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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421345/chronic-cannabis-use-and-attentional-bias-extended-attentional-capture-to-cannabis-cues
#1
Darren W Campbell, Sandra Stewart, Camille E P Gray, Courtney L Ryan, Peter Fettes, Adam J McLandress, Ralph Dell'Aquila
INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of chronic cannabis users experience occupational, social, and psychological problems thought to reflect, in part, cannabis-related cognitive and emotional attentional biases. The emotional attentional blink (EAB) is a unique test of attentional bias that assesses automatic responses, cue-detection failures, and rapid and temporally extended biases. Using the EAB, we tested users' and non-users' attentional biases and how cannabis exposure correlates with these attentional biases...
January 10, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409621/an-analysis-of-the-suitability-of-a-low-cost-eye-tracker-for-assessing-the-cognitive-load-of-drivers
#2
Tomaž Čegovnik, Kristina Stojmenova, Grega Jakus, Jaka Sodnik
This paper presents a driving simulator study in which we investigated whether the Eye Tribe eye tracker (ET) is capable of assessing changes in the cognitive load of drivers through oculography and pupillometry. In the study, participants were asked to drive a simulated vehicle and simultaneously perform a set of secondary tasks with different cognitive complexity levels. We measured changes in eye properties, such as the pupil size, blink rate and fixation time. We also performed a measurement with a Detection Response Task (DRT) to validate the results and to prove a steady increase of cognitive load with increasing secondary task difficulty...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407747/pre-and-postprandial-variation-in-implicit-attention-to-food-images-reflects-appetite-and-sensory-specific-satiety
#3
Graeme R Davidson, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna M Thomas, Tim C Kirkham
Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386259/dynamic-interactions-between-top-down-expectations-and-conscious-awareness
#4
Erik L Meijs, Heleen A Slagter, Floris P de Lange, Simon van Gaal
It is well known that top-down expectations affect perceptual processes. Yet, remarkably little is known about the relationship between expectations and conscious awareness. We address three crucial questions that are outstanding: 1) How do expectations affect the likelihood of conscious stimulus perception?; 2) Does the brain register violations of expectations nonconsciously?; and 3) Do expectations need to be conscious to influence perceptual decisions? We performed three experiments, in human participants, in which we manipulated stimulus predictability within the attentional blink paradigm, while combining visual psychophysics with electrophysiological recordings...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247750/attentional-responses-to-stimuli-associated-with-a-reward-can-occur-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-of-their-predictive-values
#5
Mateo Leganes Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244170/sleep-deprivation-triggers-cognitive-control-impairments-in-task-goal-switching
#6
Hichem Slama, Daphne Olivia Chylinski, Gaétane Deliens, Rachel Leproult, Rémy Schmitz, Philippe Peigneux
Study objectives: This study investigates the impact of sleep deprivation (SD) on task-goal switching, a key component of cognitive flexibility. Methods: Task-goal switching performance was tested after one night of regular sleep (n = 17 participants) or of total SD (n = 18). To understand the relationships between task-switching performance and other cognitive processes following SD, participants were tested for other key attentional (alertness and vigilance) and executive (inhibition and working memory) functions...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243207/sparing-and-impairing-emotion-modulation-of-the-attentional-blink-and-the-spread-of-sparing-in-a-3-target-rsvp-task
#7
Manuel Petrucci, Anna Pecchinenda
The performance impairment (attentional blink, AB) on a second target (T2) when it is presented within 200-500 ms after a first target (T1) during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is typically attributed to resource depletion. The AB does not occur when targets appear in immediate sequence (sparing). Recently, this account has been challenged by findings that the lag 1 sparing can spread to later lags when using a 3-target RSVP. Two experiments using the 3-targets RSVP investigated the relative contribution of resource depletion and attentional enhancement and/or inhibition on the AB and the sparing when T1 (Exp...
December 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222993/supplementation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-affects-temporal-but-not-spatial-visual-attention
#8
Anna Leonte, Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G Akyürek
In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field...
December 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193008/comparison-of-gaze-behaviour-of-trainee-and-experienced-surgeons-during-laparoscopic-gastric-bypass
#9
S Erridge, H Ashraf, S Purkayastha, A Darzi, M H Sodergren
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking presents a novel tool that could be used to profile skill levels in surgery objectively. The primary aim of this study was to identify differences in gaze behaviour between expert and junior surgeons performing a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for obesity. METHODS: This prospective observational study used a lightweight eye-tracking apparatus to determine the difference in gaze behaviours between expert (more than 75 procedures) and junior (75 or fewer procedures) surgeons at defined stages of LRYGB...
February 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157418/perceptual-episodes-temporal-attention-and-the-role-of-cognitive-control-lessons-from-the-attentional-blink
#10
Guy Snir, Yaffa Yeshurun
The ability to identify a target is usually hindered if it appears shortly after another target. This simple and somewhat intuitive observation is qualified by a multitude of unexpected findings and conflicting theories that originate from the attentional blink paradigm. In this review, the major results, implications, and outstanding questions that stem from the paradigm are presented and discussed. The extant literature suggests that when the temporal domain is densely stacked with numerous stimuli, the entities that underlie attentional selection and cognitive control are brief perceptual episodes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157417/effect-of-emotions-on-temporal-attention
#11
Maruti V Mishra, Sonia B Ray, Narayanan Srinivasan
Emotions play a significant role in guiding everyday actions and strongly interact with attention. The processing of emotional information over time and the influence of attention on such processing has been studied through the phenomenon of attentional blink using rapid serial visual presentations (RSVP) tasks. This chapter discusses the interaction between temporal attention and the type of emotional information (words, scenes, and facial expressions) presented during or before the RSVP stream. The findings show that the affective content and the arousal value of the emotional stimuli presented as first target, second target, or both affects the magnitude and the duration of the blink window...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157408/fundamental-computational-constraints-on-the-time-course-of-perception-and-action
#12
Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal
A cognitive system faced with contingent events that cause rapid changes in sensory data may (i) incrementally incorporate new data into the ongoing perceptual and motor processing; or (ii) restart processing on each new event; or (iii) sample the data and hold onto the sample until its processing is complete, while disregarding any contingent changes. We offer a set of computational first-principles arguments for a hypothesis, according to which any system that contends with certain classes of perception and behavioral control tasks must include the sample-and-hold option (possibly alongside the other two, which may be useful in other tasks)...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133149/spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-an-index-of-dopaminergic-component-of-sustained-attention-and-fatigue
#13
Antonio Maffei, Alessandro Angrilli
Blink rate is a behavioral index highly correlated with frontostriatal dopaminergic activity. The present research was aimed at studying the modulation of spontaneous blink rate in function of the increasing attentional load induced by the Mackworth Clock Test. Since blinking interferes with sensory processing, we expected a decreasing blink rate with increasing attentional demand. Three tasks of 7-min each and different difficulties were administered: the Mackworth had a red dot moving in a circle with intervals varying from 500ms, 350ms to 200ms, corresponding to increasing task difficulty...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104557/high-fidelity-visual-long-term-memory-within-an-unattended-blink-of-an-eye
#14
Christof Kuhbandner, Elizabeth A Rosas-Corona, Philipp Spachtholz
What is stored in long-term memory from current sensations is a question that has attracted considerable interest. Over time, several prominent theories have consistently proposed that only attended sensory information leaves a durable memory trace whereas unattended information is not stored beyond the current moment, an assumption that seems to be supported by abundant empirical evidence. Here we show, by using a more sensitive memory test than in previous studies, that this is actually not true. Observers viewed a rapid stream of real-world object pictures overlapped by words (presentation duration per stimulus: 500 ms, interstimulus interval: 200 ms), with the instruction to attend to the words and detect word repetitions, without knowing that their memory would be tested later...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100736/single-neuron-correlates-of-awareness-during-attentional-blinks
#15
Zhongzheng Fu, Ueli Rutishauser
A recent single-neuron study revealed an anatomical anterior-to-posterior gradient of awareness-related responses by 'concept neurons' in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL). Delayed and weaker responses were indicative of the failure of a stimulus to reach awareness, suggesting that reliable fast responses are a critical aspect of the neural mechanisms of consciousness.
October 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100627/locus-coeruleus-activity-mediates-hyperresponsiveness-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030758/the-perceptual-wink-model-of-non-switching-attentional-blink-tasks
#17
Patrice Rusconi, David E Huber
The attentional blink (AB) is a temporary deficit for a second target (T2) when that target appears after a first target (T1). Although sophisticated models have been developed to explain the substantial AB literature in isolation, the current study considers how the AB relates to perceptual dynamics more broadly. We show that the time-course of the AB is closely related to the time course of the transition from positive to negative repetition priming effects in perceptual identification. Many AB tasks involve a switch between a T1 defined in one manner and a T2 defined in a different manner...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#18
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943091/single-neuron-correlates-of-conscious-perception-in-the-human-medial-temporal-lobe
#19
Thomas P Reber, Jennifer Faber, Johannes Niediek, Jan Boström, Christian E Elger, Florian Mormann
The neuronal mechanisms giving rise to conscious perception remain largely elusive [1]. It is known that the strength of single-neuron activity correlates with conscious perception, especially in anterior regions of the ventral pathway in non-human primates [2-4] and in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) [5, 6]. It is unclear, however, whether single-neuron correlates of conscious perception are characterized solely by the magnitude of neuronal responses, and whether the correlates of perception are equally prominent across different regions of the human MTL...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939935/the-exogenous-and-endogenous-control-of-attentional-focusing
#20
Lisa N Jefferies, James T Enns, Vincent Di Lollo
Selective visual attention involves prioritizing both the location (orienting) and distribution (focusing) of processing. To date, much more research has examined attentional orienting than focusing. One of the most well-established findings is that orienting can be exogenous, as when a unique change in luminance draws attention to a spatial location (e.g., Theeuwes in Atten Percept Psychophys 51:599-606, 1992; Yantis and Jonides in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10:601, 1984), and endogenous, as when a red distractor shape diverts attention when one is looking for a red target (e...
September 22, 2017: Psychological Research
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