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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776635/molecular-diagnostics-in-esophageal-and-gastric-neoplasms-2018-update
#1
REVIEW
Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth, Amarpreet Bhalla
Esophageal cancer (EC) is rapidly increasing in incidence in the United States. Genetic changes associated with the development of EC involve the p16, p53, and APC genes. Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) overexpression is seen in gastroesophageal junction carcinoma and a subset gastric carcinoma (GC). Interestingly, up to 50% cases of GC are related to Helicobacter pylori infection and up to 16% are related to EBV infection. Microsatellite instability is observed in up to 39% of GC and cell free nucleic acid analysis provides additional opportunities for diagnosis and prognosis of disease...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776633/molecular-diagnostics-in-colorectal-carcinoma-advances-and-applications-for-2018
#2
REVIEW
Amarpreet Bhalla, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth
The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776387/integrative-genomics-approaches-validate-ppyuc11-like-as-candidate-gene-for-the-stony-hard-trait-in-peach-p-persica-l-batsch
#3
Marco Cirilli, Daniela Giovannini, Angelo Ciacciulli, Remo Chiozzotto, Stefano Gattolin, Laura Rossini, Alessandro Liverani, Daniele Bassi
BACKGROUND: Texture is one of the most important fruit quality attributes. In peach, stony hard (SH) is a recessive monogenic trait (hd/hd) that confers exceptionally prolonged firm flesh to fully ripe fruit. Previous studies have shown that the SH mutation affects the fruit ability to synthesize appropriate amounts of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which orchestrates the ripening processes through the activation of system 2 ethylene pathway. Allelic variation in a TC microsatellite located within the first intron of PpYUC11-like (a YUCCA-like auxin-biosynthesis gene) has been recently proposed as the causal mutation of the SH phenotype...
May 18, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776335/using-genomic-relationship-likelihood-for-parentage-assignment
#4
Kim E Grashei, Jørgen Ødegård, Theo H E Meuwissen
BACKGROUND: Parentage assignment is usually based on a limited number of unlinked, independent genomic markers (microsatellites, low-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), etc.). Classical methods for parentage assignment are exclusion-based (i.e. based on loci that violate Mendelian inheritance) or likelihood-based, assuming independent inheritance of loci. For true parent-offspring relations, genotyping errors cause apparent violations of Mendelian inheritance. Thus, the maximum proportion of such violations must be determined, which is complicated by variable call- and genotype error rates among loci and individuals...
May 18, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773680/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-794-catt-microsatellite-polymorphism-and-risk-of-tuberculosis-a-meta-analysis
#5
Mingbiao Ma, Lvyan Tao, Aihua Liu, Zhang Liang, Jiaru Yang, Yun Peng, Xiting Dai, Ruolan Bai, Zhenhua Ji, Miaomiao Jian, Fukai Bao
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease that has been threatening public health for many years. Several studies have shown the relationship between the macrophage migration inhibitory factor-794CATT ( MIF-794CATT ) microsatellite polymorphism and susceptibility of tuberculosis ( TB ). However, the results remain inconclusive. Therefore, we aim to find out the impact of MIF-794 CATT microsatellite polymorphism on risk of TB by a comprehensive meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic study search in PubMed,Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure ( CNKI ) up to October, 2017...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773137/microsatellite-pattern-analysis-of-neospora-caninum-from-a-naturally-infected-goat-fetus
#6
Lucía María Campero, María Laura Gos, Dadin Prando Moore, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Juan Manuel Unzaga, Gastón Moré, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, María Cecilia Venturini
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan responsible for abortion in ruminants. The present study aimed to diagnose an abortion from an Anglo Nubian goat from a dairy herd located in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The goat delivered a fetus of approximately 3 months gestation that was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), Immunoblot (IB), histopathology (HP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular assays (PCR, sequencing and microsatellite genotyping). Interferon gamma knock-out mice were inoculated with a pool of tissues for isolation attempts...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771279/peri-operative-therapy-for-operable-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-past-present-and-future
#7
V Aggelis, D Cunningham, F Lordick, E C Smyth
Surgery represents the only chance of cure for patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma; however surgery alone does not cure most patients. Over the past decade, several multimodality adjunctive treatments have improved survival for patients with operable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma who are undergoing surgical resection; these include peri-operative chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. More recently, the results of several large randomised trials are leading to a shift in the peri-operative treatment of gastroesophageal cancer, away from anthracycline-based and towards taxane-based chemotherapy regimens...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#8
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770915/cytolytic-activity-score-to-assess-anticancer-immunity-in-colorectal-cancer
#9
Sumana Narayanan, Tsutomu Kawaguchi, Li Yan, Xuan Peng, Qianya Qi, Kazuaki Takabe
BACKGROUND: Elevated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor microenvironment is a known positive prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that since cytotoxic T cells release cytolytic proteins such as perforin (PRF1) and pro-apoptotic granzymes (GZMA) to attack cancer cells, a cytolytic activity score (CYT) would be a useful tool to assess anticancer immunity. METHODS: Genomic expression data were obtained from 456 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767751/clinicopathological-and-molecular-differences-between-right-sided-and-left-sided-colorectal-cancer-in-japanese-patients
#10
Soichiro Natsume, Tatsuro Yamaguchi, Misato Takao, Takeru Iijima, Rika Wakaume, Keiichi Takahashi, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Daisuke Nakano, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Koichi Koizumi, Michiko Miyaki
Background: The aim of this study was to clarify clinicopathological features, frequencies of molecular biomarkers, and prognoses in Japanese colorectal cancer patients and compare them with right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colorectal cancer (LCRC). Methods: We consecutively selected 575 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection from 2008 to 2011. RCC was located from the cecum to the transverse colon, and LCRC was located from the splenic flexure to the rectum...
May 15, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767738/microsatellite-markers-transferability-in-culex-nigripalpus-diptera-culicidae
#11
Gabriela Cristina de Carvalho, Mauro Toledo Marrelli, André Barretto Bruno Wilke
Microsatellite loci specifically designed and optimized for secondary vectors and neglected species of mosquitoes are lacking. Cross-species transferability of microsatellite loci between close taxa has been used as a reliable option, being successfully done for Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae), Triatoma sordida Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), and Aedes fluviatilis Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae). Nonetheless, prior to the utilization of transferred microsatellites, they must be assessed for their performance and reliability on the target species...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765671/epigenetic-and-genetic-variation-among-three-separate-introductions-of-the-house-sparrow-passer-domesticus-into-australia
#12
E L Sheldon, A Schrey, S C Andrew, A Ragsdale, S C Griffith
Invasive populations are often associated with low levels of genetic diversity owing to population bottlenecks at the initial stages of invasion. Despite this, the ability of invasive species to adapt rapidly in response to novel environments is well documented. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been proposed to facilitate the success of invasive species by compensating for reduced levels of genetic variation. Here, we use methylation sensitive-amplification fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite analyses to compare levels of epigenetic and genetic diversity and differentiation across 15 sites in the introduced Australian house sparrow population...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764494/precision-medicine-becomes-reality-tumor-type-agnostic-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Li Yan, Wei Zhang
Precision medicine just witnessed two breakthroughs in oncology in 2017. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), Merck's anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), received accelerated approval in May 2017 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic solid tumors that have been identified as having microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR). Shortly after, nivolumab (Opdivo), Bristol-Myers Squibb's anti-PD-1 mAb, gained an accelerated approval in August 2017 for adult and pediatric patients with MSI-H or dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer that has progressed after standard chemotherapy...
March 31, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764162/the-evolving-role-of-immune-oncology-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
Shaheenah Dawood
Metastatic colorectal cancer still remains an essentially non curable disease. However, with advances in chemotherapeutic and personalizing therapeutic approaches with the incorporation of targeted therapy such as anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents survival associated with metastatic colorectal cancer has certainly improved over the last two decades. Patients who are not amenable to surgery median survival remain approximately 2 to 3 years. In an attempt to improve prognostic outcome over the last decade research has focused on therapeutic options geared towards harnessing the immune system with success observed with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the realm of a number of solid tumors including lung and renal cancer...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763462/the-annotation-of-repetitive-elements-in-the-genome-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#15
Zihao Yuan, Tao Zhou, Lisui Bao, Shikai Liu, Huitong Shi, Yujia Yang, Dongya Gao, Rex Dunham, Geoff Waldbieser, Zhanjiang Liu
Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is a highly adaptive species and has been used as a research model for comparative immunology, physiology, and toxicology among ectothermic vertebrates. It is also economically important for aquaculture. As such, its reference genome was generated and annotated with protein coding genes. However, the repetitive elements in the catfish genome are less well understood. In this study, over 417.8 Megabase (MB) of repetitive elements were identified and characterized in the channel catfish genome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761758/genetic-variability-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-north-coast-of-peru-and-the-ecuadorian-amazon-basin
#16
Julio A Ventocilla, Jorge Nuñez, Laura Lorena Tapia, Carmen M Lucas, Stephen R Manock, Andrés G Lescano, Kimberly A Edgel, Paul C F Graf
In the Peruvian North Coast (PNC), the number of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases increased steadily from 2007 to 2010 despite a significant decline in the overall number of cases in Peru during the same period. To better understand the transmission dynamics of P. vivax populations in the PNC and the neighboring Ecuadorian Amazon Basin (EAB), we studied the genetic variability and population structure of P. vivax in these areas. One hundred and twenty P. vivax isolates (58 from Piura and 37 from Tumbes in the PNC collected from 2008 to 2010 and 25 from the EAB collected in Pastaza from 2001 to 2004) were assessed by five polymorphic microsatellite markers...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760911/strong-associations-between-plant-genotypes-and-bacterial-communities-in-a-natural-salt-marsh
#17
Gregory P Zogg, Steven E Travis, Daniel A Brazeau
Although microbial communities have been shown to vary among plant genotypes in a number of experiments in terrestrial ecosystems, relatively little is known about this relationship under natural conditions and outside of select model systems. We reasoned that a salt marsh ecosystem, which is characterized by twice-daily flooding by tides, would serve as a particularly conservative test of the strength of plant-microbial associations, given the high degree of abiotic regulation of microbial community assembly resulting from alternating periods of inundation and exposure...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760893/high-levels-of-polyandry-but-limited-evidence-for-multiple-paternity-in-wild-populations-of-the-western-rock-lobster-panulirus-cygnus
#18
Jacqueline Loo, Winn Jason Kennington, Simon de Lestang, Jason How, Jonathan P Evans
Polyandry, where multiple mating by females results in the temporal and spatial overlap of ejaculates from two or more males, is taxonomically widespread and occurs in varying frequencies within and among species. In decapods (crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and prawns), rates of polyandry are likely to be variable, but the extent to which patterns of multiple paternity reflect multiple mating, and thus are shaped by postmating processes that bias fertilization toward one or a subset of mated males, is unclear. Here, we use microsatellite markers to examine the frequency of multiple mating (the presence of spermatophores from two or more males) and patterns of paternity in wild populations of western rock lobster ( Panulirus cygnus )...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760881/upwelling-and-eddies-affect-connectivity-among-local-populations-of-the-goldeye-rockfish-sebastes-thompsoni-pisces-scorpaenoidei
#19
Hyo Jae Yu, Jin-Koo Kim
The goldeye rockfish, Sebastes thompsoni , commercial rockfish catch in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, may influence its population structure. To clarify the population genetic structure of Korean S. thompsoni and its degree of hybridization with the most close species, Sebastes joyneri , we analyzed a mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region and eleven polymorphic microsatellite (ms) loci. S. joyneri individuals were clearly distinguished from S. thompsoni by the mtDNA control region and ms loci results, with single interspecific hybridization between two species suggesting no impact on genetic structure of S...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760388/cell-of-origin-and-mutation-pattern-define-three-clinically-distinct-classes-of-sebaceous-carcinoma
#20
Jeffrey P North, Justin Golovato, Charles J Vaske, J Zachary Sanborn, Andrew Nguyen, Wei Wu, Benjamin Goode, Meredith Stevers, Kevin McMullen, Bethany E Perez White, Eric A Collisson, Michele Bloomer, David A Solomon, Stephen C Benz, Raymond J Cho
Sebaceous carcinomas (SeC) are cutaneous malignancies that, in rare cases, metastasize and prove fatal. Here we report whole-exome sequencing on 32 SeC, revealing distinct mutational classes that explain both cancer ontogeny and clinical course. A UV-damage signature predominates in 10/32 samples, while nine show microsatellite instability (MSI) profiles. UV-damage SeC exhibited poorly differentiated, infiltrative histopathology compared to MSI signature SeC (p = 0.003), features previously associated with dissemination...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
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