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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894464/functional-neurological-symptoms-modulate-processing-of-emotionally-salient-stimuli
#1
Johanna Fiess, Brigitte Rockstroh, Roger Schmidt, Christian Wienbruch, Astrid Steffen
OBJECTIVE: Dysfunctional emotion processing has been discussed as a contributing factor to functional neurological symptoms (FNS) in the context of conversion disorder, and refers to blunted recognition and the expression of one's own feelings. However, the emotion processing components characteristic for FNS and/or relevant for conversion remain to be specified. With this goal, the present study targeted the initial, automatic discrimination of emotionally salient stimuli. METHODS: The magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was monitored in 21 patients with functional weakness and/or sensory disturbance subtypes of FNS and 21 healthy comparison participants (HC) while they passively watched 600 emotionally arousing, pleasant, unpleasant or neutral stimuli in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) design...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891270/primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-gliomatosis-radiological-pathological-features
#2
Ehtasham Ahmad, Mohamed Mohamed, Apostolos Vrettos
We present the case of a 43-year-old lady who presented with headaches, visual impairment, and seizures, progressing rapidly over the course of a few weeks. Extensive workup excluded an inflammatory or infectious cause. Imaging studies revealed diffuse thickening of the leptomeninges and serial CSF analysis showed raised opening pressures and increased protein levels. A diagnostic biopsy of the lower thoracic dura confirmed the diagnosis of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDGL). She was managed supportively for her symptoms and unfortunately she passed away a few weeks later...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847584/character-decomposition-and-transposition-of-chinese-compound-words-in-the-right-and-left-visual-fields
#3
Hong-Wen Cao, Kai-Fu Yang, Hong-Mei Yan
This study investigated the character decomposition and transposition processes of Chinese two-character compound words (canonical and transposed words) and pseudowords in the right and left visual fields using a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. The results confirmed a right visual field superiority for canonical words, but this advantage vanished for transposed words. The findings further indicated that the same quality of lexical processing could be obtained from the foveal and parafoveal regions of the right and left visual fields, regardless of the character order, but not in the periphery of the right visual field...
November 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793674/rapid-attentional-selection-processes-operate-independently-and-in-parallel-for-multiple-targets
#4
Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
The question whether multiple objects are selected serially or in parallel remains contentious. Previous studies employed the N2pc component as a marker of attentional selection to show that multiple selection processes can be activated concurrently. The present study demonstrates that the concurrent selection of multiple targets reflects genuinely parallel processing that is unaffected by whether or when an additional selection process is elicited simultaneously for another target. Experiment 1 showed that N2pc components triggered during the selection of a colour-defined target were not modulated by the presence versus absence of a second target that appeared in close temporal proximity...
October 25, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760371/who-is-afraid-of-the-invisible-snake-subjective-visual-awareness-modulates-posterior-brain-activity-for-evolutionarily-threatening-stimuli
#5
Simone Grassini, Suvi K Holm, Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto
Snakes were probably one of the earliest predators of primates, and snake images produce specific behavioral and electrophysiological reactions in humans. Pictures of snakes evoke enhanced activity over the occipital cortex, indexed by the "early posterior negativity" (EPN), as compared with pictures of other dangerous or non-dangerous animals. The present study investigated the possibility that the response to snake images is independent from visual awareness. The observers watched images of threatening and non-threatening animals presented in random order during rapid serial visual presentation...
October 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736118/attentional-capture-and-engagement-during-the-attentional-blink-a-camera-metaphor-of-attention
#6
Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713685/spectral-transfer-learning-using-information-geometry-for-a-user-independent-brain-computer-interface
#7
Nicholas R Waytowich, Vernon J Lawhern, Addison W Bohannon, Kenneth R Ball, Brent J Lance
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697909/light-video-game-play-is-associated-with-enhanced-visual-processing-of-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-targets
#8
Christina J Howard, Robert Wilding, Duncan Guest
There is mixed evidence that video game players (VGPs) may demonstrate better performance in perceptual and attentional tasks than non-VGPs (NVGPs). The rapid serial visual presentation task is one such case, where observers respond to two successive targets embedded within a stream of serially presented items. We tested light VGPs (LVGPs) and NVGPs on this task. LVGPs were better at correct identification of second targets whether they were also attempting to respond to the first target. This performance benefit seen for LVGPs suggests enhanced visual processing for briefly presented stimuli even with only very moderate game play...
October 3, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664352/go-getters-and-procrastinators-investigating-individual-differences-in-visual-cognition-across-university-semesters
#9
David Chan, Jason Rajsic, Jay Pratt
University-based psychological research typically relies on the participation of undergraduate students for data collection. Using this particular sample brings with it several possible issues, including the self-scheduling done by the participants. Research on performance between students who sign up early versus late in the semester has been inconsistent. Some research report benefits for early participant semesters, while others find no differences between the two groups. Anecdotally, it seems that the former holds true, as many researchers worry about the data collected late in the semester, sometimes opting for more motivated earlier participants in the next semester...
September 21, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626225/rebalancing-spatial-attention-endogenous-orienting-may-partially-overcome-the-left-visual-field-bias-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#10
Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Gabriel Sami Hasan, Rolf Verleger
In dynamically changing environments, spatial attention is not equally distributed across the visual field. For instance, when two streams of stimuli are presented left and right, the second target (T2) is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). Recently, it has been shown that this bias is related to weaker stimulus-driven orienting of attention toward the RVF: The RVF disadvantage was reduced with salient task-irrelevant valid cues and increased with invalid cues...
January 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619674/development-and-evaluation-of-real-time-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-cystic-echinococcosis
#11
Mohamed E Ahmed, Mawahib H Eldigail, Fatima M Elamin, Ibtisam A Ali, Martin P Grobusch, Imadeldin E Aradaib
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (EG)-complex, is a neglected parasitic disease of public health importance. The disease is endemic in many African and Mediterranean countries including the Sudan. The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for simple and rapid detection of CE in humans and domestic live stock in Sudan. METHODS: A set of six LAMP primers, designed from the mitochondrial NADH-1 gene of EG cattle strain of genotype 5 (G5), was used as a target for LAMP assay...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603438/multiple-attentional-sets-while-monitoring-rapid-serial-visual-presentations
#12
Jun I Kawahara, Takatsune Kumada
The present study examined whether observers are able to establish multiple attentional sets to concurrently monitor two different spatial locations. Observers identified a target letter in red or cyan among nontarget letters of other heterogeneous colours during a temporal feature search. A peripheral distractor display consisted of one item of either the same colour as the current target, and the other potential target colour, or an irrelevant colour that could never be the target. They identified an odd-ball colour letter among homogenous colours during a singleton search...
October 11, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561216/conceptual-short-term-memory-cstm-supports-core-claims-of-christiansen-and-chater
#13
COMMENT
Mary C Potter
Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words or pictured scenes provides evidence for a large-capacity conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) that momentarily provides rich associated material from long-term memory, permitting rapid chunking (Potter 1993; 2009; 2012). In perception of scenes as well as language comprehension, we make use of knowledge that briefly exceeds the supposed limits of working memory.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559171/differential-contributions-of-gaba-concentration-in-frontal-and-parietal-regions-to-individual-differences-in-attentional-blink
#14
Ken Kihara, Hirohito M Kondo, Jun I Kawahara
UNLABELLED: Selective attention plays an important role in identifying transient objects in a complex visual scene. Attentional control ability varies with observers. However, it is unclear what neural mechanisms are responsible for individual differences in attentional control ability. The present study used the following attentional blink paradigm: when two targets are to be identified in rapid serial visual presentation, the processing of the first target interrupts the identification of the second one appearing within 500 ms after the first-target onset...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503768/sex-hormones-modulate-neurophysiological-correlates-of-visual-temporal-attention
#15
Cornelia Kranczioch, Anja Lindig, Markus Hausmann
The functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) in processing targets within rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams has been reported to fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, with identification of the second of two closely spaced targets being impaired when both targets occur in the left or the right hemifield stream during the luteal phase, while during the menstrual phase identification of the second target is only impaired for target pairs presented in the right hemifield stream. This fluctuation has been proposed to result from variations in estradiol levels...
August 5, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501303/analysis-of-brain-mitochondria-using-serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy
#16
Konark Mukherjee, Helen R Clark, Vrushali Chavan, Emily K Benson, Grahame J Kidd, Sarika Srivastava
Human brain is a high energy consuming organ that mainly relies on glucose as a fuel source. Glucose is catabolized by brain mitochondria via glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathways to produce cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Impairment of mitochondrial ATP production causes mitochondrial disorders, which present clinically with prominent neurological and myopathic symptoms. Mitochondrial defects are also present in neurodevelopmental disorders (e...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496025/two-scenes-or-not-two-scenes-the-effects-of-stimulus-repetition-and-view-similarity-on-scene-categorization-from-brief-displays
#17
Martin J Goldzieher, Sally Andrews, Irina M Harris
Previous research suggests that understanding the gist of a scene relies on global structural cues that enable rapid scene categorization. This study used a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm to interrogate the nature of the scene representations used in such rapid categorization. When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence (~10 items/sec), the second occurrence of the repeated item frequently goes unnoticed, a phenomenon that is attributed to a failure to consolidate two conscious episodes (tokens) for a repeatedly activated type...
August 5, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487825/fixed-target-combined-with-spectral-mapping-approaching-100-hit-rates-for-serial-crystallography
#18
Saeed Oghbaey, Antoine Sarracini, Helen M Ginn, Olivier Pare-Labrosse, Anling Kuo, Alexander Marx, Sascha W Epp, Darren A Sherrell, Bryan T Eger, Yinpeng Zhong, Rolf Loch, Valerio Mariani, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Silke Nelson, Henrik T Lemke, Robin L Owen, Arwen R Pearson, David I Stuart, Oliver P Ernst, Henrike M Mueller-Werkmeister, R J Dwayne Miller
The advent of ultrafast highly brilliant coherent X-ray free-electron laser sources has driven the development of novel structure-determination approaches for proteins, and promises visualization of protein dynamics on sub-picosecond timescales with full atomic resolution. Significant efforts are being applied to the development of sample-delivery systems that allow these unique sources to be most efficiently exploited for high-throughput serial femtosecond crystallography. Here, the next iteration of a fixed-target crystallography chip designed for rapid and reliable delivery of up to 11 259 protein crystals with high spatial precision is presented...
August 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453051/best-practice-for-single-trial-detection-of-event-related-potentials-application-to-brain-computer-interfaces
#19
Hubert Cecotti, Anthony J Ries
The detection of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is a fundamental component in non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research, and in modern cognitive neuroscience studies. Whereas the grand average response across trials provides an estimation of essential characteristics of a brain-evoked response, an estimation of the differences between trials for a particular type of stimulus can provide key insight about the brain dynamics and possible origins of the brain response...
July 21, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445718/saccades-influence-the-visibility-of-targets-in-rapid-stimulus-sequences-the-roles-of-mislocalization-retinal-distance-and-remapping
#20
Alessio Fracasso, David Melcher
Briefly presented targets around the time of a saccade are mislocalized towards the saccadic landing point. This has been taken as evidence for a remapping mechanism that accompanies each eye movement, helping maintain visual stability across large retinal shifts. Previous studies have shown that spatial mislocalization is greatly diminished when trains of brief stimuli are presented at a high frequency rate, which might help to explain why mislocalization is rarely perceived in everyday viewing. Studies in the laboratory have shown that mislocalization can reduce metacontrast masking by causing target stimuli in a masking sequence to be perceived as shifted in space towards the saccadic target and thus more easily discriminated...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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