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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528392/habitat-quality-mediates-personality-through-differences-in-social-context
#1
Benjamin A Belgrad, Blaine D Griffen
Assessing the stability of animal personalities has become a major goal of behavioral ecologists. Most personality studies have utilized solitary individuals, but little is known on the extent that individuals retain their personality across ecologically relevant group settings. We conducted a field survey which determined that mud crabs, Panopeus herbstii, remain scattered as isolated individuals on degraded oyster reefs while high quality reefs can sustain high crab densities (>10 m(-2)). We examined the impact of these differences in social context on personality by quantifying the boldness of the same individual crabs when in isolation and in natural cohorts...
May 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528312/low-sensitivity-of-reproductive-life-stages-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-to-abamectin
#2
Laura J Falkenberg, Anna-Lisa Wrange, Alexandra Kinnby, Jon N Havenhand, Antony Lockyer, Craig A Styan
Hard surfaces submerged in the marine environment often become colonised by macro-organisms unless the surfaces have some form of biofouling protection. While protective paints that contain tributyltin or copper work well to prevent biofouling, release of these materials into the environment has been shown to have wider negative impacts. Consequently, new low-release antifouling paints are being developed with alternative active ingredients, such as avermectins, yet little is known about their potential effects on non-target organisms in marine environments...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506725/the-first-invertebrate-nfil3-transcription-factor-with-role-in-immune-defense-identified-from-the-hong-kong-oyster-crassostrea-hongkongensis
#3
Jun Li, Yang Zhang, Yuehuan Zhang, Fan Mao, Zhiming Xiang, Shu Xiao, Haitao Ma, Ziniu Yu
NFIL3 (nuclear factor interleukin 3-regulated) is a basic leucine zipper type transcription factor that mediates a variety of immune responses in vertebrates. However, the sequence information and function of NFIL3 homologs in invertebrates, especially mollusks, remains unknown. In the present study, the first NFIL3 homolog was identified in a marine mollusk, Crassostrea hongkongensis (designated as ChNFIL3), followed by its functional characterization. The full-length cDNA of ChNFIL3 is 2221 bp and consists of an open reading frame (ORF) of 1536 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 551 amino acids...
May 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504816/virulence-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-environmental-strains-of-vibrio-alginolyticus
#4
Marcos F Hernández-Robles, Ana K Álvarez-Contreras, Patricia Juárez-García, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Everardo Curiel-Quesada, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas, Elsa I Quiñones-Ramírez
Vibrio alginolyticus has acquired increasing importance because this microorganism may be pathogenic to aquatic animals and humans. It has been reported that some V. alginolyticus strains carry virulence genes derived from pathogenic V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus strains. In this work V. alginolyticus was isolated from oyster samples acquired from a food-market in Mexico City. Thirty isolates were identified as V. alginolitycus. Strains showed β-haemolysis and proteolytic activity and produced a capsule...
December 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500903/microcystin-lr-bioconcentration-induces-antioxidant-responses-in-the-digestive-gland-of-two-marine-bivalves-crassostrea-gigas-and-mytilus-edulis
#5
Young Dae Kim, Won Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Shin, Do-Hee Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Jang Kyun Kim, Jae-Sung Rhee
Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of potent cyanobacterial toxins found in freshwater and even brackish waterbodies. To understand the putative correlation between bioconcentration of MCs and antioxidant responses of the digestive gland of bivalves, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and blue mussel Mytilus edulis were exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20μgL(-1)) of MC-Leucine-Arginine (LR) for seven days. MC-LR bioconcentrated in the digestive glands of both bivalves during exposure period...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500397/analysis-of-lethal-and-sublethal-impacts-of-environmental-disasters-on-sperm-whales-using-stochastic-modeling
#6
Azmy S Ackleh, Ross A Chiquet, Baoling Ma, Tingting Tang, Hal Caswell, Amy Veprauskas, Natalia Sidorovskaia
Mathematical models are essential for combining data from multiple sources to quantify population endpoints. This is especially true for species, such as marine mammals, for which data on vital rates are difficult to obtain. Since the effects of an environmental disaster are not fixed, we develop time-varying (nonautonomous) matrix population models that account for the eventual recovery of the environment to the pre-disaster state. We use these models to investigate how lethal and sublethal impacts (in the form of reductions in the survival and fecundity, respectively) affect the population's recovery process...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499928/detection-of-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-microvariants-in-healthy-crassostrea-gigas-following-disease-events-and-their-possible-role-as-reservoirs-of-infection
#7
Olivia Evans, Paul Hick, Richard J Whittington
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariants (OsHV-1) cause severe mortalities in farmed Crassostrea gigas in Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Outbreaks are seasonal, recurring in the warmer months of the year in endemic estuaries. The reference genotype and microvariant genotypes of OsHV-1 have been previously detected in the tissues of apparently healthy adult oysters naturally exposed to OsHV-1 in the field. However, the role of such oysters as reservoirs of infection for subsequent mortality outbreaks remains unclear...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499221/a-water-quality-management-strategy-for-regionally-protected-water-through-health-risk-assessment-and-spatial-distribution-of-heavy-metal-pollution-in-3-marine-reserves
#8
Yinan Zhang, Chunli Chu, Tong Li, Shengguo Xu, Lei Liu, Meiting Ju
Severe water pollution and resource scarcity is a major problem in China, where it is necessary to establish water quality-oriented monitoring and intelligent watershed management. In this study, an effective watershed management method is explored, in which water quality is first assessed using the heavy metal pollution index and the human health risk index, and then by classifying the pollution and management grade based on cluster analysis and GIS visualization. Three marine reserves in Tianjin were selected and analyzed, namely the Tianjin Ancient Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve (Qilihai Natural Reserve), the Tianjin DaShentang Oyster Reef National Marine Special Reserve (DaShentang Reserve), and the Tianjin Coastal Wetland National Marine Special Reserve (BinHai Wetland Reserve) which is under construction...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493049/identification-and-differential-expression-of-biomineralization-genes-in-the-mantle-of-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#9
Haimei Li, Bo Zhang, Sigang Fan, Baosuo Liu, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
A series of proteins are involved in shell formation of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, but the involved mechanisms and the relative expression levels of these proteins have not been elucidated. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of P. fucata mantle tissue. A total of 100,679 unique transcripts were assembled, 43687 Unigenes were annotated, and 48654 CDSs were determined. Of these, GO annotated 16353 Unigenes, COG defined 11585 unigenes into 25 categories, and KEGG sorted 25053 unigenes into 258 pathways...
May 10, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486520/rapid-expansion-of-the-invasive-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-at-its-northern-distribution-limit-in-europe-naturally-dispersed-or-introduced
#10
Marc B Anglès d'Auriac, Eli Rinde, Pia Norling, Sylvie Lapègue, André Staalstrøm, Dag Ø Hjermann, Jens Thaulow
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, was introduced to Europe for aquaculture purposes, and has had a rapid and unforeseen northward expansion in northern Europe. The recent dramatic increase in number of C. gigas populations along the species' northern distribution limit has questioned the efficiency of Skagerrak as a dispersal barrier for transport and survival of larvae. We investigated the genetic connectivity and possible spreading patterns between Pacific oyster populations on the southern Norwegian coast (4 localities) and Swedish and Danish populations by means of DNA microsatellite analysis of adult oysters, and by simulating larvae drift...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482282/effects-of-ambient-exposure-refrigeration-and-icing-on-vibrio-vulnificus-and-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-abundances-in-oysters
#11
J L Jones, K A Lydon, T P Kinsey, B Friedman, M Curtis, R Schuster, J C Bowers
Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ)...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481231/zeolite-containing-mixture-supplementation-ameliorated-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-mice-by-suppressing-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-pathway-and-improving-apoptosis-in-colon-mucosa
#12
Weida Lyu, Huijuan Jia, Chuanzong Deng, Kenji Saito, Seigo Yamada, Hisanori Kato
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is induced by multiple environmental factors, and there is still no known treatment capable of curing the disease completely. We propose a zeolite-containing mixture (Hydryeast(®), HY)-a multi-component nutraceutical of which the main ingredients are Azumaceramics (mixture of zeolite and oyster shell burned under high temperature), citric acid, red rice yeast (monascus) and calcium stearate-as a nutraceutical intervention in IBD to ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476673/soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-mediates-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptosis-and-atp-metabolism-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-exposed-to-elevated-co2
#13
Xiudan Wang, Mengqiang Wang, Jiachao Xu, Zhihao Jia, Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Ocean acidification (OA) has deleterious impacts on immune response and energy homeostasis status of Mollusca. In the present study, the apoptosis ratio of hemocytes and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) allocation in gill tissues were determined after Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas were exposed to elevated CO2 environment (pH = 7.50) for 16 days.The apoptosis ratio in CO2 exposure group (35.2%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the control group, and the increased apoptosis ratio induced by elevated CO2 could be significantly inhibited (p < 0...
May 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474214/shell-extracts-of-the-edible-mussel-and-oyster-induce-an-enhancement-of-the-catabolic-pathway-of-human-skin-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#14
Thomas Latire, Florence Legendre, Mouloud Bouyoucef, Frédéric Marin, Franck Carreiras, Muriel Rigot-Jolivet, Jean-Marc Lebel, Philippe Galéra, Antoine Serpentini
Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the effects of matrix macromolecular components extracted from the shells of two edible molluscs of economic interest, i.e., the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The potential biological activities of these organic molecules were analysed on human dermal fibroblasts in primary culture...
May 4, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474104/the-biofilteration-ability-of-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-to-reduce-aeromonas-salmonicida-in-salmon-culture
#15
Xiaona Ma, Xian Li, Guoxiang Sun, Zaki Zaki Sharawy, Tianlong Qiu, Yishuai Du, Ying Liu
Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults)...
May 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457919/norovirus-contamination-and-the-glycosphingolipid-biosynthesis-pathway-in-pacific-oyster-a-transcriptomics-study
#16
Liping Ma, Laijin Su, Hui Liu, Feng Zhao, Deqing Zhou, Delin Duan
Noroviruses are the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. These viruses remain stable in oysters, suggesting an active mechanism for virus concentration. In this study, a deep RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of Pacific oysters at different time points after inoculation with norovirus (GII.4). We obtained a maximum of 65, 294, 698 clean sample reads. When aligned to the reference genome, the average mapping ratio of clean data was approximately 65%...
April 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456123/integrative-biomarker-assessment-of-the-effects-of-chemically-and-mechanically-dispersed-crude-oil-in-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas
#17
Andrea Luna-Acosta, Paco Bustamante, Hélène Thomas-Guyon, Beñat Zaldibar, Urtzi Izagirre, Ionan Marigómez
The impact of dispersed crude oil and dispersant on adult Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, was evaluated through an integrative biomarker approach including (1) biochemical (plasma catecholase- and laccase-type phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase), (2) histological (digestive cell lysosomal responses, digestive gland histopathology) and (3) physiological (flesh condition index) endpoints in the haemolymph and digestive gland. Adult oysters were exposed to non-contaminated water (control), chemically-dispersed oil (Brut Arabian Light), mechanically-dispersed oil and dispersant (FINASOL®) alone for 2days, and further depurated in non-contaminated water for 4weeks...
April 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454761/bio-effect-monitoring-of-long-term-thermal-wastes-on-the-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-using-heat-shock-proteins
#18
Jin-Hyoung Kim, Su-Young Jeong, Pyung-Joong Kim, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Kyung-Nam Han
We bio-monitored the stress of oyster, Crassostrea gigas, for possible long term effects of thermal waste from a power plant. The expression level of its heat shock proteins (HSPs) was measured by real time-reverse transcript PCR along with their density and growth in the field. Oyster size varied in a distance dependent pattern. Physics modeling for evaluation of spreading of the thermal effluent revealed that station A is affected by the thermal effluents abundance, and the size of C. gigas showed a negative relationship with distance to the power plant...
April 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445095/physiological-versus-biological-control-in-bivalve-calcite-prisms-comparison-of-euheterodonts-and-pteriomorphs
#19
Elizabeth M Harper, Antonio Checa
Multiple groups of bivalve molluscs produce calcitic shell layers, many of these broadly classified as "prismatic." Various pteriomorphian bivalves (such as oysters, pterioids, and mussels) secrete prismatic microstructures with high organic content and clear, strong biological control. However, we present the results of a detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis, and electron backscatter diffraction to characterize the calcitic prisms in two different clades within the euheterodont bivalves: the extant Chama arcana and the extinct rudists...
February 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440925/microplastics-in-the-context-of-regulation-of-commercial-shellfish-aquaculture-operations
#20
Rosalind A Schoof, Jesse DeNike
Shellfish aquaculture in the Salish Sea (encompassing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Georgia Strait) is a major source of clams, oysters, and mussels in the United States and Canada. Plastic gear is necessary for the viability of many of these operations. During the past few years, shellfish farm permits issued in Washington State have been challenged on various bases that have included allegations that the plastic gear is releasing microplastics, commonly defined as particles less than 5 mm in diameter...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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