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S M P Biscaia, E R Carbonero, D L Bellan, B S Borges, C R Costa, G R Rossi, J P Gonçalves, C M Melo, F A R Lívero, A C Ruthes, R Zotz, E V Silva, C C Oliveira, A Acco, H B Nader, R Chammas, M Iacomini, C R C Franco, E S Trindade
A heteropolysaccharide was isolated by cold aqueous extraction from edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii ("King Oyster") basidiocarps and its biological properties were evaluated. Structural assignments were carried out using mono- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, and methylation analyses. A mannogalactan having a main chain of (1→6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl and 3-O-methyl-α-d-galactopyranosyl residues, both partially substituted at OH-2 by β-d-Manp (MG-Pe) single-unit was found...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Guodong Zhu, Yin Luo, Ming Xue, Haipeng Zhao, Xia Sun, Xinhui Wang, John Trumble
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang, the Chinese chive root maggot, is a devastating pest of agricultural plants causing significant losses in vegetable crops, edible mushrooms, and humus. To determine the effects of feeding on different host plants and diets on the life parameters of B. odoriphaga and its tolerance to stressful conditions, we analyzed the life-table data of B. odoriphaga reared on Chinese chive (Allium hookeri), Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum), garlic (Allium sativum), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), and humus and assayed its tolerance to heat and insecticides...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mark P Polinski, Gary R Meyer, Geoffrey J Lowe, Cathryn L Abbott
Mikrocytos mackini is an intracellular parasite of oysters and causative agent of Denman Island disease in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Although M. mackini has been investigated for decades, its natural mode of transmission, mechanism for host entry, and environmental stability are largely unknown. We explored these biological characteristics of M. mackini using a recently described quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. We detected M. mackini in the flow-through tank water of experimentally infected oysters and during disease remission in host tissues following 6 wk of elevated water temperature...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Yuk-Ting Lau, Lauren Sussman, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Selma Katalai, Bassem Allam
Bivalve hemocytes are involved in a variety of physiological and immunological functions. Circulating hemocytes in the hemolymph represent the main component of the internal self-defense system while hemocytes present in the extrapallial space (between the mantle and the shell) are actively involved in biomineralization and shell formation. This study focused on the characterization of hemocytes from different body fluids of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Hemocytes present in the hemolymph were compared to those contained in the extrapallial fluid...
October 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Nadejda V Pavlova, Su-Chen Li, Yu-Teh Li
The hepatopancreas of oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was found to contain two unique glycosphingolipid (GSL) cleaving enzymes, ceramide glycanase (CGase) and ceramidase. These two enzymes were found to be tightly associated together through the consecutive purification steps including gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies. They were separated only by preparatory SDS-PAGE. The purified CGase was found to have a molecular mass of 52 kDa and pH optimum of 3.2-3.3. This enzyme prefers to hydrolyze the acidic GSLs, II(3)SO3LacCer and gangliosides over the neutral GSLs...
October 16, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
Myrina Boulais, Kyle John Chenevert, Ashley Taylor Demey, Elizabeth S Darrow, Madison Raine Robison, John Park Roberts, Aswani Volety
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have been rising during the past century, leading to ocean acidification (OA). Coastal and estuarine habitats experience annual pH variability that vastly exceeds the magnitude of long-term projections in open ocean regions. Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reproduction season coincides with periods of low pH occurrence in estuaries, thus we investigated effects of moderate (pH 7.5, pCO2 2260 µatm) and severe OA (pH 7.1, pCO2 5584 µatm; and 6.7, pCO2 18480 µatm) on oyster gametogenesis, fertilization, and early larval development successes...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maxime Lafont, Bruno Petton, Agnès Vergnes, Marianna Pauletto, Amélie Segarra, Benjamin Gourbal, Caroline Montagnani
In the last decade, a paradigm shift has emerged in comparative immunology. Invertebrates can no longer be considered to be devoid of specific recognition and immune memory. However, we still lack a comprehensive view of these phenomena and their molecular mechanisms across phyla, especially in terms of duration, specificity, and efficiency in a natural context. In this study, we focused on a Lophotrochozoan/virus interaction, as antiviral priming is mostly overlooked in molluscs. Juvenile Crassostrea gigas oysters experience reoccurring mass mortalities events from Ostreid herpes virus 1 with no existing therapeutic treatment...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
D F R Cleary, A R M Polónia
Anchialine lakes are a globally rare and unique ecosystem consisting of saline lakes surrounded by land and isolated from the surrounding marine environment. These lakes host a unique flora and fauna including numerous endemic species. Relatively few studies have, however, studied the prokaryote communities present in these lakes and compared them with the surrounding 'open water' marine environment. In the present study, we used a 16S rRNA gene barcoded pyrosequencing approach to examine prokaryote (Bacteria and Archaea) composition in three distinct biotopes (sediment, water and the mussel Brachidontes sp...
October 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Hanna Kehlet-Delgado, Gary P Richards, Claudia Häse, Ryan S Mueller
Reported here are the genome sequences of three Vibrio coralliilyticus isolates RE87, AIC-7, and 080116A. Each strain was isolated in association with oyster larvae in commercial aquaculture systems. These draft genomes will be useful for further studies in understanding the genomic features contributing to V. coralliilyticus pathogenicity.
October 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
Laura Payton, Mohamedou Sow, Jean-Charles Massabuau, Pierre Ciret, Damien Tran
In this work, we study if ploidy (i.e. number of copies of chromosomes) in the oyster Crassostrea gigas may introduce differences in behavior and in its synchronization by the annual photoperiod. To answer to the question about the effect of the seasonal course of the photoperiod on the behavior of C. gigas according to its ploidy, we quantified valve activity by HFNI valvometry in situ for 1 year in both diploid and triploid oysters. Chronobiological analyses of daily, tidal and lunar rhythms were performed according the annual change of the photoperiod...
2017: PloS One
Suzanne B Bricker, Joao Gomes Ferreira, Changbo Zhu, Julie M Rose, Eve Galimany, Gary Wikfors, Camille Saurel, Robin Landeck Miller, James Wands, Philip Trowbridge, Raymond Grizzle, Katharine Wellman, Robert Rheault, Jacob Steinberg, Annie Jacob, Erik D Davenport, Suzanne Ayvazian, Marnita Chintala, Mark A Tedesco
Mitigating coastal eutrophication is a global challenge. In many places where land-based management has reduced nutrient discharges, coastal waterbodies remain impaired. This study examined 'bioextraction' of nutrients from the water by oyster aquaculture in Long Island Sound, Connecticut, as an example of how aquaculture might complement land-based measures in urban estuaries. Eutrophication status, nutrient removal, and ecosystem service value were estimated through eutrophication assessment, application of hydrologic, circulation, and local- and ecosystem-scale models, and economic valuation...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Melina Abdou, Lionel Dutruch, Jörg Schäfer, Beñat Zaldibar, Rebeca Medrano, Urtzi Izagirre, Teba Gil-Díaz, Cécile Bossy, Charlotte Catrouillet, Ruoyu Hu, Alexandra Coynel, Antoine Lerat, Antonio Cobelo-García, Gérard Blanc, Manu Soto
Platinum Group Elements (PGEs) are extremely scarce in the Earth's Crust and of strong interest for high-end technologies due to their specific properties. They belong to the Technology Critical Elements (TCEs) for which use is forecast to increase, implying growing emissions into the environment in the following years. In particular, with the intensive use of platinum (Pt) in car catalytic converters, the anthropogenic geochemical cycle of this element has surpassed the natural cycle. Yet, environmental Pt levels are still in the sub picomolar range, making its analytical detection a challenge...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Julia G Jay, Sally L Brown, Kate Kurtz, Fritz Grothkopp
The phosphorus saturation index (PSI) and P saturation ratio (PSR) were tested across a wide range of bioretention soil mixtures (BSMs) for their relationship to total and dissolved P in column leachate. The BSMs tested were made using different feedstocks including sand alone, food and yard waste compost, biosolids and yard compost, and high Fe biosolids. The PSI of the mixtures ranged from 0.23 ± 0.03 (biosolids and yard waste compost 15%, oyster shells 5%) to 1.26 ± 0.02 (biosolids and yard waste compost 80%)...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
C A Hawkins, I M Sokolova
Hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) and pollution with trace metals such as Cu and Cd are common stressors in estuarine habitats that can negatively affect physiology and health of marine organisms. Hypercapnia can modulate toxicity of trace metals including Cu and Cd; however, the physiological and cellular mechanisms of the metal-CO2 interactions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of elevated PCO2 (∼800 and 2000μatm) and metal exposure (50μgl(-1) of Cu or Cd) on subcellular distribution of metals in two common species of marine bivalves, Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica and hard shell clams Mercenaria mercenaria...
September 29, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Enrique De-la-Re-Vega, Arturo Sánchez-Paz, Carolina Gallardo-Ybarra, Manuel Adolfo Lastra-Encinas, Reina Castro-Longoria, José Manuel Grijalva-Chon, Marco Antonio López-Torres, Amir Dario Maldonado-Arce
The Ostreid herpes virus type 1 (OsHV-1) is one of the most devastating pathogen in oyster cultures. Among several factors, as food limitation, oxygen depletion, salinity and temperature variations, episodes of "summer mortality" of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas have also been associated with OsHV-1 infection. Mortalities of C. gigas spat and juveniles have increased significantly in Europe, and contemporary mortality records of this mollusk in México have been associated with the occurrence of OsHV-1...
October 3, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Heidi L Fuchs, Jaclyn A Specht, Diane K Adams, Adam J Christman
Planktotrophic invertebrate larvae require energy to develop, disperse and settle successfully, and it is unknown how their energetics are impacted by turbulence. Ciliated larvae gain metabolic energy from their phytoplankton food to offset the energetic costs of growth, development and ciliary activity for swimming and feeding. Turbulence may affect the energetic balance by inducing behaviors that alter the metabolic costs and efficiency of swimming, by raising the encounter rate with food particles and by inhibiting food capture...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Qinsheng Chen, Xincen Wang, Peixu Cong, Yanjun Liu, Yuming Wang, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
A fast and efficient shotgun lipidomics strategy was applied to analyze phospholipids (PL) in the oyster Crassostrea plicatula, including 29 species of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), 23 species of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), 11 species of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), 6 species of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), and 17 species of lysophospholipids (Lyso-PL). During storage at 4 °C for 7 days, the PL content decreased by 68.08%, but a significant increase in the FFA content was observed (from 63.11 to 318...
October 3, 2017: Lipids
Norma Patricia Muñoz Sevilla, Brenda Paulina Villanueva-Fonseca, Andrés Martin Góngora-Gómez, Manuel García-Ulloa, Ana Laura Domínguez-Orozco, Rogelio Ortega-Izaguirre, Lorena Elizabeth Campos Villegas
The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg in diploid and triploid oysters from three farms (Guasave, Ahome, and Navolato) on the north-central coast of Sinaloa, Mexico, were assessed based on samples recovered during a single culture cycle 2013-2014. Metal burdens were more strongly correlated (p < 0.05) with the location of the farm than with either the ploidy or the interaction of both variables. The metal concentration ranking for oysters of both ploidies from the three farms was Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Hg...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Anja Klančnik, Polona Megušar, Meta Sterniša, Barbara Jeršek, Franz Bucar, Sonja Smole Možina, Janko Kos, Jerica Sabotič
Mushrooms represent promising sources of novel bioactive compounds and can be applied as innovative strategies to control microbial contamination and infection via the food chain. We characterized aqueous extracts from 21 wild basidiomycete mushrooms and the cultivated oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, as putative sources of antimicrobial and antiadhesive compounds. Broth microdilutions and adhesion to a polystyrene surface were evaluated on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and on fungi. The aqueous extracts tested showed antimicrobial and antiadhesive activities against these microorganisms...
September 28, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Wenchao Yu, Cheng He, Zhongqiang Cai, Fei Xu, Lei Wei, Jun Chen, Qiuyun Jiang, Na Wei, Zhuang Li, Wen Guo, Xiaotong Wang
The melanin pigmentation of the adductor muscle scar and the outer surface of the shell are among attractive features and their pigmentation patterns and mechanism still remains unknown in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. To study these pigmentation patterns, the colors of the adductor muscle scar vs. the outer surface of the shell on the same side were compared. No relevance was found between the colors of the adductor muscle scars and the corresponding outer surface of the shells, suggesting that their pigmentation processes were independent...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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