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scrub typhus, dengue,

Meenaxi Sharda, Shivraj Meena, Anil Soni, Harish Nigam, Anuraj Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Falguni Parikh
Febrile patient with thrombocytopenia is commonly encountered by physicians especially during monsoon and perimonsoon period. Infections with protozoa, bacteria and viruses can cause thrombocytopenia with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. Commonly dengue, malaria, scrub typhus and other rickettsial infections, meningococci, leptospira and certain viral infections present as fever with thrombocytopenia. Occasionally these patients can go on to develop a stormy course with multiorgan dysfunction requiring intensive care unit admission associated with high morbidity and mortality...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Stephen P Frances, Michael D Edstein, Mustapha Debboun, G Dennis Shanks
Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases.
October 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
J Kalita, V E Mani, S K Bhoi, U K Misra
PURPOSE: To evaluate the spectrum of acute infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy syndrome (AIES) in intensive care unit (ICU) and the predictors of mechanical ventilation (MV) and outcome of these patients. METHODS: AIES patients diagnosed on the basis of fever, altered sensorium, seizure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis admitted to the neurology ICU were prospectively included. The demographic and clinical details, hematological, biochemical, MRI and etiological findings of the patients were noted...
August 10, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Aneesh Basheer, Nayyar Iqbal, Sudhagar Mookkappan, Patricia Anitha, Shashikala Nair, Reba Kanungo, Ravichandran Kandasamy
BACKGROUND: Concurrent infection with multiple pathogens is common in tropics, posing diagnostic and treatment challenges. Although co-infections of dengue, malaria, leptospirosis and typhoid in various combinations have been described, data on dengue and scrub typhus co-infection is distinctly limited. METHODOLOGY: This study was a retrospective analysis of dengue and scrub typhus co-infection diagnosed between January 2010 and July 2014 at a tertiary care center...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Varun Kalra, Sohaib Ahmad, Vikas Shrivastava, Garima Mittal
BACKGROUND: A single diagnostic test for acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFI) is elusive. This pilot study was undertaken on the premise that leucocytes, being the main cells of defence, undergo quantitative, structural and functional changes in AUFI. We evaluated the potential of volume, conductivity and scatter (VCS) parameters of leucocytes, generated with the haemogram report by the Coulter auto-analyzer, in differentiating the common etiologies of AUFI. METHODS: The haematological and VCS data obtained from 800 controls and 200 cases of AUFI (50 cases each of acute malaria, dengue, scrub typhus and enteric fever) were retrieved for analysis...
May 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Vilada Chansamouth, Syvilay Thammasack, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Valy Keoluangkot, Catrin E Moore, Stuart D Blacksell, Josee Castonguay-Vanier, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Jarasporn Tangkhabuanbutra, Narongchai Tongyoo, Phooksavanh Souphaphonh, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Koukeo Phommasone, Davanh Sengdethka, Amphayvanh Seurbsanith, Scott B Craig, Laura Hermann, Michel Strobel, Paul N Newton
INTRODUCTION: Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yoel Lubell, Thomas Althaus, Stuart D Blacksell, Daniel H Paris, Mayfong Mayxay, Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Lisa J White, Nicholas P J Day, Paul N Newton
BACKGROUND: Malaria accounts for a small fraction of febrile cases in increasingly large areas of the malaria endemic world. Point-of-care tests to improve the management of non-malarial fevers appropriate for primary care are few, consisting of either diagnostic tests for specific pathogens or testing for biomarkers of host response that indicate whether antibiotics might be required. The impact and cost-effectiveness of these approaches are relatively unexplored and methods to do so are not well-developed...
2016: PloS One
Vivekanand Jha, Narayan Prasad
The exact number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia Pacific is uncertain. In numeric terms, the region is home to the largest population of patients with untreated chronic kidney failure. The climatic, geographic, social, cultural, economic, and environmental diversity within this region is higher than in any other part of the world. Large parts of the region face a climate-related burden of infectious diseases. Infections contribute to the development and progression of CKD and complicate the course of patients with pre-existing CKD (especially those on dialysis therapy or who are immunosuppressed), increase the cost of CKD care, and contribute to mortality and morbidity...
July 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
S Ahmad, M Dhar, G Mittal, N K Bhat, N Shirazi, V Kalra, H C Sati, V Gupta
Positive serology for dengue and/or scrub typhus infection with/without positive malarial smear (designated as mixed or co-infection) is being increasingly observed during epidemics of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs). We planned to study the clinical and biochemical spectrum of co-infections with Plasmodium sp., dengue virus and scrub typhus and compare these with mono-infection by the same organisms. During the period from December 2012 to December 2013, all cases presenting with AUFIs to a single medical unit of a referral centre in Garhwal region of the north Indian state of Uttarakhand were retrospectively selected and categorised aetiologically as co-infections, malaria, dengue or scrub typhus...
April 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Garima Mittal, Sohaib Ahmad, R K Agarwal, Minakshi Dhar, Manish Mittal, Shiwani Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is a common clinical entity in most of the hospitals. The fever can be potentially fatal if the aetiology is not recognized and appropriately treated early. AIM: To describe the aetiology of fever among patients in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A one-year retro-prospective, observational study was conducted in adults (age>18years) presenting with undifferentiated febrile illness (of duration 5-14 days)...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
John Victor Peter, Thomas I Sudarsan, John Anthony J Prakash, George M Varghese
Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis...
August 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Mayfong Mayxay, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Anisone Chanthongthip, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Jean-Marc Rolain, Philippe Parola, Scott B Craig, Suhella Tulsiani, Mary-Anne Burns, Maniphone Khanthavong, Siamphay Keola, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Didier Raoult, Sabine Dittrich, Paul N Newton
The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3...
September 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anil C Anand, Hitendra K Garg
A large number of patients present with jaundice and encephalopathy in tropical country like India and acute liver failure is the usual cause. Clinical presentation like ALF is also a complication of many tropical infections, and these conditions may mimic ALF but may have subtle differences from ALF. Moreover, what hepatologists see as acute liver failure in tropics is different from what is commonly described in Western Textbooks. Paracetamol overdose, which is possibly the commonest cause of ALF in UK and USA, is hardly ever seen in India...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Munegowda Koraluru, Indira Bairy, Muralidhar Varma, Sudha Vidyasagar
Clinical diagnosis of scrub typhus is often difficult because the symptoms are very similar to those of other febrile illness such as dengue, leptospirosis, malaria and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Though better diagnostic tests are available for rickettsial diseases and scrub typhus elsewhere, the Weil-Felix test is still commonly used in India, mainly because microimmunofluorescence assays (M-IFA) were not available in India till recently and relevant staff had insufficient training. The present study was performed to investigate the performance of M-IFA, IgM ELISA, and Weil-Felix test on 546 non-repeated serum samples from subjects suspected of having scrub typhus...
July 2015: Microbiology and Immunology
I Chikeka, J S Dumler
Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought...
May 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sugihiro Hamaguchi, Ngo Chi Cuong, Doan Thu Tra, Yen Hai Doan, Kenta Shimizu, Nguyen Quang Tuan, Lay-Myint Yoshida, Le Quynh Mai, Dang Duc-Anh, Shuji Ando, Jiro Arikawa, Christopher M Parry, Koya Ariyoshi, Pham Thanh Thuy
A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25...
May 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Rupesh Masand, Ritesh Yadav, Alok Purohit, Balvir Singh Tomar
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness which has been reported from various parts of India with Rajasthan recently joining the list of affected states. AIM: To report a series of paediatric scrub typhus cases from rural Rajasthan. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of children with scrub typhus admitted to the wards and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary-care hospital. METHODS: The study was undertaken over an 8-month period from May to December 2013...
May 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Ko Chang, Nan-Yao Lee, Wen-Chien Ko, Jih-Jin Tsai, Wei-Ru Lin, Tun-Chieh Chen, Po-Liang Lu, Yen-Hsu Chen
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. Early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever may be made by understanding the distinguishing clinical characteristics and the significance of demographic and weather factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to identify clinical, demographic, and meteorological characteristics of 454 dengue fever, 178 scrub typhus, 143 Q fever, and 81 murine typhus cases in three Taiwan hospitals...
December 26, 2014: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
A Ramyasree, U Kalawat, N D Rani, A Chaudhury
INTRODUCTION: Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by the bite of the chigger of a mite. Delay in diagnosis can be fatal otherwise the treatment is simple, doxycycline being the drug of choice. Indirect immunoflurescence is considered gold standard but it is not used in India as it is costly and also not available. There is need for rapid, economic and simple test for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. This study was taken up to study the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in Andhra Pradesh and to compare two commonly used serological methods; rapid test and IgM ELISA...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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