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Ruiling Zhang, Jiying Pei, Ruijie Zhang, Shaopeng Wang, Weibin Zeng, Dali Huang, Yi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yinghui Wang, Kefu Yu
The occurrence, distribution, bioconcentration and diet safety via seafood consumption of 19 antibiotics were investigated in eight closed mariculture ponds, four estuaries, two nearshore areas and one offshore area from the Beibu Gulf. Seventeen, 16, 15 and 7 antibiotics were detected at total concentrations of 43.2 - 885 ng L -1 , 22.4 - 118 ng L -1 , 22.7 - 24.5 ng L -1 , and 1.81-3.23 ng L -1 in the water of the above different areas, respectively. This indicates that the mariculture ponds are important sources of antibiotic pollution on the coast of the Beibu Gulf...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xinxu Zhang, Zaiqiao Sun, Xusheng Zhang, Ming Zhang, Shengkang Li
Symbiotic microorganisms have been found in the hemolymph (blood) of many aquatic invertebrates, such as crabs, shrimps and oysters. Hemolymph is a critical site in host immune response. Currently, studies on hemolymph microorganisms are mostly performed with culture-dependent strategies using selective media (e.g., TCBS, 2216E, and LB) for enumerating and isolating microbial cells. However, doubts remain about the "true" representation of the microbial abundance and diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in hemolymph, particularly for uncultivable microorganisms which are believed to be more abundant than the cultured...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Maria Byrne, Michael Dove, Ross A Coleman, Hans-O Pörtner, Elliot Scanes, Patti Virtue, Mitchell Gibbs, Pauline M Ross
Whether sex determination of marine organisms can be altered by ocean acidification and warming during this century remains a significant, unanswered question. Here, we show that exposure of the protandric hermaphrodite oyster, Saccostrea glomerata to ocean acidification, but not warming, alters sex determination resulting in changes in sex ratios. After just one reproductive cycle there were 16% more females than males. The rate of gametogenesis, gonad area, fecundity, shell length, extracellular pH and survival decreased in response to ocean acidification...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Bassem Allam
Prey selection governs species interactions and regulates physiological energetics of individuals and populations. Suspension-feeding bivalves represent key species in coastal and estuarine systems for their ecological and economic value. These animals are able to sort and selectively ingest nutritious microalgae from dilute and composite mixtures of particulate matter. This aptitude was suggested to be mediated by interactions between carbohydrates associated with the surface of microalgae and C-type lectins present in mucus covering the feeding organs although a direct, unequivocal, role of lectins in food sorting in bivalves remains elusive...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Chris L Gillies, Ian M McLeod, Heidi K Alleway, Peter Cook, Christine Crawford, Colin Creighton, Ben Diggles, John Ford, Paul Hamer, Gideon Heller-Wagner, Emma Lebrault, Agnès Le Port, Kylie Russell, Marcus Sheaves, Bryn Warnock
We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia's two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality...
2018: PloS One
Jacob L Moore, Brandon Puckett, Sebastian J Schreiber
Positive density dependence (i.e. Allee effects) can create a threshold of population states below which extinction of the population occurs. The existence of this threshold, which can often be a complex, multi-dimensional surface, rather than a single point, is of particular importance in degraded populations for which there is a desire for successful restoration. Here, we incorporated positive density dependence into a closed, size- and age-structured integral projection model parameterized with empirical data from an Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, population in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina...
February 13, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Heng-Xiang Li, Li-Sha Ma, Lang Lin, Zhi-Xin Ni, Xiang-Rong Xu, Hua-Hong Shi, Yan Yan, Guang-Ming Zheng, Daniel Rittschof
As a transitional zone between riverine and marine environments, an estuary plays an important role for the sources, accumulation and transport of microplastics. Although estuarine environments are hotspots of microplastic pollution, the correlation between microplastic pollution and aquatic organisms is less known. Here we investigated microplastic pollution in wild oysters Saccostrea cucullata from 11 sampling sites along the Pearl River Estuary in South China. The microplastic abundances in oysters ranged from 1...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dayane R Brito, Elaine R Carbonero, Sthefany R F Viana, Estefânia V Silva, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, Luciano M Lião, Marcello Iacomini
Pleurotus citrinopileatus, popularly known as "golden oyster mushroom" have medicinal properties, which are attributed mainly to the presence of bioactive polysaccharides. In this work, two partially 3-O-methylated galactans were isolated from the fruiting bodies of this fungus, via successive aqueous extraction, followed by fractionation by freeze-thawing, and precipitation of soluble material with Fehling solution. The structural assignments were carried out using mono- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, and methylation analyses...
February 6, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Wei-Hsuan Hsu, Yu-Chun Lin, Bo-Rui Chen, She-Ching Wu, Bao-Hong Lee
Mitochondrial function is applied as oxidative stress and neuronal damage index. In this study, d-galactose was used to induce free radicals production and neuronal damage in HN-h cells, and the effect of novel 43 kDa protein isolated from oyster on anti-mitochondrial dysfunction and zinc-binding ability were evaluated. Crystal violet stain results indicated zinc-binding protein of oyster (ZPO) attenuated neuronal cell death induced by 100 mM of d-galactose on HN-h cells in a dose-dependent manner. ZPO alleviated mitochondrial inactivation, mitochondrial membrane potential decreasing, oxidative stress, and fusion/fission state in non-cytotoxic concentration of d-galactose (50 mM)-treated HN-h cells...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Bingna Cai, Peng Wan, Huili Sun, Deke Chen, Hua Chen, Xin Chen, Jianyu Pan
Chemotherapeutics, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), often damage the intestinal mucosal barrier and cause intestinal mucositis (IM). Supplementation with immunoregulatory polysaccharides from Crassostrea hongkongensis has been shown to positively influence the effectiveness and toxicity of 5-FU. Therefore, we studied the effects of oyster polysaccharides on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucosal damage in rats. The C30-60% ethanol-precipitated fraction of polysaccharides promoted IEC-6 cell proliferation and exhibited a maximal effect at a 0...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Jingliang Huang, Chuang Liu, Liping Xie, Rongqing Zhang
Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) has long been shown to act as an important constituent or precursor phase for crystalline material in mollusks. However, the presence and the role of ACC in bivalve shell formation are not fully studied. In this study, we found that brown deposits containing heterogeneous calcium carbonates were precipitated when a shell disease occurred in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Calcein-staining of the brown deposits indicated that numerous amorphous calcium deposits were present, which was further confirmed by FTIR, Raman spectrum and XRD analysis...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Laura S Stapp, Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Christian Bock, Pauline M Ross, Hans O Pörtner, G Lannig
Understanding mechanisms of intraspecific variation in resilience to environmental drivers is key to predict species' adaptive potential. Recent studies show a higher CO2 resilience of Sydney rock oysters selectively bred for increased growth and disease resistance ('selected oysters') compared to the wild population. We tested whether the higher resilience of selected oysters correlates with an increased ability to compensate for CO2-induced acid-base disturbances. After 7 weeks of exposure to elevated seawater PCO2 (1100 μatm), wild oysters had a lower extracellular pH (pHe = 7...
December 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Xiarong Wang, Qinggang Xue, Xiaowei Mao, Yinghui Dong, Chenhua Li, Zhihua Lin
Protease inhibitors play critical roles in numerous biological processes including host defense in all multicellular organisms. Eighty three evolutionary families of protease inhibitors are currently accommodated in the MEROPS database and the I84 family currently consists of 3 novel serine protease inhibitors from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. In this study, we identified 2 new I84 family members from the Chinese razor clam Sinonovacula constricta, scSI-1 and scSI-2, using cDNA cloning and sequencing...
February 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yasser Mahmoud Awad, Sang Soo Lee, Ki-Hyun Kim, Yong Sik Ok, Yakov Kuzyakov
Biochar (BC) and polymers are cost-effective additives for soil quality improvement and long-term sustainability. The additional use of the oyster shells (OS) powder in BC- or polymer-treated soils is recommended as a nutrient source, to enhance aggregation and to increase enzyme activities. The effects of soil treatments (i.e., BC (5 Mg ha-1) and polymers (biopolymer at 0.4 Mg ha-1 or polyacrylamide at 0.4 Mg ha-1) with or without the OS (1%)) on the short-term changes were evaluated based on a 30-day incubation experiment with respect to several variables (e...
January 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Tai-Hsiang Huang, Yun-Jie Lai, Zeng-Yei Hseu
In situ stabilization of trace elements by adding cheap amendments is an emerging technology for large-scale soil remediation. Various amendments have been examined well in the literature, but related have focused predominantly on short-term laboratory scale incubation or pot experiments. This study applied dolomitic lime at 40 ton ha-1, oyster shell (OS) at 80 ton ha-1, and sugarcane bagasse compost (SC) at 60 ton ha-1 to a paddy field in Taiwan for two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping seasons. The aims of study were to gain an understanding of the bioavailable concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the amended soil and the metal uptake of rice for practical amendment use in field-scale remediation of contaminated soils...
January 31, 2018: Chemosphere
Arash Shakouri, Haniyeh Gheytasi
The concentration of heavy metals was determined in tissues of oyster, Saccostrea cuccullata, phytoplanktons and water samples from intertidal regions of the Chabahar bay, Oman sea. Oysters were collected from 5 stations and during spring, summer and autumn seasons. The heavy metals content in oysters, planktons and water samples showed variations depending on season, sampling station and size of the oysters. The heavy metals in water, plankton and tissue of oyster were higher in summer and the lowest metal contents were observed in autumn...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Clément Offret, Vincent Rochard, Hélène Laguerre, Jérôme Mounier, Sylvain Huchette, Benjamin Brillet, Patrick Le Chevalier, Yannick Fleury
The hemolymph of healthy marine invertebrates is known to harbor antibiotic-producing bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Such strains are potential probiotics to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. In the present study, we screened a collection of Pseudoalteromonas strains isolated from the hemolymph of oyster and mussel for antimicrobial activity against Vibrio harveyi, a pathogenic species responsible for high mortality in abalone. Subsequently, the protective efficacy of the most active strain named hCg-6 was investigated in abalone culture faced with a Vibrio harveyi ORM4 infection...
February 6, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Fan Mao, Yue Lin, Zhiying He, Jun Li, Zhiming Xiang, Yang Zhang, Ziniu Yu
Cystatins are a large family of the proteins that function as reversible and tight-binding inhibitors of cysteine proteases, which consequently regulate multiple physiological activities including apoptosis and innate immunity. In the present study, we cloned a gene from Crassostrea gigas encoding cystatin, which is related to cystatin A superfamily. CgCytA was comprised of a cystatin-like domain with two conserved glycine residues (GG) near the N-terminal and a highly conserved glutamine-valine-glycine (Q-X-V-X-G) motif in the form of QVVAG loop...
January 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Phillip Geary, Steven Lucas
Aquaculture in many coastal estuaries is threatened by diffuse sources of runoff from different land use activities. The poor performance of septic tank systems (STS), as well as runoff from agriculture, may contribute to the movement of contaminants through ground and surface waters to estuaries resulting in oyster contamination, and following their consumption, impacts to human health. In monitoring individual STS in sensitive locations, it is possible to show that nutrients and faecal contaminants are transported through the subsurface in sandy soils off-site with little attenuation...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sabine Rech, Yaisel J Borrell Pichs, Eva García-Vazquez
Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future...
2018: PloS One
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