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rapid serial visual presentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265963/do-emotion-induced-blindness-and-the-attentional-blink-share-underlying-mechanisms-an-event-related-potential-study-of-emotionally-arousing-words
#1
Jeffrey MacLeod, Brandie M Stewart, Aaron J Newman, Karen M Arnell
When two targets are presented within approximately 500 ms of each other in the context of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), participants' ability to report the second target is reduced compared to when the targets are presented further apart in time. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink (AB). The AB is increased in magnitude when the first target is emotionally arousing. Emotionally arousing stimuli can also capture attention and create an AB-like effect even when these stimuli are presented as to-be-ignored distractor items in a single-target RSVP task...
March 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261088/age-related-changes-in-the-ability-to-switch-between-temporal-and-spatial-attention
#2
Eleanor Callaghan, Carol Holland, Klaus Kessler
Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults' driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252991/reading-time-allocation-strategies-and-working-memory-using-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#3
Jessica N Busler, Alejandro A Lazarte
Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce longer pauses at the ends of clauses and ends of sentences when reading texts with multiple embedded clauses. We studied if WM relates to allocation of time at end of clauses or sentences in a self-paced reading task and in 2 MW-RSVP reading conditions (Constant MW-RSVP and Paused MW-RSVP) in which the reading rate was kept constant or pauses were induced...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242793/coupled-decision-processes-update-and-maintain-saccadic-priors-in-a-dynamic-environment
#4
Timothy Doyeon Kim, Mohammad Kabir, Joshua I Gold
Much of what we know about how the brain forms decisions comes from studies of saccadic eye movements. However, saccadic decisions are often studied in isolation, which limits the insights they can provide about real-world decisions with complex interdependencies. Here we use a serial reaction-time (RT) task to show that prior expectations affect RTs via interdependent, normative decision processes that operate within and across saccades. We found that human subjects performing the task generated saccades that were governed by a rise-to-threshold decision process with a starting point that reflected expected state-dependent transition probabilities...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230526/sensitivity-to-image-recurrence-across-eye-movement-like-image-transitions-through-local-serial-inhibition-in-the-retina
#5
Vidhyasankar Krishnamoorthy, Michael Weick, Tim Gollisch
Standard models of stimulus encoding in the retina postulate that image presentations activate neurons according to the increase of preferred contrast inside the receptive field. During natural vision, however, images do not arrive in isolation, but follow each other rapidly, separated by sudden gaze shifts. We here report that, contrary to standard models, specific ganglion cells in mouse retina are suppressed after a rapid image transition by changes in visual patterns across the transition, but respond with a distinct spike burst when the same pattern reappears...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182479/the-first-letter-position-effect-in-visual-word-recognition-the-role-of-spatial-attention
#6
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota, Alexandra J Weigand, Michele Scaltritti, Derek Besner
A prominent question in visual word recognition is whether letters within a word are processed in parallel or in a left to right sequence. Although most contemporary models posit parallel processing, this notion seems at odds with well-established serial position effects in word identification that indicate preferential processing for the initial letter. The present study reports 4 experiments designed to further probe the locus of the first position processing advantage. The paradigm involved masked target words presented for short durations and required participants to subsequently select from 2 alternatives, 1 which was identical to the target and 1 that differed by a single letter...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114490/adaptation-reveals-that-facial-expression-averaging-occurs-during-rapid-serial-presentation
#7
Haojiang Ying, Hong Xu
How do we interpret the rapidly changing visual stimuli we encounter? How does our past visual experience shape our perception? Recent work has suggested that our visual system is able to interpret multiple faces presented temporally via integration or ensemble coding. Visual adaptation is widely used to probe such short term plasticity. Here we use an adaptation paradigm to investigate whether integration or averaging of emotional faces occurs during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). In four experiments, we tested whether the RSVP of distinct emotional faces could induce adaptation aftereffects and whether these aftereffects were of similar magnitudes as their statistically averaged face...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114373/does-vertical-reading-help-people-with-macular-degeneration-an-exploratory-study
#8
Aurélie Calabrèse, Tingting Liu, Gordon E Legge
Individuals with macular degeneration often develop a Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) used in place of the impaired fovea. It is known that many people adopt a PRL left of the scotoma, which is likely to affect reading by occluding text to the right of fixation. For such individuals, we examined the possibility that reading vertical text, in which words are rotated 90° with respect to the normal horizontal orientation, would be beneficial for reading. Vertically oriented words would be tangential to the scotoma instead of being partially occluded by it...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113099/a-right-hemisphere-advantage-at-early-cortical-stages-of-processing-alphanumeric-stimuli-evidence-from-electrophysiology
#9
Dariusz Asanowicz, Rolf Verleger, Lena Kruse, Kathrin Beier, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
This study investigates hemispheric asymmetry evoked by non-target alphanumeric stimuli in a bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Our indicators of asymmetry are shorter latencies and larger amplitudes of the right hemisphere (RH) P1 and N1 components of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). This VEP asymmetry might reflect either a RH advantage, possibly in early perceptual processing, or for familiar stimuli, or for directing attention, or might be a paradoxical reflection of left hemisphere specialization in letter processing...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032434/adults-blink-more-deeply-a-comparative-study-of-the-attentional-blink-across-different-age-groups
#10
Natalie Russo, Wendy R Kates, Nicole Shea, Megan LeBlanc, Bradley Wyble
The attentional blink (AB) is thought to help the visual system parse and categorize rapidly changing information by segmenting it into temporal chunks, and is elicited using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. It is reflected in a decrease in accuracy at detecting the second of two targets presented within 200-500 ms of the first, and its development appears to be protracted on tasks that require set-shifting. Here, younger (M = 8.5 years) and older (M = 12.8 years) children and adults (M = 19.13 years) completed a simple AB task with no set-shift requirement in which participants detected two letters in a stream of numbers presented at a rate of 135 ms/item...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916671/leftward-bias-in-orienting-to-and-disengaging-attention-from-salient-task-irrelevant-events-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#11
Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Nicole Westphal, Rolf Verleger
When embedded in the left or right stream of rapidly changing distractors, the second target (T2) is systematically better identified on the left than on the right. This left visual field advantage (LVFA) was recently attributed to better abilities of the right hemisphere in stimulus-driven orienting of attention: it was almost absent when salient uninformative cues were valid (presented in the T2 stream), and increased with invalid (different-stream) cues. However, cue-evoked negativity of event related potentials being earlier at the right than at the left hemisphere suggested that cues also are unequally processed, thereby possibly contributing to increased LVFA after invalid cues...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894464/functional-neurological-symptoms-modulate-processing-of-emotionally-salient-stimuli
#12
Johanna Fiess, Brigitte Rockstroh, Roger Schmidt, Christian Wienbruch, Astrid Steffen
OBJECTIVE: Dysfunctional emotion processing has been discussed as a contributing factor to functional neurological symptoms (FNS) in the context of conversion disorder, and refers to blunted recognition and the expression of one's own feelings. However, the emotion processing components characteristic for FNS and/or relevant for conversion remain to be specified. With this goal, the present study targeted the initial, automatic discrimination of emotionally salient stimuli. METHODS: The magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was monitored in 21 patients with functional weakness and/or sensory disturbance subtypes of FNS and 21 healthy comparison participants (HC) while they passively watched 600 emotionally arousing, pleasant, unpleasant or neutral stimuli in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) design...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891270/primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-gliomatosis-radiological-pathological-features
#13
Ehtasham Ahmad, Mohamed Mohamed, Apostolos Vrettos
We present the case of a 43-year-old lady who presented with headaches, visual impairment, and seizures, progressing rapidly over the course of a few weeks. Extensive workup excluded an inflammatory or infectious cause. Imaging studies revealed diffuse thickening of the leptomeninges and serial CSF analysis showed raised opening pressures and increased protein levels. A diagnostic biopsy of the lower thoracic dura confirmed the diagnosis of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDGL). She was managed supportively for her symptoms and unfortunately she passed away a few weeks later...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847584/character-decomposition-and-transposition-of-chinese-compound-words-in-the-right-and-left-visual-fields
#14
Hong-Wen Cao, Kai-Fu Yang, Hong-Mei Yan
This study investigated the character decomposition and transposition processes of Chinese two-character compound words (canonical and transposed words) and pseudowords in the right and left visual fields using a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. The results confirmed a right visual field superiority for canonical words, but this advantage vanished for transposed words. The findings further indicated that the same quality of lexical processing could be obtained from the foveal and parafoveal regions of the right and left visual fields, regardless of the character order, but not in the periphery of the right visual field...
November 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793674/rapid-attentional-selection-processes-operate-independently-and-in-parallel-for-multiple-targets
#15
Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
The question whether multiple objects are selected serially or in parallel remains contentious. Previous studies employed the N2pc component as a marker of attentional selection to show that multiple selection processes can be activated concurrently. The present study demonstrates that the concurrent selection of multiple targets reflects genuinely parallel processing that is unaffected by whether or when an additional selection process is elicited simultaneously for another target. Experiment 1 showed that N2pc components triggered during the selection of a colour-defined target were not modulated by the presence versus absence of a second target that appeared in close temporal proximity...
October 25, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760371/who-is-afraid-of-the-invisible-snake-subjective-visual-awareness-modulates-posterior-brain-activity-for-evolutionarily-threatening-stimuli
#16
Simone Grassini, Suvi K Holm, Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto
Snakes were probably one of the earliest predators of primates, and snake images produce specific behavioral and electrophysiological reactions in humans. Pictures of snakes evoke enhanced activity over the occipital cortex, indexed by the "early posterior negativity" (EPN), as compared with pictures of other dangerous or non-dangerous animals. The present study investigated the possibility that the response to snake images is independent from visual awareness. The observers watched images of threatening and non-threatening animals presented in random order during rapid serial visual presentation...
October 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736118/attentional-capture-and-engagement-during-the-attentional-blink-a-camera-metaphor-of-attention
#17
Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713685/spectral-transfer-learning-using-information-geometry-for-a-user-independent-brain-computer-interface
#18
Nicholas R Waytowich, Vernon J Lawhern, Addison W Bohannon, Kenneth R Ball, Brent J Lance
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697909/light-video-game-play-is-associated-with-enhanced-visual-processing-of-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-targets
#19
Christina J Howard, Robert Wilding, Duncan Guest
There is mixed evidence that video game players (VGPs) may demonstrate better performance in perceptual and attentional tasks than non-VGPs (NVGPs). The rapid serial visual presentation task is one such case, where observers respond to two successive targets embedded within a stream of serially presented items. We tested light VGPs (LVGPs) and NVGPs on this task. LVGPs were better at correct identification of second targets whether they were also attempting to respond to the first target. This performance benefit seen for LVGPs suggests enhanced visual processing for briefly presented stimuli even with only very moderate game play...
February 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664352/go-getters-and-procrastinators-investigating-individual-differences-in-visual-cognition-across-university-semesters
#20
David Chan, Jason Rajsic, Jay Pratt
University-based psychological research typically relies on the participation of undergraduate students for data collection. Using this particular sample brings with it several possible issues, including the self-scheduling done by the participants. Research on performance between students who sign up early versus late in the semester has been inconsistent. Some research report benefits for early participant semesters, while others find no differences between the two groups. Anecdotally, it seems that the former holds true, as many researchers worry about the data collected late in the semester, sometimes opting for more motivated earlier participants in the next semester...
September 21, 2016: Vision Research
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