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James R Smith, Jaboury Ghazoul, David F R P Burslem, Akira Itoh, Eyen Khoo, Soon Leong Lee, Colin R Maycock, Satoshi Nanami, Kevin Kit Siong Ng, Chris J Kettle
Documenting the scale and intensity of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), and the processes that shape it, is relevant to the sustainable management of genetic resources in timber tree species, particularly where logging or fragmentation might disrupt gene flow. In this study we assessed patterns of FSGS in three species of Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea tomentella, Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia) across four different tropical rain forests in Malaysia using nuclear microsatellite markers. Topographic heterogeneity varied across the sites...
2018: PloS One
Hironori Aoki, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Hiro-O Yamano, Tamotsu Sugai, Tomoaki Kimura, Yoshihito Tanaka, Hiro-O Matsushita, Kenjiro Yoshikawa, Ryo Takagi, Eiji Harada, Michiko Nakaoka, Yuko Yoshida, Taku Harada, Gota Sudo, Makoto Eizuka, Akira Yorozu, Hiroshi Kitajima, Takeshi Niinuma, Masahiro Kai, Masanori Nojima, Hiromu Suzuki, Hiroshi Nakase
BACKGROUND: Colorectal serrated lesions (SLs) are important premalignant lesions whose clinical and biological features are not fully understood. AIMS: We aimed to establish accurate colonoscopic diagnosis and treatment of SLs through evaluation of associations among the morphological, pathological, and molecular characteristics of SLs. METHODS: A total of 388 premalignant and 18 malignant colorectal lesions were studied. Using magnifying colonoscopy, microsurface structures were assessed based on Kudo's pit pattern classification system, and the Type II pit pattern was subcategorized into classical Type II, Type II-Open (Type II-O) and Type II-Long (Type II-L)...
March 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Neshat Golikhajeh, Bahram Naseri, Jabraeil Razmjou, Reza Hosseini, Marzieh Asadi Aghbolaghi
In order to understand the population genetic diversity and structure of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest of sugar beet in Iran and the world, we genotyped 133 individuals from seven regions in Iran using four microsatellite loci. Significant difference was seen between the observed and expected heterozygosity in all loci. A lower observed heterozygosity than expected heterozygosity indicated a low heterozygosity in these populations. The value of F showed a high genetic differentiation, so that the mean of Fst was 0...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yun-Yan Zhang, En Shi, Zhao-Ping Yang, Qi-Fang Geng, Ying-Xiong Qiu, Zhong-Sheng Wang
Parrotia subaequalis is an endangered palaeoendemic tree from disjunct montane sites in eastern China. Due to the lack of effective genomic resources, the genetic diversity and population structure of this endangered species are not clearly understood. In this study, we conducted paired-end shotgun sequencing (2 × 125 bp) of genomic DNA for two individuals of P. subaequalis on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Based on the resulting sequences, we have successfully assembled the complete chloroplast genome of P...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Karol Polom, Christine Böger, Elizabeth Smyth, Daniele Marrelli, Hans-Michael Behrens, Luigi Marano, Thomas Becker, Florian Lordick, Christoph Röcken, Franco Roviello
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that metastatic gastric cancer should not be treated with surgery unless this is required for symptom control. We hypothesized that patients with mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd) gastric cancer and metastatic disease detected at the timepoint of surgical resection would have superior survival compared to patients with MMRd cancers in the same setting. METHODS: Clinicopathological details and survival data were collected from prospective databases at two large European centers on patients who had undergone surgery and were diagnosed with synchronous stage IV gastric cancer (distant lymph nodes, positive peritoneal cytology, peritoneal, and distant metastases) at the timepoint of surgery...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Benjamin L Solomon, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna
The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4) has resulted in unprecedented long-term remissions of unresectable cancers. The efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors was recently demonstrated in gastrointestinal malignancies with mismatch repair deficiencies (dMMR). Pembrolizumab became the first tissue-agnostic US FDA-approved drug based on the presence of the predictive biomarker dMMR. In addition, the FDA in 2017 approved pembrolizumab for PD-L1-positive advanced gastric cancer in third-line and second-line hepatocellular therapy...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
L G J Leijssen, A M Dinaux, H Kunitake, L G Bordeianou, D L Berger
PURPOSE: Proximal and distal colon cancers differ in terms of epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathologic features. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of right-sided (RC), transverse (TC), and left-sided (LC) colon cancer on morbidity rates and oncological outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with resected colon cancer between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess predictors of overall (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS), as well as disease-free survival (DFS)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
M Cunha-Silva, V N Brito, D B Macedo, D S Bessa, C O Ramos, L G Lima, P S Barroso, I J P Arnhold, D L Segaloff, B B Mendonca, A C Latronico
Testotoxicosis is a rare cause of peripheral precocious puberty in boys caused by constitutively activating mutations of the LHCG receptor. Affected males usually have normal gonadotropin profiles and fertility in their adult life. Here, we described the long-term follow-up of a 24-year-old young man with severe testotoxicosis due to a de novo activating mutation in the third transmembrane helix of the LHCGR (p.Leu457Arg). This patient was treated with different medications, including medroxyprogesterone acetate, ketoconazole, cyproterone acetate and aromatase inhibitor from age 2...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
M J Schulze, R Henriques, K A Feldheim, R C K Bowie, S von der Heyden
Fishes belonging to the family Clinidae in South Africa display super-embryonation, a rare reproductive mode were females gestate broods at different gestational stages, but little is known regarding the mating systems of this family. Here we tested the hypothesis that multiple males would contribute not only to the offspring of each female, but that several males would contribute to each brood, by sampling Muraenoclinus dorsalis from three sampling locations along the west and south-west coast of South Africa...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Takahiro Nakagomi, Taichiro Goto, Yosuke Hirotsu, Daichi Shikata, Yujiro Yokoyama, Rumi Higuchi, Kenji Amemiya, Kenichiro Okimoto, Toshio Oyama, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Masao Omata
Objectives: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are rare and generally aggressive tumors composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components; however, the evolution of sarcomatoid cancer has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to evaluate the mutational profiles and phylogeny of sarcomatoid carcinomas using next generation sequencing and in-silico analysis to facilitate the development of novel therapies. Methods: Four patients who underwent surgery for sarcomatoid cancer were enrolled...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Jing Zhang, Tao Chen, Yan Wang, Qing Chen, Bo Sun, Ya Luo, Yong Zhang, Haoru Tang, Xiaorong Wang
Chinese cherry [ Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G.Don] is a commercially important fruit crop in China, but its structure patterns and domestication history remain imprecise. To address these questions, we estimated the genetic structure and domestication history of Chinese cherry using 19 nuclear microsatellite markers and 650 representative accessions (including 118 Cerasus relatives) selected throughout their natural eco-geographical distributions. Our structure analyses detected no genetic contribution from Cerasus relatives to the evolution history of Chinese cherry...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diaeldin A Salih, Joram M Mwacharo, Roger Pelle, Moses N Njahira, David O Odongo, Mary N Mbole-Kariuki, Wani L Marcellino, Agol K Malak, Henary Kiara, Abdel Rahim M El Hussein, Richard P Bishop, Robert A Skilton
Theileria parva is a parasitic protozoan that causes East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. In South Sudan, ECF is considered a major constraint for livestock development in regions where the disease is endemic. To obtain insights into the dynamics of T. parva in South Sudan, population genetic analysis was performed. Out of the 751 samples included in this study, 178 blood samples were positive for T. parva by species-specific PCR, were collected from cattle from four regions in South Sudan (Bor = 62; Juba = 45; Kajo keji = 41 and Yei = 30) were genotyped using 14 microsatellite markers spanning the four chromosomes...
March 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Marina A Pereira, Marcus F K P Ramos, Sheila F Faraj, Andre R Dias, Osmar K Yagi, Bruno Zilberstein, Ivan Cecconello, Venancio A F Alves, Evandro S de Mello, Ulysses Ribeiro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gastric cancer (GC) has recently been categorized in molecular subtypes, which include Epstein-Barr (EBV)-positive and microsatellite instability (MSI) tumors. This distinction may provide prognostic information and identifies therapeutic targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate EBV, MSI, and PD-L1 immunoexpression in GC and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and patient's prognosis. METHODS: We evaluated 287 GC patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy through immunohistochemistry for DNA mismatch repair proteins and PD-L1, and in situ hybridization for EBV detection utilizing tissue microarray...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Tanya M Llorens, David J Ayre, Robert J Whelan
Many plant species have pollination and seed dispersal systems and evolutionary histories that have produced strong genetic structuring. These genetic patterns may be consistent with expectations following recent anthropogenic fragmentation, making it difficult to detect fragmentation effects if no pre-fragmentation genetic data are available. We used microsatellite markers to investigate whether severe habitat fragmentation may have affected the structure and diversity of populations of the endangered Australian bird-pollinated shrub Grevillea caleyi R...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Wilawan Thongda, Honggang Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Lauren N Jescovitch, Ming Liu, Ximing Guo, Meagan Schrandt, Sean P Powers, Eric Peatman
Culture of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is rapidly expanding. Combined with their continuing role as an environmental sentinel species and ecological model, this trend necessitates improved molecular tools for breeding and selection, as well as population assessment and genetic conservation. Here, we describe the development and validation of two panels of 58 single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) for the species. Population analyses revealed three distinct populations, based on FST values and STRUCTURE, among wild oysters sampled from Delaware Bay (1), northwest Florida (2), Alabama (2), Louisiana (2), and the Texas Gulf Coast (3), consistent with previous microsatellite and mtDNA analyses...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Mehrdad Zeinalian, Morteza Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Rasoul Salehi, Mohammad Hassan Emami
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular hallmark for some colorectal cancers (CRCs) in which short tandem repeats are prone to mutations along with DNA sequences. It is due to DNA-mismatch-repair system deficiency because of a germline/somatic mutation in mismatch-repair (MMR) genes. The germline mutations lead to Lynch syndrome (LS) while epigenetic gene silencing results in sporadic CRC tumors. We discuss in our paper the most important clinical aspects of MSI testing in CRCs. We reviewed the most reliable relevant studies and clinical trials according to their high-quality methods, particularly within two recent decades...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Dirk Bauwens, Katja Claus, Joachim Mergeay
Capture-mark-recapture procedures are a basic tool in population studies and require that individual animals are correctly identified throughout their lifetime. A method that has become more and more popular uses photographic records of natural markings, such as pigmentation pattern and scalation configuration. As with any other marking tool, the validity of the photographic identification technique should be evaluated thoroughly. Here, we report on a large-scale double-marking study in which European adders ( Vipera berus ) were identified by both microsatellite genetic markers and by the pattern of head scalation...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Noémie Graignic, Francine Tremblay, Yves Bergeron
Due to climate change, the ranges of many North American tree species are expected to shift northward. Sugar maple ( Acer saccharum Marshall) reaches its northern continuous distributional limit in northeastern North America at the transition between boreal mixed-wood and temperate deciduous forests. We hypothesized that marginal fragmented northern populations from the boreal mixed wood would have a distinct pattern of genetic structure and diversity. We analyzed variation at 18 microsatellite loci from 23 populations distributed along three latitudinal transects (west, central, and east) that encompass the continuous-discontinuous species range...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jens Wollebaek, Jan Heggenes, Knut H Roed
Ecotype variation in species exhibiting different life history strategies may reflect heritable adaptations to optimize reproductive success, and potential for speciation. Traditionally, ecotypes have, however, been defined by morphometrics and life history characteristics, which may be confounded with individual plasticity. Here, we use the widely distributed and polytypic freshwater fish species brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) as a model to study piscivorous life history and its genetic characteristics in environmentally contrasting habitats; a large lake ecosystem with one major large and stable tributary, and several small tributaries...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Katja Häkli, Kjartan Østbye, Kimmo K Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kim Præbel
Adaptive radiation is the evolution of ecological and phenotypical diversity. It arises via ecological opportunity that promotes the exploration of underutilized or novel niches mediating specialization and reproductive isolation. The assumed precondition for rapid local adaptation is diversifying natural selection, but random genetic drift could also be a major driver of this process. We used 27 populations of European whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ) from nine lakes distributed in three neighboring subarctic watercourses in northern Fennoscandia as a model to test the importance of random drift versus diversifying natural selection for parallel evolution of adaptive phenotypic traits...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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