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Bo Ma, Lan Yang, Ruihua Jing, Jie Liu, Yumeng Quan, Qiaoyan Hui, Jingming Li, Li Qin, Cheng Pei
The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in vitro and in vivo. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to test the IL-6-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), the extracellular matrix (ECM) markers fibronectin (Fn) and type I collagen (COL-1), transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2 ), and the activation and role of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs)...
April 1, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Shashank V Gandhi, Jacob Januszewski, Konrad Bach, Randall Graham, Andrew C Vivas, Jason Paluzzi, Adam Kanter, David Okonkwo, Zachary J Tempel, Nitin Agarwal, Juan S Uribe
BACKGROUND: Development of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD) undermines sagittal alignment. Minimally invasive anterior column realignment (ACR) is a powerful tool for correction of ASD; however, long-term PJK rates are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To characterize PJK after utilization of ACR in ASD correction. METHODS: A retrospective multi-institution cohort analysis per STROBE criteria was conducted of all patients who underwent lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) or ACR for ASD from 2010 to 2015...
March 28, 2018: Neurosurgery
Namık Şahin, Gökhan Cansabuncu, Nazan Çevik, Oğuz Türker, Güven Özkaya, Yüksel Özkan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiological results of proximal crescentic osteotomy (PCO) and rotational scarf osteotomy performed in the treatment of hallux valgus. METHODS: A total of 57 consecutive patients (60 feet) with symptomatic hallux valgus deformity were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The PCO group consisted of 22 women and 5 men (30 feet) and the mean age was 43(±14.5) years. The scarf group consisted of 23 women and 7 men (30 feet) and the mean age was 40...
March 30, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Mi-Hyun Nam, Ram H Nagaraj
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are post-translational modifications formed from the reaction of reactive carbonyl compounds with amino groups in proteins. Our laboratory has previously shown that AGEs in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins promote TGFβ2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs), which could play a role in fibrosis associated with posterior capsule opacification (PCO). We have also shown that αB-crystallin plays an important role in TGFβ2-mediated EMT of LECs...
March 27, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Miyuki Morishita, Toshiaki Endo, Tsuyoshi Baba, Yoshika Kuno, Keiko Ikeda, Tamotsu Kiya, Hiroyuki Honnma, Tsuyoshi Saito
BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance may be related to the etiology of PCOS. Zucker fa/fa rats with polycystic ovary are obese, have insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus or hyperandrogenism and can be utilized as PCOS model rats without effects of hyperandrogenemia. PCOS patients are reported to have elevated levels of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), which has an inhibitory action on folliculogenesis, and low levels of serum adiponectin, which blocks apoptosis and induces biological effects in some tissues...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Alexander Hinz, Jose Manuel Goicoechea
The use of bulky aryl(silyl)amides (R) as substituents for the stabilisation of phospha-germynes and phospha-stannynes (R-Ge≡P and R-Sn≡P, respectively) is described. Such species can be transiently generated by photolysis of the phosphaketene precursors (RE(PCO); E = Ge, Sn). Utilisation of bulky amides R1 and R2 (R1 = Ar**NSi(OtBu)3, where Ar** = 2,6-bis[bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenyl; R2 = Ar***NSi(iPr)3, where Ar*** = 2,6-bis[bis(3,5-ditert-butylphenyl)methyl]-4-methyl¬phenyl) facilitates the formation of diphosphene-type dimers, [(RSn)P]2 and [(RGe)P]2...
March 24, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yixing Tian, Nuria C Acevedo
Photostability of all-trans retinyl palmitate (RP) (100% bioactivity) was studied in policosanol oleogels (PCOs) (7-12% w/w policosanol in soybean oil) after UVA irradiation. RP was incorporated into PCOs at levels of 0.04%, 0.1% and 1% (w/w). PCOs efficiently protected RP from UVA-mediated degradation. Over 75% RP-activity remained in PCOs after 4 days of UVA irradiation, while 12% RP-activity remained in soybean oil. HPLC analysis showed that cis-RP was formed in liquid soybean oil after 2 days of UVA irradiation while it was absent in PCOs matrices...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Max Ettinger, Peter Savov, Omar Balubaid, Henning Windhagen, Tilman Calliess
BACKGROUND: Hyperextension of the femoral component and excessive slope of the tibial component may delay the cam-post engagement in semi-constrained revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Further, it may compromise the posterior condylar offset (PCO). No prior study has determined whether a short 50-mm stem, or longer stems (100mm and 150mm) lead to less hyperextension of the femoral component or excessive slope and its influence on the posterior condylar offset. METHODS: Flexion/extension of the femoral component with respect to the sagittal femoral anatomic axis of the distal diaphysis (SFAA) and the tibial slope were measured from rotationally controlled lateral X-rays of 126 consecutive patients with a one- or two-stage revision TKA...
March 19, 2018: Knee
Jennifer D Jeffrey, Kelly D Hannan, Caleb T Hasler, Cory D Suski
Multiple environmental stressors may interact in complex ways to exceed or diminish the impacts of individual stressors. In the present study, the interactive effects of two ecologically-relevant stressors (increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2 ) were assessed for freshwater mussels - a group of organisms that are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining worldwide. The individual and combined effects of elevated temperature (22-34˚C) and pCO2 (~230, 58,000 µatm) on juvenile Lampsilis siliquoidea were quantified over a 5- or 14-day period, where physiological and whole-animal responses were measured...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jacquelyn Gerhart, Colleen Withers, Colby Gerhart, Liliana Werner, Nick Mamalis, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo, Victoria Scheinfeld, Paul FitzGerald, Robert Getts, Mindy George-Weinstein
Myo/Nog cells, named for their expression of MyoD and noggin, enter the eye during early stages of embryonic development. Their release of noggin is critical for normal morphogenesis of the lens and retina. Myo/Nog cells are also present in adult eyes. Single nucleated skeletal muscle cells designated as myofibroblasts arise from Myo/Nog cells in cultures of lens tissue. In this report we document the presence of Myo/Nog cells in the lens, ciliary body and on the zonule of Zinn in mice, rabbits and humans. Myo/Nog cells were rare in all three structures...
March 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Susanne Sütterlin, Carlos J Téllez-Castillo, Leticia Anselem, Hong Yin, James E Bray, Martin C J Maiden
Antimicrobial resistance is a major health care problem, with the intensive use of heavy metals and biocides recently being identified as potential contributing factors to the aggravation of this situation. This study investigated heavy metal susceptibility and genetic resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from clinical urine samples from Sweden, Germany and Spain. A total of 186 isolates were tested for minimal inhibition concentration to sodium arsenite, silver nitrate and copper (II) sulphate...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hyuk-Soo Han, Seung-Baik Kang
BACKGROUND: This work aimed to evaluate the changes in the femoral posterior condylar offset (PCO) and tibial slope after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-substituting total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to address the presence of any interactive effect between the two on knee flexion. METHODS: Fifty-two PCL-substituting TKAs were performed using a posterior referencing system. Three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomographic (CT) images were used to evaluate PCO and tibial slope before and after arthroplasty...
March 7, 2018: Knee
Ioana Madalina Iliescu, Maria Alexandra Constantin, Cristina Cozma, Ozana Manuela Moraru, Cristian Mircea Moraru
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of Intraocular Lens (IOL) material and design on Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO) and Neodymium-YAG (Nd-YAG) rates in eyes implanted with different Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses (PC IOLs) designs at the end of uncomplicated cataract surgeries. Setting: Oculus Eye Clinic, Bucharest, Romania. Design: Retrospective, observational study. Methods: This study comprised 4805 eyes operated for cataract in 2012 and 2013 with a post-operative average follow up of 40 ± 6,15 months (27-54 months)...
October 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Wei Wang, Bin Yue, JianHua Wang, Hany Bedair, Harry Rubash, Guoan Li
Inconsistent data has been reported on the effect of the femoral posterior condyle offset (PCO) on the maximal knee flexion after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study investigated the relationship between the postoperative changes of the PCO and the changes of maximal knee flexion after a cruciate retaining (CR) TKA. Nine patients with medial osteoarthritis (OA) in one knee were investigated. Before operation, each index knee was magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanned for construction of a three-dimensional (3D) knee model...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Teppei Shibata, Shinsuke Shibata, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Masahito Ikawa, Dhirendra P Singh, Hiroshi Sasaki, Eri Kubo
The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) after cataract surgery contributes to tissue fibrosis, wound healing and lens regeneration via a mechanism not yet fully understood. Here, we show that tropomyosin 2 (Tpm2) plays a critical role in wound healing and lens aging. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) after lens extraction surgery was accompanied by elevated expression of Tpm2. Tpm2 heterozygous knockout mice, generated via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system showed promoted progression of cataract with age...
March 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jan Ulrich, Julia Goerges, Christoph Keck, Dirk Muller-Wieland, Sven Diederich, Onno Eilard Janssen
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) has been found to be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this retrospective cohort study using data from a fertility clinic, with patients recruited from 2009 to 2010, was to confirm the higher prevalence of AIT in PCOS and to evaluate the impact of AIT on reproductive and metabolic parameters of PCOS patients. METHODS: Patients comprised 827 PCOS subjects seen for reproductive or metabolic complaints...
March 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Ömer Hazman, Mehmet Fatih Bozkurt, Abdurrahman Fatih Fidan, Fadime Erkan Uysal, Sefa Çelik
The development of treatment protocols that can reduce side effects in chemotherapy applications is extremely important in terms of cancer treatment. In this context, it was aimed to investigate the effects of boric acid and borax on cisplatin toxicity (nephrotoxicity) in rats. In the experimental phase, eight groups were formed from rats. Boric acid and borax were given to the treatment groups with three different doses using gavage. On the fifth day of the study, cisplatin (10 mg/kg) was administered to all rats except the control group...
March 2, 2018: Inflammation
A M Faria, A F Lopes, C S E Silva, S C Novais, M F L Lemos, E J Gonçalves
Fishes are currently facing novel types of anthropogenic stressors that have never experienced in their evolutionary history, such as ocean acidification. Under these stressful conditions, energetically costly processes, such as reproduction, may be sacrificed for increased chances of survival. This trade-off does not only affect the organism itself but may result in reduced offspring fitness. In the present study, the effects of exposure to high pCO2 levels were tested on the reproductive performance of a temperate species, the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens...
February 24, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Lee Slutzky, Guy Kleinmann
Purpose: We improve the intraocular open-capsule devices (IOCD) for the prevention of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Methods: A total of 45 New Zealand rabbit eyes were divided into six similar groups after crystalline lens evacuation. Each group was implanted with a hydrophilic intraocular lens (IOL) and a hydrophilic IOCD of different designs. In the first experiment (Part A), a square design ring with and without large apertures was compared to a round design ring without apertures...
February 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Jin-Soo Kim, Jung Yeol Choi, Ji-Won Kwon, Won Ryang Wee, Young Keun Han
AIM: To investigate the effects and safety of neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting. METHODS: A total of 40 eyes of 37 patients with symptomatic posterior capsular opacity (PCO) were included in this prospective randomized study and were randomly subjected to either cruciate pattern or round pattern Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting (modified round pattern). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, endothelial cell count (ECC), anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) were measured before and 1mo after the laser posterior capsulotomy...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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