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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657957/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-therapy-on-fear-related-capture-of-attention-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor-a-comparison-to-healthy-individuals
#1
Corrie R Camalier, Maureen McHugo, David H Zald, Joseph S Neimat
In addition to motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) involves significant non-motor sequelae, including disruptions in cognitive and emotional processing. Fear recognition appears to be affected both by the course of the disease and by a common interventional therapy, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). Here, we examined if these effects extend to other aspects of emotional processing, such as attentional capture by negative emotional stimuli. Performance on an emotional attentional blink (EAB) paradigm, a common paradigm used to study emotional capture of attention, was examined in a cohort of individuals with PD, both on and off STN-DBS therapy (n=20)...
2018: Journal of Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629456/tunable-cspbbr-3-cs-4-pbbr-6-phase-transformation-and-their-optical-spectroscopic-properties
#2
Xiao Chen, Daqin Chen, Junni Li, Gaoliang Fang, Hongchao Sheng, Jiasong Zhong
As a novel type of promising materials, metal halide perovskites are a rising star in the field of optoelectronics. On this basis, a new frontier of zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 with bright green emission and high stability has attracted an enormous amount of attention, even though its photoluminescence still requires to clarification. Herein, the controllable phase transformation between three-dimensional CsPbBr3 and zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is easily achieved in a facile ligand-assisted supersaturated recrystallization synthesis procedure via tuning the amount of surfactants, and their unique optical properties are investigated and compared in detail...
April 9, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615743/attentional-advantages-in-video-game-experts-are-not-related-to-perceptual-tendencies
#3
Nicole H L Wong, Dorita H F Chang
Previous studies have suggested that extensive action video gaming may enhance perceptual and attentional capacities. Here, we probed whether attentional differences between video-game experts and non-experts hold when attention is selectively directed at global or local structures. We measured performance on a modified attentional-blink task using hierarchically structured stimuli that consisted of global and local elements. Stimuli carried congruent or incongruent information. In two experiments, we asked observers to direct their attention globally (Experiment 1) or locally (Experiment 2)...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614156/more-is-better-relative-prevalence-of-multiple-targets-affects-search-accuracy
#4
Phillip Xin Cheng, Anina N Rich
In real-world searches such as airport baggage screening and radiological examinations, miss errors can be life threatening. Misses increase for additional targets after detecting an initial target, termed "subsequent search misses" (SSMs), and also when targets are more often absent than present, termed the low-prevalence effect. Real-world search tasks often contain more than one target, but the prevalence of these multitarget occasions varies. For example, a cancerous tumor sometimes coexists with a benign tumor and sometimes exists alone...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558704/probing-cellular-uptake-and-tracking-of-differently-shaped-gelatin-coated-gold-nanoparticles-inside-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-two-photon-excited-photoluminescence-analyzed-by-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-flim
#5
Sorina Suarasan, Emilia Licarete, Simion Astilean, Ana-Maria Craciun
Nowadays, the non-linear optical effect of two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence has recently grown in interest in recent years over other optical imaging method, due to improved 3D spatial resolution, deep penetrability and less photodamage of living organism owing to the excitation in near-infrared region (NIR). In parallel, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gain considerable attention for NIR TPE bio-imaging applications due to their appealing ability to generate strong intrinsic photoluminescence (PL). Here, we demonstrate the capability of differently shaped gelatin-coated AuNPs to perform as reliable label-free contrast agents for the non-invasive NIR imaging of NIH:OVCAR-3 ovary cancer cells via TPE Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)...
March 14, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535041/amygdala-central-nucleus-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning-with-a-visual-conditioned-stimulus
#6
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499241/modulation-of-the-frontal-parietal-network-by-low-intensity-anti-phase-20-hz-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-boosts-performance-in-the-attentional-blink-task
#7
Zachary Yaple, Roman Vakhrushev
Performance in the attentional blink task has been demonstrated to be directly influenced by alpha and beta neural oscillatory activity. In two experiments we stimulated the right parietal cortex and left frontal cortex with transcranial alternating current stimulation. For the first experiment we targeted only the right parietal cortex and found a non-significant increase in performance from 20 Hz stimulation. In the second experiment we applied two stimulators to the right parietal and left frontal cortex and found a significant increase in performance from 20 Hz tACS with a phase difference of 180°...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492643/do-arousal-and-valence-have-separable-influences-on-attention-across-time
#8
Brandon T Saxton, Samantha K Myhre, Tharaki Siyaguna, Paul D Rokke
Previous research has shown that emotions differentially influence attention across time, especially when the valence of the attended stimuli is congruent with the emotion of observer. Sadness produces a larger attentional blink while fear and happiness produce smaller attentional blinks. We report on four dual-task rapid serial visual presentation experiments in which participant emotion and the affective features of the first target (T1) were systematically varied to determine whether arousal and valence have unique and consistent influences on attention performance...
February 28, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421345/chronic-cannabis-use-and-attentional-bias-extended-attentional-capture-to-cannabis-cues
#9
Darren W Campbell, Sandra Stewart, Camille E P Gray, Courtney L Ryan, Peter Fettes, Adam J McLandress, Ralph Dell'Aquila
INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of chronic cannabis users experience occupational, social, and psychological problems thought to reflect, in part, cannabis-related cognitive and emotional attentional biases. The emotional attentional blink (EAB) is a unique test of attentional bias that assesses automatic responses, cue-detection failures, and rapid and temporally extended biases. Using the EAB, we tested users' and non-users' attentional biases and how cannabis exposure correlates with these attentional biases...
January 10, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409621/an-analysis-of-the-suitability-of-a-low-cost-eye-tracker-for-assessing-the-cognitive-load-of-drivers
#10
Tomaž Čegovnik, Kristina Stojmenova, Grega Jakus, Jaka Sodnik
This paper presents a driving simulator study in which we investigated whether the Eye Tribe eye tracker (ET) is capable of assessing changes in the cognitive load of drivers through oculography and pupillometry. In the study, participants were asked to drive a simulated vehicle and simultaneously perform a set of secondary tasks with different cognitive complexity levels. We measured changes in eye properties, such as the pupil size, blink rate and fixation time. We also performed a measurement with a Detection Response Task (DRT) to validate the results and to prove a steady increase of cognitive load with increasing secondary task difficulty...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407747/pre-and-postprandial-variation-in-implicit-attention-to-food-images-reflects-appetite-and-sensory-specific-satiety
#11
Graeme R Davidson, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna M Thomas, Tim C Kirkham
Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386259/dynamic-interactions-between-top-down-expectations-and-conscious-awareness
#12
Erik L Meijs, Heleen A Slagter, Floris P de Lange, Simon van Gaal
It is well known that top-down expectations affect perceptual processes. Yet, remarkably little is known about the relationship between expectations and conscious awareness. We address three crucial questions that are outstanding: 1) How do expectations affect the likelihood of conscious stimulus perception?; 2) Does the brain register violations of expectations nonconsciously?; and 3) Do expectations need to be conscious to influence perceptual decisions? We performed three experiments, in human participants, in which we manipulated stimulus predictability within the attentional blink paradigm, while combining visual psychophysics with electrophysiological recordings...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247750/attentional-responses-to-stimuli-associated-with-a-reward-can-occur-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-of-their-predictive-values
#13
Mateo Leganes-Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
April 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244170/sleep-deprivation-triggers-cognitive-control-impairments-in-task-goal-switching
#14
Hichem Slama, Daphne Olivia Chylinski, Gaétane Deliens, Rachel Leproult, Rémy Schmitz, Philippe Peigneux
Study objectives: This study investigates the impact of sleep deprivation (SD) on task-goal switching, a key component of cognitive flexibility. Methods: Task-goal switching performance was tested after one night of regular sleep (n = 17 participants) or of total SD (n = 18). To understand the relationships between task-switching performance and other cognitive processes following SD, participants were tested for other key attentional (alertness and vigilance) and executive (inhibition and working memory) functions...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243207/sparing-and-impairing-emotion-modulation-of-the-attentional-blink-and-the-spread-of-sparing-in-a-3-target-rsvp-task
#15
Manuel Petrucci, Anna Pecchinenda
The performance impairment (attentional blink, AB) on a second target (T2) when it is presented within 200-500 ms after a first target (T1) during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is typically attributed to resource depletion. The AB does not occur when targets appear in immediate sequence (sparing). Recently, this account has been challenged by findings that the lag 1 sparing can spread to later lags when using a 3-target RSVP. Two experiments using the 3-targets RSVP investigated the relative contribution of resource depletion and attentional enhancement and/or inhibition on the AB and the sparing when T1 (Exp...
February 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222993/supplementation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-affects-temporal-but-not-spatial-visual-attention
#16
Anna Leonte, Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G Akyürek
In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field...
February 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193008/comparison-of-gaze-behaviour-of-trainee-and-experienced-surgeons-during-laparoscopic-gastric-bypass
#17
S Erridge, H Ashraf, S Purkayastha, A Darzi, M H Sodergren
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking presents a novel tool that could be used to profile skill levels in surgery objectively. The primary aim of this study was to identify differences in gaze behaviour between expert and junior surgeons performing a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for obesity. METHODS: This prospective observational study used a lightweight eye-tracking apparatus to determine the difference in gaze behaviours between expert (more than 75 procedures) and junior (75 or fewer procedures) surgeons at defined stages of LRYGB...
February 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157418/perceptual-episodes-temporal-attention-and-the-role-of-cognitive-control-lessons-from-the-attentional-blink
#18
Guy Snir, Yaffa Yeshurun
The ability to identify a target is usually hindered if it appears shortly after another target. This simple and somewhat intuitive observation is qualified by a multitude of unexpected findings and conflicting theories that originate from the attentional blink paradigm. In this review, the major results, implications, and outstanding questions that stem from the paradigm are presented and discussed. The extant literature suggests that when the temporal domain is densely stacked with numerous stimuli, the entities that underlie attentional selection and cognitive control are brief perceptual episodes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157417/effect-of-emotions-on-temporal-attention
#19
Maruti V Mishra, Sonia B Ray, Narayanan Srinivasan
Emotions play a significant role in guiding everyday actions and strongly interact with attention. The processing of emotional information over time and the influence of attention on such processing has been studied through the phenomenon of attentional blink using rapid serial visual presentations (RSVP) tasks. This chapter discusses the interaction between temporal attention and the type of emotional information (words, scenes, and facial expressions) presented during or before the RSVP stream. The findings show that the affective content and the arousal value of the emotional stimuli presented as first target, second target, or both affects the magnitude and the duration of the blink window...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157408/fundamental-computational-constraints-on-the-time-course-of-perception-and-action
#20
Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal
A cognitive system faced with contingent events that cause rapid changes in sensory data may (i) incrementally incorporate new data into the ongoing perceptual and motor processing; or (ii) restart processing on each new event; or (iii) sample the data and hold onto the sample until its processing is complete, while disregarding any contingent changes. We offer a set of computational first-principles arguments for a hypothesis, according to which any system that contends with certain classes of perception and behavioral control tasks must include the sample-and-hold option (possibly alongside the other two, which may be useful in other tasks)...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
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