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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410866/backward-masking-interrupts-spatial-attention-slows-downstream-processing-and-limits-conscious-perception
#1
Talia Losier, Christine Lefebvre, Mattia Doro, Roberto Dell'Acqua, Pierre Jolicœur
The attentional blink (AB) is a difficulty in correctly processing a target when it follows one or more other targets after a short delay. When no backward mask is presented after the last critical target, there is no or little behavioral AB deficit. The mask plays an important role in limiting conscious access to target information. In this electrophysiological study, we tested the impact of masking on the deployment and engagement of attention by measuring the N2pc and P3 components in an RSVP paradigm. We found that the presence of a mask in an AB paradigm reduced the amplitude of the N2pc, P3a, and P3b components...
April 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368200/word-and-face-processing-engage-overlapping-distributed-networks-evidence-from-rsvp-and-eeg-investigations
#2
Amanda K Robinson, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325878/perceptual-integration-without-conscious-access
#3
Johannes J Fahrenfort, Jonathan van Leeuwen, Christian N L Olivers, Hinze Hogendoorn
The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is required to complete perceptual integration. To investigate this question, we manipulated access to consciousness using the attentional blink. We show that, behaviorally, the attentional blink impairs conscious decisions about the presence of integrated surface structure from fragmented input...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278736/mood-effects-on-attentional-control-a-preregistered-replication-study-and-critical-analysis
#4
Helen Tibboel
In a widely cited paper, Jefferies et al. ( 2008 ) report a study in which they manipulated participants' mood and examined the effects of this manipulation on their performance on the Attentional Blink task. Their results revealed an interaction between emotional valence and arousal: attentional control of participants who experienced a negative mood with low arousal (i.e. sadness) was best, whereas it was worst for participants who experienced a negative mood with high arousal (i.e. anxiety). Performance for participants who were in a positive mood, either with low arousal (i...
February 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271390/alpha-beta-the-rhythm-of-the-attentional-blink
#5
Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr, James T Enns, Alejandro Lleras
Extant theories of the attentional blink propose that the most critical factor in determining second target accuracy is the time that elapses between the first and second targets. We report that this conclusion has overlooked an equally important determinant, namely, the frequency of the entraining stream in which these targets are embedded. Specifically, we show in two experiments that the signature of the attentional blink-second target accuracy that increases with intertarget lag-is significantly larger for entraining streams that are in the alpha-beta frequency range, relative to streams that are slower (theta) or faster (gamma)...
March 7, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265963/do-emotion-induced-blindness-and-the-attentional-blink-share-underlying-mechanisms-an-event-related-potential-study-of-emotionally-arousing-words
#6
Jeffrey MacLeod, Brandie M Stewart, Aaron J Newman, Karen M Arnell
When two targets are presented within approximately 500 ms of each other in the context of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), participants' ability to report the second target is reduced compared to when the targets are presented further apart in time. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink (AB). The AB is increased in magnitude when the first target is emotionally arousing. Emotionally arousing stimuli can also capture attention and create an AB-like effect even when these stimuli are presented as to-be-ignored distractor items in a single-target RSVP task...
March 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263628/frozen-in-time-concurrent-task-performance-interferes-with-temporal-shifts-of-attention
#7
Troy A W Visser
It is well known that the requirement to perform a concurrent task interferes with many aspects of perception and cognition. Evidence suggests that this interference extends to spatial shifts of attention, which appear to be reduced in efficiency when they must be performed while processing related to another task is ongoing. Here, the authors investigate whether concurrent tasks also interfere with shifts of temporal attention-that is, with the ability to shift attention to an expected time of stimulus onset...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255172/reaching-back-the-relative-strength-of-the-retroactive-emotional-attentional-blink
#8
Áine Ní Choisdealbha, Richard M Piech, John K Fuller, David H Zald
Visual stimuli with emotional content appearing in close temporal proximity either before or after a target stimulus can hinder conscious perceptual processing of the target via an emotional attentional blink (EAB). This occurs for targets that appear after the emotional stimulus (forward EAB) and for those appearing before the emotional stimulus (retroactive EAB). Additionally, the traditional attentional blink (AB) occurs because detection of any target hinders detection of a subsequent target. The present study investigated the relations between these different attentional processes...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217081/blinker-automated-extraction-of-ocular-indices-from-eeg-enabling-large-scale-analysis
#9
Kelly Kleifges, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Scott E Kerick, Kay A Robbins
Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a platform for studying the relationships between behavioral measures, such as blink rate and duration, with neural correlates of fatigue and attention, such as theta and alpha band power. Further, the existence of EEG studies covering a variety of subjects and tasks provides opportunities for the community to better characterize variability of these measures across tasks and subjects. We have implemented an automated pipeline (BLINKER) for extracting ocular indices such as blink rate, blink duration, and blink velocity-amplitude ratios from EEG channels, EOG channels, and/or independent components (ICs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129062/-nonspatial-attentional-deficits-interact-with-spatial-position-in-neglect
#10
Dongyun Li, Christopher Rorden, Hans-Otto Karnath
A widely debated question concerns whether or not spatial and nonspatial components of visual attention interact in attentional performance. Spatial neglect is a common consequence of brain injury where individuals fail to respond to stimuli presented on their contralesional side. It has been argued that, beyond the spatial bias, these individuals also tend to exhibit nonspatial perceptual deficits. Here we demonstrate that the "nonspatial" deficits affecting the temporal dynamics of attentional deployment are in fact modulated by spatial position...
May 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#11
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080976/respiratory-modulation-of-startle-eye-blink-a-new-approach-to-assess-afferent-signals-from-the-respiratory-system
#12
André Schulz, Thomas M Schilling, Claus Vögele, Mauro F Larra, Hartmut Schächinger
Current approaches to assess interoception of respiratory functions cannot differentiate between the physiological basis of interoception, i.e. visceral-afferent signal processing, and the psychological process of attention focusing. Furthermore, they typically involve invasive procedures, e.g. induction of respiratory occlusions or the inhalation of CO2-enriched air. The aim of this study was to test the capacity of startle methodology to reflect respiratory-related afferent signal processing, independent of invasive procedures...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032434/adults-blink-more-deeply-a-comparative-study-of-the-attentional-blink-across-different-age-groups
#13
Natalie Russo, Wendy R Kates, Nicole Shea, Megan LeBlanc, Bradley Wyble
The attentional blink (AB) is thought to help the visual system parse and categorize rapidly changing information by segmenting it into temporal chunks, and is elicited using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. It is reflected in a decrease in accuracy at detecting the second of two targets presented within 200-500 ms of the first, and its development appears to be protracted on tasks that require set-shifting. Here, younger (M = 8.5 years) and older (M = 12.8 years) children and adults (M = 19.13 years) completed a simple AB task with no set-shift requirement in which participants detected two letters in a stream of numbers presented at a rate of 135 ms/item...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986925/contributions-of-the-ventral-striatum-to-conscious-perception-an-intracranial-eeg-study-of-the-attentional-blink
#14
Heleen A Slagter, Ali Mazaheri, Leon C Reteig, Ruud Smolders, Martijn Figee, Mariska Mantione, P Richard Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
The brain is limited in its capacity to consciously process information, necessitating gating of information. While conscious perception is robustly associated with sustained, recurrent interactions between widespread cortical regions, subcortical regions, including the striatum, influence cortical activity. Here, we examined if the ventral striatum, given its ability to modulate cortical information flow, contributes to conscious perception. Using intracranial EEG, we recorded ventral striatum activity while 7 patients performed an attentional blink task in which they had to detect two targets (T1 and T2) in a stream of distractors...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936434/mineralocorticoid-receptor-haplotype-estradiol-progesterone-and-emotional-information-processing
#15
Danielle A Hamstra, E Ronald de Kloet, Ina Quataert, Myrthe Jansen, Willem Van der Does
BACKGROUND: Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. METHOD: Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week...
February 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922902/tic-symptoms-induced-by-atomoxetine-in-treatment-of-adhd-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Rongwang Yang, Rong Li, Weijia Gao, Zhengyan Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for tic disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX) has been accepted as an alternative medication for patients with ADHD and a comorbid tic disorder. It is rarely reported that tic symptoms are induced by ATX. METHODS: This present report described a boy with ADHD who developed tic symptoms during ATX initiation. We used an ABAB trial to confirm the tics were related to ATX administration...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919677/an-individual-differences-approach-to-multiple-target-visual-search-errors-how-search-errors-relate-to-different-characteristics-of-attention
#17
Stephen H Adamo, Matthew S Cain, Stephen R Mitroff
A persistent problem in visual search is that searchers are more likely to miss a target if they have already found another in the same display. This phenomenon, the Subsequent Search Miss (SSM) effect, has remained despite being a known issue for decades. Increasingly, evidence supports a resource depletion account of SSM errors-a previously detected target consumes attentional resources leaving fewer resources available for the processing of a second target. However, "attention" is broadly defined and is composed of many different characteristics, leaving considerable uncertainty about how attention affects second-target detection...
December 17, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#18
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#19
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
January 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902828/spontaneous-eyeblinks-during-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression-are-associated-with-increased-detection-times
#20
Filip Van Opstal, Esther De Loof, Tom Verguts, Axel Cleeremans
An eyeblink has a clear effect on low-level information processing because it temporarily occludes all visual information. Recent evidence suggests that eyeblinks can also modulate higher level processes (e.g., attentional resources), and vice versa. Despite these putative effects on different levels of information processing, eyeblinks are typically neglected in vision and in consciousness research. The main aim of this study was to investigate the timing and the effect of eyeblinks in an increasingly popular paradigm in consciousness research, namely breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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