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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909427/contrast-sensitivity-and-motion-discrimination-in-cannabis-users
#1
Elena Mikulskaya, Frances Heritage Martin
RATIONALE: Cannabis use impairs visual attention; however, it is unclear whether cannabis use also impairs low level visual processing or whether low level visual deficits can be related to lower dopaminergic functioning found in cannabis users. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and motion discrimination under normal and low luminance conditions differ in cannabis users and non-users. METHODS: Control (n = 20) and cannabis (n = 21) participants completed a visual acuity test, a saliva test and self-report measures...
June 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907632/effects-of-tear-film-dynamics-on-quality-of-vision
#2
REVIEW
Shizuka Koh, Cynthia I Tung, Yasushi Inoue, Vishal Jhanji
The precorneal tear film is maintained by blinking and exhibits different phases in the tear cycle. The tear film serves as the most anterior surface of the eye and plays an important role as a first refractive component of the eye. Alterations in tear film dynamics may cause both vision-related and ocular surface-related symptoms. Although the optical quality associated with the tear film dynamics previously received little attention, objective measurements of optical quality using wavefront sensors have enabled us to quantify optical aberrations induced by the tear film...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867417/attentional-conflict-moderates-the-association-between-anxiety-and-emotional-eating-behavior-an-erp-study
#3
Greg Denke, Eric Rawls, Connie Lamm
Emotional eating is an attempt to avoid, control, or cope with negative emotions through eating a large amount of calorie dense sweet and/or high fat foods. Several factors, including various attentional mechanisms, negative affect, and stress, impact emotional eating behavior. For example, attentional narrowing on negative events may increase attentional stickiness and thereby prevent the processing of more peripheral events, such as eating behavior. This study contributes to the extant literature by examining the neural correlates underlying the attentional conflict between processing negative events and regulating behavior within a task that emulates how negative life experiences might contribute to unrestrained eating behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804134/the-attentional-blink-why-does-lag-1-sparing-occur-when-the-dependent-measure-is-accuracy-but-lag-1-deficit-when-it-is-rt
#4
Hayley E P Lagroix, Vincent Di Lollo, Thomas M Spalek
Perception of the second of two targets (T1, T2) displayed in rapid sequence is impaired if it comes shortly after the first (attentional blink, AB). In an exception, known as Lag-1 sparing, T2 is virtually unimpaired if it is presented directly after T1. Three experiments examined the seemingly inconsistent findings that Lag-1 sparing occurs in accuracy but Lag-1 deficit occurs in RT. Experiment 1 pointed to masking of T2 as the critical factor. When T2 was not masked, the results replicated the conventional findings...
May 26, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747555/author-accepted-manuscript-gatecrashing-the-visual-cocktail-party-how-visual-and-semantic-similarity-modulate-the-own-name-benefit-in-the-attentional-blink
#5
Kevin Dent, Geoff G Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742026/cortical-sources-of-the-auditory-attentional-blink
#6
Dawei Shen, Dominique T Vuvan, Claude Alain
Attentional blink (AB) refers to the situation where correctly identifying a target impairs the processing of a subsequent probe in a sequence of stimuli. Although the AB often coincides with a modulation of scalp-recorded cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), the neural sources of this effect remain unclear. In two separate experiments, we used Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied (CLARA) to estimate the neural sources of ERPs elicited by an auditory probe when it immediately followed an auditory target (i...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729958/neural-markers-of-memory-consolidation-do-not-predict-temporal-estimates-of-encoded-items
#7
Atser Damsma, Robbert van der Mijn, Hedderik van Rijn
In contrast to the paradigms used in most laboratory experiments on interval timing, everyday tasks often involve tracking multiple, concurrent intervals without an explicit starting signal. As these characteristics are problematic for most existing clock-based models of interval timing, here we explore an alternative notion that suggests that time perception and working memory encoding might be closely connected. In this integrative model, the consolidation of a new item in working memory initiates cortical oscillations that also signal the onset of a time interval...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695987/physiological-measures-of-dopaminergic-and-noradrenergic-activity-during-attentional-set-shifting-and-reversal
#8
Péter Pajkossy, Ágnes Szőllősi, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány
Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) are important neurotransmitters, which are suggested to play a vital role in modulating the neural circuitry involved in the executive control of cognition. One way to investigate the functions of these neurotransmitter systems is to assess physiological indices of DA and NA transmission. Here we examined how variations of spontaneous eye-blink rate and pupil size, as indirect measures of DA and NA activity, respectively, are related to performance in a hallmark aspect of executive control: attentional set shifting...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691764/remember-to-blink-reduced-attentional-blink-following-instructions-to-forget
#9
Tracy L Taylor
This study used rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to determine whether, in an item-method directed forgetting task, study word processing ends earlier for forget words than for remember words. The critical manipulation required participants to monitor an RSVP stream of black nonsense strings in which a single blue word was embedded. The next item to follow the word was a string of red fs that instructed the participant to forget the word or green rs that instructed the participant to remember the word...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691650/first-unitary-then-divided-the-temporal-dynamics-of-dividing-attention
#10
Lisa N Jefferies, Joseph B Witt
Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets...
April 24, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657957/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-therapy-on-fear-related-capture-of-attention-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor-a-comparison-to-healthy-individuals
#11
Corrie R Camalier, Maureen McHugo, David H Zald, Joseph S Neimat
In addition to motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) involves significant non-motor sequelae, including disruptions in cognitive and emotional processing. Fear recognition appears to be affected both by the course of the disease and by a common interventional therapy, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). Here, we examined if these effects extend to other aspects of emotional processing, such as attentional capture by negative emotional stimuli. Performance on an emotional attentional blink (EAB) paradigm, a common paradigm used to study emotional capture of attention, was examined in a cohort of individuals with PD, both on and off STN-DBS therapy (n=20)...
2018: Journal of Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629456/tunable-cspbbr-3-cs-4-pbbr-6-phase-transformation-and-their-optical-spectroscopic-properties
#12
Xiao Chen, Daqin Chen, Junni Li, Gaoliang Fang, Hongchao Sheng, Jiasong Zhong
As a novel type of promising materials, metal halide perovskites are a rising star in the field of optoelectronics. On this basis, a new frontier of zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 with bright green emission and high stability has attracted an enormous amount of attention, even though its photoluminescence still requires to clarification. Herein, the controllable phase transformation between three-dimensional CsPbBr3 and zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is easily achieved in a facile ligand-assisted supersaturated recrystallization synthesis procedure via tuning the amount of surfactants, and their unique optical properties are investigated and compared in detail...
April 24, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615743/attentional-advantages-in-video-game-experts-are-not-related-to-perceptual-tendencies
#13
Nicole H L Wong, Dorita H F Chang
Previous studies have suggested that extensive action video gaming may enhance perceptual and attentional capacities. Here, we probed whether attentional differences between video-game experts and non-experts hold when attention is selectively directed at global or local structures. We measured performance on a modified attentional-blink task using hierarchically structured stimuli that consisted of global and local elements. Stimuli carried congruent or incongruent information. In two experiments, we asked observers to direct their attention globally (Experiment 1) or locally (Experiment 2)...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614156/more-is-better-relative-prevalence-of-multiple-targets-affects-search-accuracy
#14
Phillip Xin Cheng, Anina N Rich
In real-world searches such as airport baggage screening and radiological examinations, miss errors can be life threatening. Misses increase for additional targets after detecting an initial target, termed "subsequent search misses" (SSMs), and also when targets are more often absent than present, termed the low-prevalence effect. Real-world search tasks often contain more than one target, but the prevalence of these multitarget occasions varies. For example, a cancerous tumor sometimes coexists with a benign tumor and sometimes exists alone...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558704/probing-cellular-uptake-and-tracking-of-differently-shaped-gelatin-coated-gold-nanoparticles-inside-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-two-photon-excited-photoluminescence-analyzed-by-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-flim
#15
Sorina Suarasan, Emilia Licarete, Simion Astilean, Ana-Maria Craciun
Nowadays, the non-linear optical effect of two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence has recently grown in interest in recent years over other optical imaging method, due to improved 3D spatial resolution, deep penetrability and less photodamage of living organism owing to the excitation in near-infrared region (NIR). In parallel, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gain considerable attention for NIR TPE bio-imaging applications due to their appealing ability to generate strong intrinsic photoluminescence (PL). Here, we demonstrate the capability of differently shaped gelatin-coated AuNPs to perform as reliable label-free contrast agents for the non-invasive NIR imaging of NIH:OVCAR-3 ovary cancer cells via TPE Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)...
June 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535041/amygdala-central-nucleus-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning-with-a-visual-conditioned-stimulus
#16
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499241/modulation-of-the-frontal-parietal-network-by-low-intensity-anti-phase-20-hz-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-boosts-performance-in-the-attentional-blink-task
#17
Zachary Yaple, Roman Vakhrushev
Performance in the attentional blink task has been demonstrated to be directly influenced by alpha and beta neural oscillatory activity. In two experiments we stimulated the right parietal cortex and left frontal cortex with transcranial alternating current stimulation. For the first experiment we targeted only the right parietal cortex and found a non-significant increase in performance from 20 Hz stimulation. In the second experiment we applied two stimulators to the right parietal and left frontal cortex and found a significant increase in performance from 20 Hz tACS with a phase difference of 180°...
May 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492643/do-arousal-and-valence-have-separable-influences-on-attention-across-time
#18
Brandon T Saxton, Samantha K Myhre, Tharaki Siyaguna, Paul D Rokke
Previous research has shown that emotions differentially influence attention across time, especially when the valence of the attended stimuli is congruent with the emotion of observer. Sadness produces a larger attentional blink while fear and happiness produce smaller attentional blinks. We report on four dual-task rapid serial visual presentation experiments in which participant emotion and the affective features of the first target (T1) were systematically varied to determine whether arousal and valence have unique and consistent influences on attention performance...
February 28, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421345/chronic-cannabis-use-and-attentional-bias-extended-attentional-capture-to-cannabis-cues
#19
Darren W Campbell, Sandra Stewart, Camille E P Gray, Courtney L Ryan, Peter Fettes, Adam J McLandress, Ralph Dell'Aquila
INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of chronic cannabis users experience occupational, social, and psychological problems thought to reflect, in part, cannabis-related cognitive and emotional attentional biases. The emotional attentional blink (EAB) is a unique test of attentional bias that assesses automatic responses, cue-detection failures, and rapid and temporally extended biases. Using the EAB, we tested users' and non-users' attentional biases and how cannabis exposure correlates with these attentional biases...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409621/an-analysis-of-the-suitability-of-a-low-cost-eye-tracker-for-assessing-the-cognitive-load-of-drivers
#20
Tomaž Čegovnik, Kristina Stojmenova, Grega Jakus, Jaka Sodnik
This paper presents a driving simulator study in which we investigated whether the Eye Tribe eye tracker (ET) is capable of assessing changes in the cognitive load of drivers through oculography and pupillometry. In the study, participants were asked to drive a simulated vehicle and simultaneously perform a set of secondary tasks with different cognitive complexity levels. We measured changes in eye properties, such as the pupil size, blink rate and fixation time. We also performed a measurement with a Detection Response Task (DRT) to validate the results and to prove a steady increase of cognitive load with increasing secondary task difficulty...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
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