbani, V A Pontinha, S Suhnel, M A M Castro, S C Medeiros, N C Wendt, R Trevisan, A R M Magalhães, A L Dafre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Qingsong Huang, Mingjia Yu, Hongmei Chen, Manhong Zeng, Yan Sun, Tusar T Saha, Dongbo Chen
In bivalve mollusks, circulating hemocyte mediated phagocytosis is one of the primary ways to eliminate invading microbes. Here, we have identified one CgLRFN (leucine-rich repeat and fibronectin type-III domain-containing protein) in the Crassostrea gigas as a novel transmembrane LRR (Leucine-rich repeat) domain containing protein in C. gigas, homologous to the jawless fish VLR protein, that plays an important role in recognizing bacteria and promoting hemocytic phagocytosis. Tissue distribution analysis of CgLRFN in Pacific oyster showed that it is widely expressed in various tissues like the gills, adductor muscles, digestive glands, gonads, heart and in the hemocytes...
November 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Joana Teixeira Sousa, Standish Allen, Brittany M Wolfe, Jessica Moss Small
For commercial oyster aquaculture, triploidy has significant advantages. To produce triploids, the principal technology uses diploid x tetraploid crosses. The development of tetraploid brood stock for this purpose has been successful, but as more is understood about tetraploids, it seems clear that chromosome instability is a principal feature in oysters. This paper is a continuation of work to investigate chromosome instability in polyploid Crassostrea virginica. We established families between tetraploids - apparently stable (non-mosaic) and unstable (mosaic) - and normal reference diploids, creating triploid groups, as well as tetraploids between mosaic and non-mosaic tetraploids...
November 30, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Elias P Papapanagiotou
The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications submitted in the RASFF database from its onset until 31 August 2017. Some conclusions of interest were: (i) Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway have contributed the majority of alert notifications as notifying countries, (ii) France and Serbia have been cited more often in alert notifications as countries of origin, (iii) Italy and Spain have submitted the majority of border rejection notifications, (iv) Third Countries implicated more frequently in border rejection notifications for norovirus in bivalve molluscs were Vietnam and Tunisia, whereas in fruits and vegetables were China and Serbia, (v) "risk dispersion" from norovirus-contaminated food was narrow since, in just over half of all alert notifications and all of the border rejection notifications, only up to three countries were involved, and (vi) both raw (oysters and berries) and cooked (mussels) food products can present a health risk to consumers...
November 25, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
M Anouk Goedknegt, David Shoesmith, A Sarina Jung, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, Jaap van der Meer, Catharina J M Philippart, Henk W van der Veer, David W Thieltges
Invasive parasites can spill over to new hosts in invaded ecosystems with often unpredictable trophic relationships in the newly arising parasite-host interactions. In European seas, the intestinal copepod Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters (Magallana gigas) and spilled over to native blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), with negative impacts on the condition of infected mussels. However, whether the parasite feeds on host tissue and/or stomach contents is yet unknown. To answer this question, we performed a stable isotope analysis in which we included mussel host tissue and the primary food sources of the mussels, microphytobenthos (MPB) and particulate organic matter (POM)...
November 29, 2017: Parasitology
Wen Luo, Zdeněk P Bažant
Nacre, the iridescent material of the shells of pearl oysters and abalone, consists mostly of aragonite (a form of CaCO3), a brittle constituent of relatively low strength ([Formula: see text]10 MPa). Yet it has astonishing mean tensile strength ([Formula: see text]150 MPa) and fracture energy ([Formula: see text]350 to 1,240 J/m2). The reasons have recently become well understood: (i) the nanoscale thickness ([Formula: see text]300 nm) of nacre's building blocks, the aragonite lamellae (or platelets), and (ii) the imbricated, or staggered, arrangement of these lamellea, bound by biopolymer layers only [Formula: see text]25 nm thick, occupying [Formula: see text] of volume...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nanyan Weng, Haibo Jiang, Wen-Xiong Wang
Determining the in situ localization of trace elements at high lateral resolution levels in the biological system is very challenging, but critical for our understanding of metal sequestrationa and detoxification. Here, the cellular and subcellular distributions of Cu and Zn in contaminated oysters of Crassostrea hongkongensis were for the first time mapped using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS). Three types of metal-containing cells were revealed in the gill and mantle of oysters, including Cu-specific hemocytes, Cu and Zn-containing granular hemocytes, and Cu and Zn-containing calcium cells...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Wenyu Zhao, Ting Zhou, Junxiang Zhu, Xun Sun, Ying Xu
Pichia kudriavzevii YB5, mutated from Pichia kudriavzevii A16 with a strong ability to remove cadmium ions, was immobilized by polyurethane foam and alginate gels in this work. The immobilization conditions were optimized as follows: sodium alginate concentration of 2% (w/v), calcium chloride concentration of 2% (w/v), biomass dose of 1 × 10(9) cell/mL, and cross-linking time for 4 h. Then, the results of batch adsorption experiments showed that the removal capacity of prepared bioadsorbent was significantly affected by the pH of media, contact time, and the initial Cd(II) concentration, and a suitable adsorption conditions of Cd(II) could be achieved with a pH value of 6...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hyun Ho Lee, Sang Yoon Kim, Vance N Owens, Sungkyun Park, Jiwoong Kim, Chang Oh Hong
The exact mechanism of cadmium (Cd) immobilization by oyster shell (OS) has not been reported. The effect of OS on Cd immobilization and the exact mechanism should be known before applying remediation technology using OS to Cd contaminated soils. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cd immobilization by OS. Three grams of OS (< 0.84 mm) was reacted with 30 mL of 0-3.56 mg Cd L(-1) solution at 25 °C for 48 h. Cadmium adsorption increased with increasing initial concentration of Cd in solution...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mingjia Yu, Jianming Chen, Yongbo Bao, Jun Li
NF-κB signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays highly important roles in several developmental, cellular and immune response processes. With the recent release of the draft Pacific oyster (Crassostra gigas) genome sequence, we have sought to identify the various components of the NF-κB signaling pathway in these mollusks and investigate their gene structure. We further constructed phylogenetic trees to establish the evolutionary relationship of the oyster proteins with their homologues in vertebrates and invertebrates using BLASTX and neighbor-joining method...
November 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Marcos Paiva Scardua, Rogério Tubino Vianna, Sâmia Sousa Duarte, Natanael Dantas Farias, Maria Luíza Dias Correia, Helen Taynara Araújo Dos Santos, Patricia Mirella da Silva
Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. gasar oysters are cultivated in the northeast region. Perkinsus parasites infect bivalves, and their effects on oysters from tropical regions are poorly understood. This study evaluated the impact of Perkinsus infection on the productive traits of native oysters. Oysters were sampled bimonthly during 7 months, from July 2010 to February 2011, to evaluate growth rate, mortality and shell color patterns (white and dark-gray) (n = 500), and to determine the prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus (n = 152)...
November 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Kwang Il Kim, Young Chul Kim, Woo Ju Kwon, Hyun Do Jeong
When viral diseases occur in aquaculture farms, the virus released into the seawater from infected animals can re-infect other susceptible species or accumulate in filter-feeding organisms. We conducted a viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) survivability analysis of blue mussel Mytilus edulis digestive enzymes, viral depuration, and infectivity tests via in vitro and in vivo inoculation to evaluate the infectious state. VHSV particles were not completely digested within 24 h in vitro and were maintained for 7 d in the mussel digestive gland...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ji Hoe Kim, Kil Bo Shim, Soon Beum Shin, Kunbawui Park, Eun Gyoung Oh, Kwang Tae Son, Hongsik Yu, Hee Jung Lee, Jong Soo Mok
Levels of Escherichia coli and male-specific bacteriophages (MSBs) were determined in the filter feeders obtained from retail markets, commercial farms, and wild beds in Korea. The accumulation and elimination of E. coli and MSBs were compared between ascidians and bivalves (oysters and mussels) during relaying and depuration. E. coli concentrations in ascidians from retail markets ranged between < 20 and 460 most probable number/100 g while MSBs were not detected. E. coli levels in bivalves from commercial farms and wild beds were not significantly different but bacterial levels in ascidians were consistently lower...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anthony Moreira, Etelvina Figueira, Iracy L Pecora, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Environmental hypercapnia in shallow coastal marine ecosystems can be exacerbated by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2. In these ecosystems organisms are expected to become increasingly subjected to pCO2 levels several times higher than those inhabiting ocean waters (e.g.: 10,000µatm), but still our current understanding on different species capacity to respond to such levels of hypercapnia is limited. Oysters are among the most important foundation species inhabiting these coastal ecosystems, although natural oyster banks are increasingly threatened worldwide...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
Walter Randazzo, Mohammad Khezri, Joanna Ollivier, Françoise S Le Guyader, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Rosa Aznar, Gloria Sánchez
Shellfish contamination by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) is a serious health and economic problem. Recently an ISO procedure based on RT-qPCR for the quantitative detection of HuNoVs in shellfish has been issued, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. The aim of the present study was to optimize a pretreatment using PMAxx to better discriminate between intact and heat-treated HuNoVs in shellfish and sewage. To this end, the optimal conditions (30min incubation with 100μM of PMAxx and 0...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mendel Friedman
Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sara Elmahdi, Salina Parveen, Sylvia Ossai, Ligia V DaSilva, Michael Jahncke, John Bowers, John Jacobs
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are naturally occurring estuarine bacteria and are the leading causes of seafood-associated infections and mortality in the USA. Though multiple-antibiotic resistant Vp and Vv have been reported resistance patterns in vibrios are not as well documented as other food-borne bacterial pathogens. Salinity relaying (SR) is a Post-Harvest Processing (PHP) treatment to reduce the abundance of these pathogens in shellfish harvested during the warmer months. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS), pathogenicity and genetic profiles of Vp and Vv recovered from oysters during an oyster relay study...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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