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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244170/sleep-deprivation-triggers-cognitive-control-impairments-in-task-goal-switching
#1
Hichem Slama, Daphne Olivia Chylinski, Gaétane Deliens, Rachel Leproult, Rémy Schmitz, Philippe Peigneux
Study objectives: This study investigates the impact of sleep deprivation (SD) on task-goal switching, a key component of cognitive flexibility. Methods: Task-goal switching performance was tested after one night of regular sleep (n = 17 participants) or of total SD (n = 18). To understand the relationships between task-switching performance and other cognitive processes following SD, participants were tested for other key attentional (alertness and vigilance) and executive (inhibition and working memory) functions...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243207/sparing-and-impairing-emotion-modulation-of-the-attentional-blink-and-the-spread-of-sparing-in-a-3-target-rsvp-task
#2
Manuel Petrucci, Anna Pecchinenda
The performance impairment (attentional blink, AB) on a second target (T2) when it is presented within 200-500 ms after a first target (T1) during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is typically attributed to resource depletion. The AB does not occur when targets appear in immediate sequence (sparing). Recently, this account has been challenged by findings that the lag 1 sparing can spread to later lags when using a 3-target RSVP. Two experiments using the 3-targets RSVP investigated the relative contribution of resource depletion and attentional enhancement and/or inhibition on the AB and the sparing when T1 (Exp...
December 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222993/supplementation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-affects-temporal-but-not-spatial-visual-attention
#3
Anna Leonte, Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G Akyürek
In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field...
December 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193008/comparison-of-gaze-behaviour-of-trainee-and-experienced-surgeons-during-laparoscopic-gastric-bypass
#4
S Erridge, H Ashraf, S Purkayastha, A Darzi, M H Sodergren
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking presents a novel tool that could be used to profile skill levels in surgery objectively. The primary aim of this study was to identify differences in gaze behaviour between expert and junior surgeons performing a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for obesity. METHODS: This prospective observational study used a lightweight eye-tracking apparatus to determine the difference in gaze behaviours between expert (more than 75 procedures) and junior (75 or fewer procedures) surgeons at defined stages of LRYGB...
November 28, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157418/perceptual-episodes-temporal-attention-and-the-role-of-cognitive-control-lessons-from-the-attentional-blink
#5
Guy Snir, Yaffa Yeshurun
The ability to identify a target is usually hindered if it appears shortly after another target. This simple and somewhat intuitive observation is qualified by a multitude of unexpected findings and conflicting theories that originate from the attentional blink paradigm. In this review, the major results, implications, and outstanding questions that stem from the paradigm are presented and discussed. The extant literature suggests that when the temporal domain is densely stacked with numerous stimuli, the entities that underlie attentional selection and cognitive control are brief perceptual episodes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157417/effect-of-emotions-on-temporal-attention
#6
Maruti V Mishra, Sonia B Ray, Narayanan Srinivasan
Emotions play a significant role in guiding everyday actions and strongly interact with attention. The processing of emotional information over time and the influence of attention on such processing has been studied through the phenomenon of attentional blink using rapid serial visual presentations (RSVP) tasks. This chapter discusses the interaction between temporal attention and the type of emotional information (words, scenes, and facial expressions) presented during or before the RSVP stream. The findings show that the affective content and the arousal value of the emotional stimuli presented as first target, second target, or both affects the magnitude and the duration of the blink window...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157408/fundamental-computational-constraints-on-the-time-course-of-perception-and-action
#7
Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal
A cognitive system faced with contingent events that cause rapid changes in sensory data may (i) incrementally incorporate new data into the ongoing perceptual and motor processing; or (ii) restart processing on each new event; or (iii) sample the data and hold onto the sample until its processing is complete, while disregarding any contingent changes. We offer a set of computational first-principles arguments for a hypothesis, according to which any system that contends with certain classes of perception and behavioral control tasks must include the sample-and-hold option (possibly alongside the other two, which may be useful in other tasks)...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133149/spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-an-index-of-dopaminergic-component-of-sustained-attention-and-fatigue
#8
Antonio Maffei, Alessandro Angrilli
Blink rate is a behavioral index highly correlated with frontostriatal dopaminergic activity. The present research was aimed at studying the modulation of spontaneous blink rate in function of the increasing attentional load induced by the Mackworth Clock Test. Since blinking interferes with sensory processing, we expected a decreasing blink rate with increasing attentional demand. Three tasks of 7-min each and different difficulties were administered: the Mackworth had a red dot moving in a circle with intervals varying from 500ms, 350ms to 200ms, corresponding to increasing task difficulty...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104557/high-fidelity-visual-long-term-memory-within-an-unattended-blink-of-an-eye
#9
Christof Kuhbandner, Elizabeth A Rosas-Corona, Philipp Spachtholz
What is stored in long-term memory from current sensations is a question that has attracted considerable interest. Over time, several prominent theories have consistently proposed that only attended sensory information leaves a durable memory trace whereas unattended information is not stored beyond the current moment, an assumption that seems to be supported by abundant empirical evidence. Here we show, by using a more sensitive memory test than in previous studies, that this is actually not true. Observers viewed a rapid stream of real-world object pictures overlapped by words (presentation duration per stimulus: 500 ms, interstimulus interval: 200 ms), with the instruction to attend to the words and detect word repetitions, without knowing that their memory would be tested later...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100736/single-neuron-correlates-of-awareness-during-attentional-blinks
#10
Zhongzheng Fu, Ueli Rutishauser
A recent single-neuron study revealed an anatomical anterior-to-posterior gradient of awareness-related responses by 'concept neurons' in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL). Delayed and weaker responses were indicative of the failure of a stimulus to reach awareness, suggesting that reliable fast responses are a critical aspect of the neural mechanisms of consciousness.
October 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100627/locus-coeruleus-activity-mediates-hyperresponsiveness-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030758/the-perceptual-wink-model-of-non-switching-attentional-blink-tasks
#12
Patrice Rusconi, David E Huber
The attentional blink (AB) is a temporary deficit for a second target (T2) when that target appears after a first target (T1). Although sophisticated models have been developed to explain the substantial AB literature in isolation, the current study considers how the AB relates to perceptual dynamics more broadly. We show that the time-course of the AB is closely related to the time course of the transition from positive to negative repetition priming effects in perceptual identification. Many AB tasks involve a switch between a T1 defined in one manner and a T2 defined in a different manner...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#13
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943091/single-neuron-correlates-of-conscious-perception-in-the-human-medial-temporal-lobe
#14
Thomas P Reber, Jennifer Faber, Johannes Niediek, Jan Boström, Christian E Elger, Florian Mormann
The neuronal mechanisms giving rise to conscious perception remain largely elusive [1]. It is known that the strength of single-neuron activity correlates with conscious perception, especially in anterior regions of the ventral pathway in non-human primates [2-4] and in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) [5, 6]. It is unclear, however, whether single-neuron correlates of conscious perception are characterized solely by the magnitude of neuronal responses, and whether the correlates of perception are equally prominent across different regions of the human MTL...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939935/the-exogenous-and-endogenous-control-of-attentional-focusing
#15
Lisa N Jefferies, James T Enns, Vincent Di Lollo
Selective visual attention involves prioritizing both the location (orienting) and distribution (focusing) of processing. To date, much more research has examined attentional orienting than focusing. One of the most well-established findings is that orienting can be exogenous, as when a unique change in luminance draws attention to a spatial location (e.g., Theeuwes in Atten Percept Psychophys 51:599-606, 1992; Yantis and Jonides in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10:601, 1984), and endogenous, as when a red distractor shape diverts attention when one is looking for a red target (e...
September 22, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890182/transient-heart-rate-acceleration-in-association-with-spontaneous-eyeblinks
#16
Tamami Nakano, Chiho Kuriyama
The reason why people spontaneously blink several times more frequently than is necessary for ocular lubrication has been a mystery. However, spontaneous eyeblinks selectively occur at attentional breakpoints of information processing, suggesting the involvement of spontaneous eyeblink in attentional disengagement from external stimuli. Physiological activity also changes considerably according to attention state. Heart rate decreases when attention is directed at stimuli, while it increases as attention is released...
November 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765147/the-association-between-ocular-surface-measurements-with-visual-field-reliability-indices-and-gaze-tracking-results-in-preperimetric-glaucoma
#17
Takahiro Arai, Hiroshi Murata, Masato Matsuura, Tomohiko Usui, Ryo Asaoka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the relationship between gaze tracking (GT) results and ocular surface condition in glaucoma. METHOD: The Humphrey 24-2 visual field (VF) was measured in 34 eyes of 30 patients with open-angle glaucoma without VF damage. Tear break-up time, Schirmer's test, tear meniscus volume (TMV) and presence of superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) were also measured in order to describe the condition of the ocular surface. Various GT parameters were calculated: the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 1° and 2° (move1-2), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 3° and 5° (move3-5), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus more than 6° (move≥6), the average tracking failure frequency per stimulus (TFF) and the average blinking frequency...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756199/consciousness-and-working-memory-current-trends-and-research-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Boris B Velichkovsky
Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755012/perceptual-similarity-induces-overinvestment-in-an-attentional-blink-task
#19
Ellen MacLellan, David I Shore, Bruce Milliken
The overinvestment account of the attentional blink (AB) posits that the AB results from the allocation of more resources than necessary to encode a first target (T1), which in turn lowers the resources available to encode a second target (T2) shortly thereafter. Across two experiments, we examined whether resource allocation to T1, and thus overinvestment that results in an AB effect, might be limited by perceptual mechanisms that evaluate the need for encoding resources. The key result observed in both experiments was that a relatively easy to encode T1 can nonetheless result in an AB when it is perceptually similar to a more difficult to encode T1...
July 28, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754276/physiological-correlates-of-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-early-adolescents
#20
Melissa D Latham, Nina Cook, Julian G Simmons, Michelle L Byrne, Jonathan W L Kettle, Orli Schwartz, Nandita Vijayakumar, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B Allen
Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images...
July 25, 2017: Biological Psychology
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