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Samuel A Neymotin, Zoe N Talbot, Jeeyune Q Jung, André A Fenton, William W Lytton
BACKGROUND: Correlated neuronal activity in the brain is hypothesized to contribute to information representation, and is important for gauging brain dynamics in health and disease. Due to high dimensional neural datasets, it is difficult to study temporal variations in correlation structure. NEW METHOD: We developed a multiscale method, Population Coordination (PCo), to assess neural population structure in multiunit single neuron ensemble and multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Zachary P Elkin, W Jordan Piluek, Douglas R Fredrick
PURPOSE: To evaluate the development and treatment of visual axis opacification following pediatric cataract extraction with intraocular lens placement (IOL) without primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy (PPC+AV). METHODS: The medical records of children who underwent cataract extraction and IOL at an academic medical center were reviewed retrospectively for development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) to identify risk factors for development of treatment-requiring posterior capsular opacification...
October 3, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Yizhi Xiang, Norbert Kruse
The catalytic CO hydrogenation is one of the most versatile large-scale chemical syntheses leading to variable chemical feedstock. While traditionally mainly methanol and long-chain hydrocarbons are produced by CO hydrogenation, here we show that the same reaction can be tuned to produce long-chain n-aldehydes, 1-alcohols and olefins, as well as n-paraffins over potassium-promoted CoMn catalysts. The sum selectivity of aldehydes and alcohols is usually >50 wt% whereof up to ∼97% can be n-aldehydes. While the product slate contains ∼60% n-aldehydes at /pCO=0...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
Luisa Listmann, Maxime LeRoch, Lothar Schlüter, Mridul K Thomas, Thorsten B H Reusch
Temperature has a profound effect on the species composition and physiology of marine phytoplankton, a polyphyletic group of microbes responsible for half of global primary production. Here, we ask whether and how thermal reaction norms in a key calcifying species, the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, change as a result of 2.5 years of experimental evolution to a temperature ≈2°C below its upper thermal limit. Replicate experimental populations derived from a single genotype isolated from Norwegian coastal waters were grown at two temperatures for 2...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Melanie M Lloyd, April D Makukhov, Melissa H Pespeni
Standing genetic variation may allow for rapid evolutionary response to the geologically unprecedented changes in global conditions. However, there is little known about the consequences of such rapid evolutionary change. Here, we measure genetic responses to experimental low and high pCO 2 levels in purple sea urchin larvae, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We found greater loss of nucleotide diversity in high pCO 2 levels (18.61%; 900 μatm) compared to low pCO 2 levels (10.12%; 400 μatm). In the wild, this loss could limit the evolutionary capacity of future generations...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Pierre De Wit, Sam Dupont, Peter Thor
Ocean acidification is expected to have dramatic impacts on oceanic ecosystems, yet surprisingly few studies currently examine long-term adaptive and plastic responses of marine invertebrates to pCO 2 stress. Here, we exposed populations of the common copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes to three pCO 2 regimes (400, 900, and 1550 μatm) for two generations, after which we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment. A de novo transcriptome was assembled, annotated, and gene expression data revealed that genes involved in RNA transcription were strongly down-regulated in populations with long-term exposure to a high pCO 2 environment, even after transplantation back to control levels...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Noelle M Lucey, Chiara Lombardi, Maurizio Florio, Lucia DeMarchi, Matteo Nannini, Simon Rundle, Maria Cristina Gambi, Piero Calosi
Ocean acidification (OA) is likely to exert selective pressure on natural populations. Our ability to predict which marine species will adapt to OA and what underlies this adaptive potential is of high conservation and resource management priority. Using a naturally low-pH vent site in the Mediterranean Sea (Castello Aragonese, Ischia) mirroring projected future OA conditions, we carried out a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate the relative importance of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in two populations of the sessile, calcifying polychaete Simplaria sp...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Jacqueline L Padilla-Gamiño, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Morgan W Kelly, Gretchen E Hofmann
To project how ocean acidification will impact biological communities in the future, it is critical to understand the potential for local adaptation and the physiological plasticity of marine organisms throughout their entire life cycle, as some stages may be more vulnerable than others. Coralline algae are ecosystem engineers that play significant functional roles in oceans worldwide and are considered vulnerable to ocean acidification. Using different stages of coralline algae, we tested the hypothesis that populations living in environments with higher environmental variability and exposed to higher levels of pCO 2 would be less affected by high pCO 2 than populations from a more stable environment experiencing lower levels of pCO 2...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Erkan Yıldırım, Emrah İpek, Işıl Bavunoğlu, Nilgün Yıldırım, Mahir Cengiz, Serap Yavuzer, Hakan Yavuzer, Hayriye Erman, Hafize Uzun
OBJECTIVE: The present study compared the unfavorable effects of protein oxidation and deoxyribonucleic acid damage on patients with white coat hypertension (WCH), sustained hypertension (HT), and normotensives. METHODS: Participants were allocated into 3 groups: 40 healthy controls, 36 patients with WCH, and 40 patients with sustained HT. Patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis, endocrine diseases, alcoholism, or masked hypertension were excluded. Plasma level of protein carbonyl (PCO), ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total thiol (T-SH), prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), advanced protein oxidation products (AOPPs), and urinary level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured and relationship between these oxidative stress parameters and WCH and sustained HT was analyzed...
September 28, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Gilberto Vargas-Alarcon, Nancy Martinez-Rodriguez, Rafael Velazquez-Cruz, Oscar Perez-Mendez, Rosalinda Posadas-Sanchez, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Marco Antonio Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio Martinez-Rios, Silvestre Ramirez-Fuentes, Jose Manuel Fragoso
Hypertension is a major public health problem affecting about 30% of the adult population and is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Recent reports have shown that the T-cadherin receptor characteristically expressed on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells is involved in hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for hypertension in Mexican population. Six CDH13 polymorphisms (rs11646213, rs11646411, rs6563943, rs3096277, rs3784990 and rs254340) were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays in a group of 644 hypertensive and 765 non-hypertensive individuals...
September 21, 2016: Immunobiology
Gurkan Bozdag, Sezcan Mumusoglu, Dila Zengin, Erdem Karabulut, Bulent Okan Yildiz
STUDY QUESTION: What is the reported overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the criteria of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS Society)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The reported overall prevalence of PCOS (95% CI) according to diagnostic criteria of the NIH, Rotterdam and the AE-PCOS Society is 6% (5-8%, n = 18 trials), 10% (8-13%, n = 15 trials) and 10% (7-13%, n = 10 trials), respectively...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Margaret Bevans, Areej El-Jawahri, D Kathryn Tierney, Lori Wiener, William A Wood, Flora Hoodin, Erin E Kent, Paul B Jacobsen, Stephanie J Lee, Matt Hsieh, Ellen M Denzen, Karen L Syrjala
In 2016, the National Institutes of Health convened an expert consensus panel to address the research needs and best practices for patient-centered late effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The panel used a scoping review approach to efficiently survey the large body of literature in adult and pediatric HCT survivors over 1 year after transplantation. The goals of this paper are to (1) summarize the current literature describing patient-centered outcomes in survivors, including the various dimensions of health-related quality of life affected by HCT, and describe interventions tested to improve these outcomes; (2) highlight areas with sufficient evidence allowing for integration into standard practice; (3) address methodological issues that restrict progress in this field; (4) identify major gaps to guide future research; and (5) specify priority research recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
J Nekolová, H Langrová, P Rozsíval, N Jirásková
PURPOSE: To prospectively compare postoperative results of two premium intraocular lenses EnVISTA (Bausch and Lomb) and AcrySof IQ (Alcon), focussing on glistenings and posterior capsule opacification. The evaluation of glistenings was done using Image J software and posterior capsule opacifications were quantified with OSCA system. METHODS: Twenty patients (7 men and 13 women) with bilateral cataract were included. EnVista intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in one eye and AcrySof IQ IOL in the second eye of each patient...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Hadi Ansarihadipour, Mohamadreza Bayatiani
BACKGROUND: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are associated with oxidative stress, which is in turn associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), anemia, and hypoxia. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on the synergistic effects of lead ions and EMF on oxidative modifications in hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma proteins. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, the blood samples were obtained from age- and sex-matched healthy subjects at Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
S Divyashree, H N Yajurvedi
The effects of chronic stress on the ovary, thus far were studied for shorter durations. However, responses of the ovary may vary with durations of exposure to stress. Hence, we investigated the responses of the ovary following exposure to different durations of chronic stress. Exposure of rats to restraint (1h) and after a gap of 4 h to forced swimming (15 min) daily for 4 or 8 weeks resulted in significant decreases in the activities of the ovarian antioxidant enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and percentage of healthy granulosa cells with concomitant increases in the number of atretic follicles, the percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells and ovarian malondialdehyde concentration...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Fereshteh Bahmani, Mahsa Kia, Alireza Soleimani, Ali Akbar Mohammadi, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to assess the effects of Se supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among sixty patients with DN. Patients were randomly divided into two groups to take either 200 µg/d Se supplements as Se yeast (n 30) or placebo (n 30) for 12 weeks. In unadjusted analyses, compared with the placebo, Se supplementation led to a significant reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-1069·2 (sd 1752·2) v...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Abhishek Kumar Singh, Sandeep Singh, Geetika Garg, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
An imbalanced cellular redox system promotes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may lead to oxidative stress-mediated cell death. Erythrocytes are the best-studied model of antioxidant defense mechanism. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, on redox balance of erythrocytes and blood plasma of oxidatively challenged rats. Male Wistar rats were oxidatively challenged with HgCl2 (5 mg/kg body mass (b.m.))...
October 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Gungor Sitar, Mehmet Kucuk, Mustafa Erinc Sitar, Ozgur Yasar, Seval Aydin, Karolin Yanar, Ufuk Cakatay, Nur Buyukpınarbasili
BACKGROUND: One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Joana I Alves, M Madalena Alves, Caroline M Plugge, Alfons J M Stams, Diana Z Sousa
An anaerobic thermophilic strain (strain PCO) was isolated from a syngas-converting enrichment culture. Syngas components cannot be used by strain PCO, but the new strain is very tolerant to carbon monoxide (pCO = 1.7 × 10(5) Pa, 100% CO). 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that strain PCO is a strain of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. The physiology of strain PCO and other Thermoanaerobacter species was compared, focusing on their tolerance to carbon monoxide. T. thermohydrosulfuricus, T...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Henrike Rebl, Birgit Finke, Jürgen Schmidt, Heba S Mohamad, Roland Ihrke, Christiane A Helm, J Barbara Nebe
Excellent osseointegration of permanent implants is crucial for the long lasting success of the implantation. To improve the osseointegrative potential, bio-inert titanium alloy surfaces (Ti6Al4V) are modified by plasma chemical oxidation (PCO®) of the titanium-oxide layer to a non-stoichiometric, amorphous calcium phosphate layer. The native titanium-oxide film measuring only a few nanometers is converted by PCO® to a thick porous calcium phosphate layer of about 10μm. In a second step the PCO surface is combined with a cell adhesive plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) nano film (5 and 50nm)...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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