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Jonathan P Singer, Joshua M Diamond, Michaela R Anderson, Patricia P Katz, Ken Covinsky, Michelle Oyster, Tatiana Blue, Allison Soong, Laurel Kalman, Pavan Shrestha, Selim M Arcasoy, John R Greenland, Lori Shah, Jasleen Kukreja, Nancy P Blumenthal, Imaani Easthausen, Jeffrey A Golden, Amika McBurnie, Ed Cantu, Joshua Sonett, Steven Hays, Hilary Robbins, Kashif Raza, Matthew Bacchetta, Rupal J Shah, Frank D'Ovidio, Aida Venado, Jason D Christie, David J Lederer
Frailty is associated with increased mortality among lung transplant candidates. We sought to determine the association between frailty, as measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and mortality after lung transplantation. In a multicenter prospective cohort study of adults who underwent lung transplantation, pre-operative frailty was assessed with the SPPB (n=318) and, in a secondary analysis, the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP; n=299). We tested the association between pre-operative frailty and mortality following lung transplantation with propensity score adjusted Cox models...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Katherine E Silliman, Tynan K Bowyer, Steven B Roberts
Adaptive evolution and plasticity are two mechanisms that facilitate phenotypic differences between populations living in different environments. Understanding which mechanism underlies variation in fitness-related traits is a crucial step in designing conservation and restoration management strategies for taxa at risk from anthropogenic stressors. Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida) have received considerable attention with regard to restoration, however there is limited information on adaptive population structure...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carole Blay, Serge Planes, Chin-Long Ky
Nucleated pearls are produced by molluscs of the Pinctada genus through the biomineralisation activity of the pearl sac tissue within the recipient oyster. The pearl sac originates from graft tissue taken from the donor oyster mantle and its functioning is crucial in determining key factors that impact pearl quality surface characteristics. The specific role of related gene regulation during gem biogenesis was unknown, so we analysed the expression profiles of eight genes encoding nacreous (PIF, MSI60, PERL1) or prismatic (SHEM5, PRISM, ASP, SHEM9) shell matrix proteins or both (CALC1) in the pearl sac (N = 211) of Pinctada margaritifera during pearl biogenesis...
April 16, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Sujian Tan, Pin Huan, Baozhong Liu
Though the roles of BMP signaling development is studied extensively in insects and vertebrates, our knowledge of BMP signaling in molluscan development is limited. In the present study, we performed a genome-based analysis of TGF-β receptors in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and revealed that C. gigas possessed all five canonical members of the gene family, including three type I and two type II receptors. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that four receptor genes exhibited universal expression at the gastrula stage but cgi-bmprII mRNA was only expressed at the anterior lip of blastopore, indicating the regulation of BMP signaling through restricted expression of TGF-β receptors...
April 13, 2018: Gene
Rui Xu, Qi Li, Hong Yu, Lingfeng Kong
Nanos gene plays an important role in germline development in animals. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in germline development in Mollusca, the second largest animal phylum, are still poorly understood. Here we identified the Nanos orthologue from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Cg-Nanos-like), and investigated the expression patterns of Nanos during gametogenesis and embryogenesis in C. gigas. Tissue expression analysis showed that Cg-Nanos-like was specifically expressed in female gonads...
April 13, 2018: Gene
Lei Fang, Guoming Li, Ruizeng Gu, Muyi Cai, Jun Lu
BACKGROUND: Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). RESULTS: SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ziran Zhang, Feibai Zhou, Xiaoling Liu, Mouming Zhao
An oyster protein hydrolysates-zinc complex (OPH-Zn) was prepared and investigated to improve zinc bioaccessibility. Zinc ions chelating with oyster protein hydrolysates (OPH) cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregation, homogeneously forming the OPH-Zn complex as nanoclusters with a Z-average at 89.28 nm (PDI: 0.16 ± 0.02). The primary sites of zinc-binding in OPH were carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups, and they were related to the high number of charged amino acid residues...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
March 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Andrés M Tibabuzo Perdomo, Erik M Alberts, Stephen D Taylor, Debra M Sherman, Chia-Ping Huang, Jonathan J Wilker
Oysters construct extensive reef communities, providing food, protection from storms, and healthy coastlines. We still do not have a clear picture of how these animals attach to surfaces. Efforts described herein provide the first examination of adhesion at the transition from free swimming larvae to initial substrate attachment, through meta- morphosis, and on to adulthood. Two different bonding systems were found to coexist. Larvae use an organic, hydrated glue that persists while the animal progresses into the juvenile phase, at which point a very different adhesive emerges...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yongshan Chen, Jinghua Xu, Zhengyong Lv, Ruijia Xie, Liumei Huang, Jinping Jiang
Soil contamination is a serious problem with deleterious impacts on global sustainability. Readily available, economic, and highly effective technologies are therefore urgently needed for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. In this study, two readily available materials prepared from bio-wastes, namely biochar and oyster shell waste, were evaluated as soil amendments to immobilize arsenic in a highly As-contaminated soil (up to 15,000 mgAs/kg). Both biochar and oyster shell waste can effectively reduce arsenic leachability in acid soils...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Gerhard van der Horst, Monique Bennett, John D D Bishop
Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus...
April 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Qingheng Wang, Ruijuan Hao, Xiaoxia Zhao, Ronglian Huang, Zhe Zheng, Yuewen Deng, Weiyao Chen, Xiaodong Du
Marine pearl production is directly influenced by the growth speed of Pinctada fucata martensii. However, the slow growth rate of this organism remains the main challenge in aquaculture production. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), an important receptor of tyrosine kinases in animals, plays versatile functions in development, growth and tissue regeneration. In this study, we described the characteristic and function of an EGFR gene identified from P. f. martensii (PmEGFR). PmEGFR possesses a typical EGFR structure and is expressed in all studied tissues, with the highest expression level in adductor muscle...
April 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hui Zhang, Zhenquan Yang, Yan Zhou, Hongduo Bao, Ran Wang, Tingwu Li, Maoda Pang, Lichang Sun, Xiaohui Zhou
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major pathogen that is mainly associated with seafood and is a global concern of food safety. With high prevalence of contamination in food, efficient strategy is needed to decontaminate those contaminated foods and control the emergence of vibriosis. In the present study, a V. parahaemolyticus-specific phage vB_VpaS_OMN (designated as phage OMN) was isolated from oyster. Phage OMN had good pH (5-9) and temperature tolerance (<50 °C). Phage OMN exhibited broad host range against isolates of V...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Audrey M Mat, Christophe Klopp, Laura Payton, Céline Jeziorski, Morgane Chalopin, Zouher Amzil, Damien Tran, Gary H Wikfors, Hélène Hégaret, Philippe Soudant, Arnaud Huvet, Caroline Fabioux
Harmful Algal Blooms are worldwide occurrences that can cause poisoning in human seafood consumers as well as mortality and sublethal effets in wildlife, propagating economic losses. One of the most widespread toxigenic microalgal taxa is the dinoflagellate Genus Alexandrium, that includes species producing neurotoxins referred to as PST (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins). Blooms cause shellfish harvest restrictions to protect human consumers from accumulated toxins. Large inter-individual variability in toxin load within an exposed bivalve population complicates monitoring of shellfish toxicity for ecology and human health regulation...
March 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Gaurav Jain, Martin Pendola, Yu-Chieh Huang, Denis Gebauer, Eleni Koutsoumpeli, Steven D Johnson, John Spencer Evans
In the nacre layer of the Pinctada fucata oyster shell there exists a multi-member proteome, known as the framework family, which regulates the formation of the aragonite mesoscale tablets and participates in the creation of an organic coating around each tablet. Several approaches have been developed to understand protein-associated mechanisms of nacre formation, yet we still lack insight into how protein ensembles or proteomes manage nucleation and crystal growth. To provide additional insights we have created a proportionally-defined combinatorial model consisting of two recombinant framework proteins, r-Pif97 (containing a von Willebrand Factor Type A domain) and r-n16...
April 5, 2018: Biochemistry
Tony Gardon, Céline Reisser, Claude Soyez, Virgile Quillien, Gilles Le Moullac
Plastic pollution in the environment is increasing at global scale. Microplastics (MP) are derived from degradation of larger plastic items or directly produced in microparticles form (<5 mm). Plastics, widely used in structures and equipments of pearl farming, are a source of pollution to the detriment of the lagoon ecosystem. In order to evaluate the impact of MP on the physiology of Pinctada margaritifera, a species of ecological and commercial interests, adult oysters were exposed to polystyrene microbeads (micro-PS of 6 and 10 μm) for 2 months...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohcine Charifi, Alison Miserazzi, Mohamedou Sow, Mickael Perrigault, Patrice Gonzalez, Pierre Ciret, Soumaya Benomar, Jean-Charles Massabuau
Shipping has increased dramatically in recent decades and oysters can hear them. We studied the interaction between noise pollution and trace metal contamination in the oyster Magallana gigas. Four oyster-groups were studied during a 14-day exposure period. Two were exposed to cadmium in the presence of cargo ship-noise ([Cd++]w ≈ 0.5 μg∙L-1; maximum sound pressure level 150 dBrms re 1 μPa), and 2 were exposed only to cadmium. The Cd concentration in the gills ([Cd]g) and the digestive gland ([Cd]dg), the valve closure duration, number of valve closures and circadian distribution of opening and closure, the daily shell growth-rate and the expression of 19 genes in the gills were studied...
2018: PloS One
Changlu Wu, Qiuyun Jiang, Lei Wei, Zhongqiang Cai, Jun Chen, Wenchao Yu, Cheng He, Jiao Wang, Wen Guo, Xiaotong Wang
Light-sensitivity is important for mollusc survival, as it plays a vital role in reproduction and predator avoidance. Light-sensitivity has been demonstrated in the adult Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas , but the genes associated with light-sensitivity remain unclear. In the present study, we designed experiments to identify the genes associated with light-sensitivity in adult oysters. First, we assessed the Pacific oyster genome and identified 368 genes annotated with the terms associated with light-sensitivity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
T-C Francis Pan, Scott L Applebaum, Christina A Frieder, Donal T Manahan
Animal size is a highly variable trait regulated by complex interactions between biological and environmental processes. Despite the importance of understanding the mechanistic bases of growth, the ability to predict size variation in early stages of development remains challenging. Pedigreed lines of the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) were crossed to produce contrasting growth phenotypes to analyze the metabolic bases of growth variation in larval stages. Under controlled environmental conditions substantial growth variation of up to 430% in shell length occurred among 12 larval families...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
María Vanesa Taboada-López, Sara Iglesias-López, Paloma Herbello-Hermelo, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
Applicability of single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS) using dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs has been tested for assessing titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in bivalve mollusks. TiO2 NPs isolation from fresh mollusk tissues was achieved by ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis procedure using a pancreatin/lipase mixture. Optimum extraction conditions imply ultrasonication (60% amplitude) for 10 min, and 7.5 mL of a solution containing 3.0 g L-1 of pancreatin and lipase (pH 7...
August 14, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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