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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936354/comparison-of-tests-of-contingency-tables
#1
Saeid Amiri, Reza Modarres
We explore the use of bootstrap for testing independence of two categorical variables. We develop a theoretical justification for bootstrapping a contingency table and provide more accurate inference for small sample sizes. We also study the effect of equalized marginals on tests of independence. The small sample properties of the proposed and existing tests of independence are examined using Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the Fisher exact test and the Chi-squared test with continuity correction are very conservative and can not be recommended to test independence with small sample sizes...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936309/synthesis-of-meta-functionalized-pyridines-by-selective-dehydrogenative-heterocondensation-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-amino-alcohols
#2
Toni Hille, Torsten Irrgang, Rhett Kempe
New reactions that convert alcohols into important classes of compounds are becoming increasingly important as their development contributes to the conservation of our fossil carbon feedstock and the reduction of CO2 emissions. Two key catalytic alcohol conversion concepts are borrowing hydrogen or hydrogen autotransfer and acceptorless dehydrogenative condensation. Herein, we combined both concepts to synthesize meta-functionalized pyridines. First, diols and amines were linked to β-amino alcohols, which can then undergo a selective dehydrogenative heterocondensation with γ-amino alcohols...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936221/fish-distribution-and-habitat-complexity-on-banks-of-the-strait-of-sicily-central-mediterranean-sea-from-remotely-operated-vehicle-rov-explorations
#3
Pierpaolo Consoli, Valentina Esposito, Pietro Battaglia, Chiara Altobelli, Patrizia Perzia, Teresa Romeo, Simonepietro Canese, Franco Andaloro
The Strait of Sicily was recognized internationally as an "Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area" by the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2014. However, basic aspects of its fish diversity are still unknown and most of the information comes from traditional trawl surveys. This paper provides the first detailed description, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), of the composition and depth distribution of the demersal fish assemblages found on banks of the Strait of Sicily and the related habitat complexity from 35 to 240 m depth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936181/in-vivo-modelling-of-atp1a3-g316s-induced-ataxia-in-c-elegans-using-crispr-cas9-mediated-homologous-recombination-reveals-dominant-loss-of-function-defects
#4
Altar Sorkaç, Ivan C Alcantara, Anne C Hart
The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program admitted a male patient with unclassifiable late-onset ataxia-like symptoms. Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous de novo mutation converting glycine 316 to serine in ATP1A3, which might cause disease. ATP1A3 encodes the Na+/K+ ATPase pump α3-subunit. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homologous recombination for genome editing, we modelled this putative disease-causing allele in Caenorhabditis elegans, recreating the patient amino acid change in eat-6, the orthologue of ATP1A3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936128/crystal-structure-of-the-streptomyces-coelicolor-sortase-e1-transpeptidase-provides-insight-into-the-binding-mode-of-the-novel-class-e-sorting-signal
#5
Michele D Kattke, Albert H Chan, Andrew Duong, Danielle L Sexton, Michael R Sawaya, Duilio Cascio, Marie A Elliot, Robert T Clubb
Many species of Gram-positive bacteria use sortase transpeptidases to covalently affix proteins to their cell wall or to assemble pili. Sortase-displayed proteins perform critical and diverse functions for cell survival, including cell adhesion, nutrient acquisition, and morphological development, among others. Based on their amino acid sequences, there are at least six types of sortases (class A to F enzymes); however, class E enzymes have not been extensively studied. Class E sortases are used by soil and freshwater-dwelling Actinobacteria to display proteins that contain a non-canonical LAXTG sorting signal, which differs from 90% of known sorting signals by substitution of alanine for proline...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936100/a-high-resolution-crystal-structure-of-a-psychrohalophilic-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-photobacterium-profundum-reveals-a-unique-dimer-interface
#6
Vijayakumar Somalinga, Greg Buhrman, Ashikha Arun, Robert B Rose, Amy M Grunden
Bacterial α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CA) are zinc containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. We report the first crystal structure of a pyschrohalophilic α-CA from a deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. Size exclusion chromatography of the purified P. profundum α-CA (PprCA) reveals that the protein is a heterogeneous mix of monomers and dimers. Furthermore, an "in-gel" carbonic anhydrase activity assay, also known as protonography, revealed two distinct bands corresponding to monomeric and dimeric forms of PprCA that are catalytically active...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936082/three-molecular-markers-show-no-evidence-of-population-genetic-structure-in-the-gouldian-finch-erythrura-gouldiae
#7
Peri E Bolton, Andrea J West, Adam P A Cardilini, Jennalee A Clark, Kimberley L Maute, Sarah Legge, James Brazill-Boast, Simon C Griffith, Lee A Rollins
Assessment of genetic diversity and connectivity between regions can inform conservation managers about risk of inbreeding, potential for adaptation and where population boundaries lie. The Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) is a threatened species in northern Australia, occupying the savannah woodlands of the biogeographically complex monsoon tropics. We present the most comprehensive population genetic analysis of diversity and structure the Gouldian finch using 16 microsatellite markers, mitochondrial control region and 3,389 SNPs from genotyping-by-sequencing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936023/a-single-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons-counteracts-serotonergic-inhibition-of-ethanol-attraction-in-drosophila
#8
Li Xu, Jianzheng He, Andrea Kaiser, Nikolas Gräber, Laura Schläger, Yvonne Ritze, Henrike Scholz
Attraction to ethanol is common in both flies and humans, but the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this innate attraction are not well understood. Here, we dissect the function of the key regulator of serotonin signaling-the serotonin transporter-in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster. We generated a mutated version of the serotonin transporter that prolongs serotonin signaling in the synaptic cleft and is targeted via the Gal4 system to different sets of serotonergic neurons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935999/evaluating-conservation-breeding-success-for-an-extinct-in-the-wild-antelope
#9
Holly A Little, Tania C Gilbert, Marie L Athorn, Andrew R Marshall
With the number of threatened species increasing globally, conservation breeding is vitally important now more than ever. However, no previous peer-reviewed study has attempted to determine how the varying conditions across zoos have influenced breeding by an extinct-in-the-wild species. We therefore use questionnaires and studbook data to evaluate the influence of husbandry practices and enclosure design on scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) breeding success, at the herd level. Regression models were used to identify the variables that best predicted breeding success among 29 zoos across a five-year period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935978/genome-wide-identification-phylogeny-and-expression-of-aquaporin-genes-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#10
Chuanju Dong, Lin Chen, Jingyan Feng, Jian Xu, Shahid Mahboob, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Xuejun Li, Peng Xu
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (Aqps) are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Among vertebrate species, Aqps are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino acid sequence. These proteins are vital for maintaining water homeostasis in living organisms, especially for aquatic animals such as teleost fish. Studies on teleost Aqps are mainly limited to several model species with diploid genomes. Common carp, which has a tetraploidized genome, is one of the most common aquaculture species being adapted to a wide range of aquatic environments...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935964/gw182-free-microrna-silencing-complex-controls-post-transcriptional-gene-expression-during-caenorhabditis-elegans-embryogenesis
#11
Guillaume Jannot, Pascale Michaud, Miguel Quévillon Huberdeau, Louis Morel-Berryman, James A Brackbill, Sandra Piquet, Katherine McJunkin, Kotaro Nakanishi, Martin J Simard
MicroRNAs and Argonaute form the microRNA induced silencing complex or miRISC that recruits GW182, causing mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. Despite the clear conservation and molecular significance, it is unknown if miRISC-GW182 interaction is essential for gene silencing during animal development. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to explore this question, we examined the relationship and effect on gene silencing between the GW182 orthologs, AIN-1 and AIN-2, and the microRNA-specific Argonaute, ALG-1...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935900/-thromboangiitis-obliterans-buerger-s-disease-state-of-the-art
#12
D D Zerbino, E A Zimba, N N Bagry
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is systemic vasculitis with predominant development of thrombotic occlusions of small-to-medium diameter arteries of distal portions of both upper and lower limbs. A distinctive feature of Buerger's disease from other vasculitides is the involvement of the venous bed into the pathological process in the form of migrating thrombophlebitis. The disease is encountered more often in young adult males, predominantly tobacco smokers. The clinical pattern is presented by symptoms of increasing insufficiency of blood supply of tissues of extremities...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935898/-conservative-treatment-of-patients-with-peripheral-artery-diseases-possibilities-and-existing-problems
#13
S V Sapelkin, M R Kuznetsov
With due regard to the requirements of evidence-based medicine, the article contains a review of present-day positions concerning conservative therapy in patients with peripheral artery diseases and chronic arterial ischaemia, represented in the latest Russian and foreign consensus documents, showing importance of bringing the basic provisions of the consensus documents to the notice of practical health-care providers with the aim of working out more effective therapeutic regimens. Some sections of the guidelines regarding the duration of treatment, among the number, require definite specification with the wording of more clear-cut practical conclusions...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935889/-current-aspects-of-endothelial-protection-in-treatment-of-patients-with-chronic-venous-insufficiency-at-the-stage-of-trophic-disorders
#14
Yu M Stoiko, V G Gudymovich, A V Tsyplyashchuk
The authors analysed the results of comprehensive examination and treatment of a total of 40 patients presenting with lower limb chronic venous insufficiency at the stage of trophic disorders (class C6), including 28 (70%) patients with varicose disease of lower extremities and 12 (30%) patients with post-thrombotic disease. Studying the microcirculatory blood flow by means of laser Doppler flowmetry showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) baseline decrease in the index of microcirculation in patients (12...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935878/-five-year-results-of-treating-patients-with-chronic-lower-limb-ischaemia-by-means-of-gene-engineering
#15
Yu V Chervyakov, I N Staroverov, O N Vlasenko, I Ya Bozo, A A Isaev, R V Deev
The authors share their experience in comprehensive conservative treatment of patients presenting with chronic lower limb ischaemia (CLLI) associated with atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries by means of the first Russian registered gene therapeutic agent "Neovasculgen" (plasmid with the vegf165 gene), analysing the long-term outcomes of treating a total of 45 patients with stage II and III CLLI according to the classification of Pokrovsky-Fontain. The patients were followed up for 5 years. Efficacy of treatment was assessed by registering the dynamics of the pain-free walking distance (PFWD), linear blood velocity (LBV), ankle-brachial index (ABI), as well as the limb salvage rate and survival of patients...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935838/the-paralogous-histone-deacetylases-rpd3-and-rpd31-play-opposing-roles-in-regulating-the-white-opaque-switch-in-the-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#16
Jing Xie, Sabrina Jenull, Michael Tscherner, Karl Kuchler
: Chromatin modifications affect gene regulation in response to environmental stimuli in numerous biological processes. For example, N-acetyl-glucosamine and CO2 induce a morphogenetic conversion between white (W) and opaque (O) cells in MTL (mating-type locus) homozygous and heterozygous ( A: /α) strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans Here, we identify 8 histone-modifying enzymes playing distinct roles in the regulation of W/O switching in MTL homozygous and heterozygous strains...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935696/cyanobacteriochrome-photoreceptors-lacking-the-canonical-cys-residue
#17
Keiji Fushimi, Nathan C Rockwell, Gen Enomoto, Ni-Ni-Win, Shelley S Martin, Fei Gan, Donald A Bryant, Masahiko Ikeuchi, J Clark Lagarias, Rei Narikawa
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are cyanobacterial photoreceptors that sense near-ultraviolet to far-red light. Like the distantly related phytochromes, all CBCRs reported to date have a conserved Cys residue (the "canonical Cys" or "first Cys") that forms a thioether linkage to C3(1) of the linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore. Detection of ultraviolet, violet, and blue light is performed by at least three subfamilies of two-Cys CBCRs that require both the first Cys and a second Cys that forms a second covalent linkage to C10 of the bilin...
December 9, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935669/influence-of-cattle-on-browsing-and-grazing-wildlife-varies-with-rainfall-and-presence-of-megaherbivores
#18
Duncan M Kimuyu, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Robert M Chira, John M Githaiga, Truman P Young
In many savanna ecosystems worldwide, livestock share the landscape and its resources with wildlife. The nature of interactions between livestock and wildlife is a subject of considerable interest and speculation, yet little controlled experimental research has been carried out. Since 1995, we have been manipulating the presence and absence of cattle and large mammalian herbivore wildlife in a Kenyan savanna in order to better understand how different herbivore guilds influence space use by specific wildlife species...
December 9, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935661/bee-communities-along-a-prairie-restoration-chronosequence-similar-abundance-and-diversity-distinct-composition
#19
Rebecca K Tonietto, John S Ascher, Daniel J Larkin
Recognition of the importance of bee conservation has grown in response to declines of managed honey bees and some wild bee species. Habitat loss has been implicated as a leading cause of declines, suggesting that ecological restoration is likely to play an increasing role in bee conservation efforts. In the Midwestern USA, restoration of tallgrass prairie has traditionally targeted plant community objectives without explicit consideration for bees. However, restoration of prairie vegetation is likely to provide ancillary benefits to bees through increased foraging and nesting resources...
December 9, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935562/current-conservative-management-and-classification-of-club-foot-a-review
#20
Ganesan Balasankar, Ameersing Luximon, Adel Al-Jumaily
Clubfoot, known as congenital talipes equinovarus, is one of the complex paediatric foot deformity with the incidence of 1 in every 1000 live births. It consists of four complex foot abnormalities such as forefoot adductus, midfoot cavus, and hindfoot varus and ankle equinus. There are a number of surgical techniques (soft tissue releases, arthrodesis) used to correct clubfoot. However currently the conservative management (manipulation, serial casting, and braces) of clubfoot is considered as the best choice and it is widely accepted among orthopaedists...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
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