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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429861/extreme-ocean-acidification-reduces-the-susceptibility-of-eastern-oyster-shells-to-a-polydorid-parasite
#1
J C Clements, D Bourque, J McLaughlin, M Stephenson, L A Comeau
Ocean acidification poses a threat to marine organisms. While the physiological and behavioural effects of ocean acidification have received much attention, the effects of acidification on the susceptibility of farmed shellfish to parasitic infections are poorly understood. Here we describe the effects of moderate (pH 7.5) and extreme (pH 7.0) ocean acidification on the susceptibility of Crassostrea virginica shells to infection by a parasitic polydorid, Polydora websteri. Under laboratory conditions, shells were exposed to three pH treatments (7...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429758/intracellular-lipid-binding-protein-family-diversity-from-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-genomic-and-structural-features-of-invertebrate-lipid-transporters
#2
Guilherme de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme Razzera, Flavia Lucena Zacchi, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) play a role in the transport and cellular uptake of fatty acids and gene expression regulation. The aim of this work was to characterize the iLBP gene family of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, one of the most cultivated marine bivalves in the world, using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. A total of 26 different iLBPs transcripts were identified in the Pacific oyster genome, including alternative splicing and gene duplication events. The oyster iLBP gene family seems to be more expanded than in other invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426724/cloning-retinoid-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-nuclear-receptors-of-the-pacific-oyster-and-in-silico-binding-to-environmental-chemicals
#3
Susanne Vogeler, Tamara S Galloway, Michail Isupov, Tim P Bean
Disruption of nuclear receptors, a transcription factor superfamily regulating gene expression in animals, is one proposed mechanism through which pollution causes effects in aquatic invertebrates. Environmental pollutants have the ability to interfere with the receptor's functions through direct binding and inducing incorrect signals. Limited knowledge of invertebrate endocrinology and molecular regulatory mechanisms, however, impede the understanding of endocrine disruptive effects in many aquatic invertebrate species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425396/development-and-single-laboratory-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-quantitation-of-tetrodotoxin-in-mussels-and-oysters
#4
Andrew D Turner, Michael J Boundy, Monika Dhanji Rapkova
In recent years, evidence has grown for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in bivalve mollusks, leading to the potential for consumers of contaminated products to be affected by Tetrodotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (TSP). A single-laboratory validation was conducted for the hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of TTX in common mussels and Pacific oysters-the bivalve species that have been found to contain TTXs in the United Kingdom in recent years. The method consists of a single-step dispersive extraction in 1% acetic acid, followed by a carbon SPE cleanup step before dilution and instrumental analysis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421412/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-exhibit-high-intraspecific-variability-in-pleurotus-ostreatus-mushrooms-and-correlate-well-with-cultivation-performance-parameters
#5
Georgios Koutrotsios, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Pantelis Stathopoulos, Andriana C Kaliora, Georgios I Zervakis
Experimental data related with oyster mushroom production and nutritional properties usually derive from the examination of only one strain, and hence their representativeness/usefulness is questionable. This work aims at assessing intraspecific variability in Pleurotus ostreatus by studying 16 strains, under the same conditions, in respect to essential cultivation and mushroom quality aspects, and by defining the impact of intrinsic/genetic factors on such parameters. Hence, mushroom yield, earliness, crop length, biological efficiency, productivity, and their content in selected macro and microconstituents (e...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421051/in-situ-capture-rt-qpcr-a-new-simple-and-sensitive-method-to-detect-human-norovirus-in-oysters
#6
Zhenhuan Zhou, Zhengan Tian, Qianqian Li, Peng Tian, Qingping Wu, Dapeng Wang, Xianming Shi
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause worldwide for non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we applied a novel viral receptor mediated in situ capture RT-qPCR (ISC-RT-qPCR) to detect HuNoVs in oysters and compared with the traditional RT-qPCR method. Ten HuNoVs RT-PCR positive and 5 negative clinical samples from gastroenteritis patients were used to compare specificity and sensitivity of ISC-RT-qPCR against that of the RT-qPCR assay. ISC-RT-qPCR had at a one-log and a two-log increase in sensitivity over that of the RT-qPCR assay for genotype I (GI) and GII, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410522/development-of-matrix-effect-free-mispe-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-determination-of-lovastatin-in-pu-erh-tea-oyster-mushroom-and-red-yeast-rice
#7
Pavel Svoboda, Daniel Sander, Kateřina Plachká, Lucie Nováková
Matrix effect-free UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of cholesterol-lowering lovastatin in food samples represented by Pu-erh tea, oyster mushroom, and red yeast rice. The resulting method was fully validated in terms of intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, linearity, range, LOD, LOQ, and matrix effects. The matrix effect phenomenon evaluated by comparison of slopes of calibration curves was completely eliminated by solid-phase extraction based on the technique of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407513/effects-of-cyanobacteria-synechocystis-spp-in-the-host-parasite-model-crassostrea-gasar-perkinsus-marinus
#8
Fernando Ramos Queiroga, Luis Fernando Marques-Santos, Hélène Hégaret, Roberto Sassi, Natanael Dantas Farias, Lucas Nunes Santana, Patricia Mirella da Silva
Perkinsosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Perkinsus genus. In Brazil, two species, P. beihaiensis and P. marinus, are frequently found infecting native oysters (Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae) from cultured and wild populations in several states of the Northeast region. The impacts of this disease in bivalves from Brazil, as well as the interactions with environmental factors, are poorly studied. In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro effects of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp...
March 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392984/non-native-molluscan-colonizers-on-deliberately-placed-shipwrecks-in-the-florida-keys-with-description-of-a-new-species-of-potentially-invasive-worm-snail-gastropoda-vermetidae
#9
Rüdiger Bieler, Camila Granados-Cifuentes, Timothy A Rawlings, Petra Sierwald, Timothy M Collins
Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392464/anticancer-and-cancer-preventive-compounds-from-edible-marine-organisms
#10
REVIEW
Marta Correia-da-Silva, Emília Sousa, Madalena M M Pinto, Anake Kijjoa
A direct impact of food on health, which demonstrates that dietary habit is one of the most important determinants of chronic diseases such as cancers, has led to an increased interest of the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients or nutraceuticals. Epidemiological studies revealed that the populations of many Asian countries with high consumption of fish and seafood have low prevalence of particular type of cancers such as lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. This observation has led to extensive investigations of the benefits of compounds present in edible marine organisms such as fish, marine invertebrates (mollusks, echinoderms) and marine algae as cancer chemopreventive agents...
April 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391094/antioxidant-responses-in-gills-and-digestive-gland-of-oyster-crassostrea-madrasensis-preston-under-lead-exposure
#11
Prachi S Shenai-Tirodkar, Mangesh U Gauns, Mohammad Wassim A Mujawar, Zakir A Ansari
Crassostrea are ecologically and economically important bivalves and provide a good livelihood for coastal regions of many countries, including India. This study aims at evaluating the response of the antioxidant defense system in oyster Crassostrea madrasensis against lead (Pb) exposure under laboratory conditions. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and oxidative damage parameter lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the gills and digestive glands of oysters exposed to 1-50µg/l of Pb (NO3)2 over a period of 8 days...
April 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388477/parental-diuron-exposure-alters-offspring-transcriptome-and-fitness-in-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#12
Evelyne Bachère, Audrey Barranger, Roman Bruno, Julien Rouxel, Dominique Menard, David Piquemal, Farida Akcha
One of the primary challenges in ecotoxicology is to contribute to the assessment of the ecological status of ecosystems. In this study, we used Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to explore the effects of a parental exposure to diuron, a herbicide frequently detected in marine coastal environments. The present toxicogenomic study provides evidence that exposure of oyster genitors to diuron during gametogenesis results in changes in offspring, namely, transcriptomic profile alterations, increased global DNA methylation levels and reduced growth and survival within the first year of life...
April 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373065/differential-expression-of-novel-metabolic-and-immunological-biomarkers-in-oysters-challenged-with-a-virulent-strain-of-oshv-1
#13
Tim Young, Aditya Kesarcodi-Watson, Andrea C Alfaro, Fabrice Merien, Thao V Nguyen, Hannah Mae, Dung V Le, Silas Villas-Bôas
Early lifestages of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) are highly susceptible to infection by OsHV-1 μVar, but little information exists regarding metabolic or pathophysiological responses of larval hosts. Using a metabolomics approach, we identified a range of metabolic and immunological responses in oyster larvae exposed to OsHV-1 μVar; some of which have not previously been reported in molluscs. Multivariate analyses of entire metabolite profiles were able to separate infected from non-infected larvae...
April 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372811/acclimatory-processes-are-likely-responsible-for-metal-tolerance-in-oyster-embryos
#14
Thanvapon Yingprasertchai, Richard Man Kit Yu, Wayne A O'Connor, Tegan Hopwood, Geoff R MacFarlane
We aimed to determine if offspring of oysters from contaminated locations were more tolerant to metals, and whether this tolerance could be attributed to acclimation. Oysters from 10 estuaries were sampled, representing a gradient in metal contamination. Tolerance to metals of the F1 offspring from adults residing in these estuaries was assessed. Then, adults from these estuaries were translocated to a single estuary and their offspring tolerance reassessed. No linear relationship was found between the Cu concentrations of adults and their offspring's tolerance to Cu...
March 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361237/valorization-of-spent-oyster-mushroom-substrate-and-laccase-recovery-through-successive-solid-state-cultivation-of-pleurotus-ganoderma-and-lentinula-strains
#15
Christina N Economou, Panagiota A Diamantopoulou, Antonios N Philippoussis
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Pleurotus ostreatus was supplemented with wheat bran and soybean flour in various proportions to obtain C/N ratios of 10, 20, and 30, and their effect was evaluated in successive cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma adspersum, Ganoderma resinaceum, and Lentinula edodes strains with respect to mycelium growth rate, biomass concentration, recovery of the enzyme laccase and crude exopolysaccharides, and also with additional fruiting body production...
March 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359214/highly-bioavailable-nanocalcium-from-oyster-shell-for-preventing-osteoporosis-in-rats
#16
Yun-Kyung Lee, Sung Keun Jung, Yoon Hyuk Chang, Hae-Soo Kwak
Oyster shell is one of the foremost natural sources of calcium and is used as an alternative treatment for osteoporosis. In this study, we demonstrated that zinc-activated nanopowdered oyster shell (Zn-NPOS) effectively reduced bone loss compared with powdered oyster shell (POS) in an ovariectomized rat (OVX) model. As a result of nanosizing, the solubility and bioavailability of the oyster shell were greatly improved, and its effectiveness was further enhanced by zinc activation. Bone analysis indicated greater recovery from ovariectomy-induced bone loss following Zn-NPOS treatment...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358258/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-in-market-raw-oysters-in-taiwan
#17
Yung-Tsun Lo, Chia-Lan Wang, Bai-Hsung Chen, Chung-Wen Hu, Chung-Hsi Chou
We tested 137 samples of domestic shucked oysters and 114 samples of imported oysters collected from traditional retail markets and supermarkets during 2010 and 2011 in Taiwan for the presence of Salmonella . We obtained a total of 91 Salmonella isolates, representing nine serotypes, from 80 of the domestic samples. We did not find any Salmonella in the imported oysters. The presence of Salmonella contamination tended to be specific to the area from which the oysters were harvested: the Dongshih area had a significantly higher contamination rate (68...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352294/population-specific-genotype-x-genotype-x-environment-interactions-in-bacterial-disease-of-early-life-stages-of-pacific-oyster-larvae
#18
Carolin C Wendling, Armin G Fabritzek, K Mathias Wegner
The consequences of emerging marine diseases on the evolutionary trajectories of affected host populations in the marine realm are largely unexplored. Evolution in response to natural selection depends on the genetic variation of the traits under selection and the interaction of these traits with the environment (GxE). However, in the case of diseases, pathogen genotypes add another dimension to this interaction. Therefore, the study of disease resistance needs to be extended to the interaction of host genotype, pathogen genotype and environment (GxGxE)...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343714/sensitivity-of-eastern-oyster-crassostrea-virginica-spermatozoa-and-oocytes-to-dispersed-oil-cellular-responses-and-impacts-on-fertilization-and-embryogenesis
#19
J Vignier, A K Volety, A Rolton, N Le Goïc, F-L E Chu, R Robert, P Soudant
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill released millions of barrels of oil and dispersant into the Gulf of Mexico. The timing of the spill coincided with the spawning season of Crassostrea virginica. Consequently, gametes released in the water were likely exposed to oil and dispersant. This study aimed to (i) evaluate the cellular effects of acute exposure of spermatozoa and oocytes to surface slick oil, dispersed mechanically (HEWAF) and chemically (CEWAF), using flow-cytometric (FCM) analyses, and (ii) determine whether the observed cellular effects relate to impairments of fertilization and embryogenesis of gametes exposed to the same concentrations of CEWAF and HEWAF...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342032/densoviruses-in-oyster-crassostrea-ariakensis
#20
Yan-Jun Kang, Wei Huang, A-Li Zhao, Dan-Dan Lai, Lin Shao, Yan-Qin Shen, Xutao Deng, Eric Delwart, Wen Zhang
Densoviruses have short ssDNA genomes and mainly infect arthropods. To characterize viral nucleic acid in shellfish, oysters (Crassostrea ariakensis) were analyzed using viral metagenomics. Two large de novo assembled contigs, CaaDV1 and CaaDV2, consisting of nearly complete densovirus genomes (5860 nucleotides (nt) and 4034 nt) with two major ambisense protein coding regions were identified. Several potential non-structural proteins and capsid proteins were encoded by these genomes, but these were divergent from the existing densoviral species...
March 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
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