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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#1
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#2
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902828/spontaneous-eyeblinks-during-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression-are-associated-with-increased-detection-times
#3
Filip Van Opstal, Esther De Loof, Tom Verguts, Axel Cleeremans
An eyeblink has a clear effect on low-level information processing because it temporarily occludes all visual information. Recent evidence suggests that eyeblinks can also modulate higher level processes (e.g., attentional resources), and vice versa. Despite these putative effects on different levels of information processing, eyeblinks are typically neglected in vision and in consciousness research. The main aim of this study was to investigate the timing and the effect of eyeblinks in an increasingly popular paradigm in consciousness research, namely breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848992/unconscious-processing-of-facial-attractiveness-invisible-attractive-faces-orient-visual-attention
#4
Shao-Min Hung, Chih-Hsuan Nieh, Po-Jang Hsieh
Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739015/summary-statistics-in-the-attentional-blink
#5
Nicolas A McNair, Patrick T Goodbourn, Lauren T Shone, Irina M Harris
We used the attentional blink (AB) paradigm to investigate the processing stage at which extraction of summary statistics from visual stimuli ("ensemble coding") occurs. Experiment 1 examined whether ensemble coding requires attentional engagement with the items in the ensemble. Participants performed two sequential tasks on each trial: gender discrimination of a single face (T1) and estimating the average emotional expression of an ensemble of four faces (or of a single face, as a control condition) as T2...
October 13, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736118/attentional-capture-and-engagement-during-the-attentional-blink-a-camera-metaphor-of-attention
#6
Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730531/cannot-avert-the-eyes-reduced-attentional-blink-toward-others-emotional-expressions-in-empathic-people
#7
June Kang, Byung-Joo Ham, Christian Wallraven
Empathy is one of the core components of social interaction. Although current models of empathy emphasize the role of attention, few studies have directly examined the relationship between attentional processes and individual differences in empathy. This study hypothesized that empathic people would process emotional expressions more efficiently and automatically compared to less empathic people. Crucially, such a processing advantage should be present only for faces of others compared to one's own face. To test this hypothesis, 100 healthy participants varying in their self-reported empathy levels underwent an attentional blink task that tested preferential attentional processing...
October 11, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697909/light-video-game-play-is-associated-with-enhanced-visual-processing-of-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-targets
#8
Christina J Howard, Robert Wilding, Duncan Guest
There is mixed evidence that video game players (VGPs) may demonstrate better performance in perceptual and attentional tasks than non-VGPs (NVGPs). The rapid serial visual presentation task is one such case, where observers respond to two successive targets embedded within a stream of serially presented items. We tested light VGPs (LVGPs) and NVGPs on this task. LVGPs were better at correct identification of second targets whether they were also attempting to respond to the first target. This performance benefit seen for LVGPs suggests enhanced visual processing for briefly presented stimuli even with only very moderate game play...
October 3, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613667/dopamine-and-temporal-attention-an-attentional-blink-study-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-on-and-off-medication
#9
H A Slagter, N C van Wouwe, K Kanoff, R P P P Grasman, D O Claassen, W P M van den Wildenberg, S A Wylie
The current study aimed to shed more light on the role of dopamine in temporal attention. To this end, we pharmacologically manipulated dopamine levels in a large sample of Parkinson's disease patients (n=63) while they performed an attentional blink (AB) task in which they had to identify two targets (T1 and T2) presented in close temporal proximity among distractors. We specifically examined 1) differences in the magnitude of the AB between unmedicated Parkinson patients, who have depleted levels of striatal dopamine, and healthy controls, and 2) effects of two dopaminergic medications (l-DOPA and dopamine agonists) on the AB in the Parkinson patients at the group level and as a function of individual baseline performance...
October 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596354/postauricular-reflexes-elicited-by-soft-acoustic-clicks-and-loud-noise-probes-reliability-prepulse-facilitation-and-sensitivity-to-picture-contents
#10
Rachel V Aaron, Stephen D Benning
The startle blink reflex is facilitated during early picture viewing, then inhibited by attention during pleasant and aversive pictures compared to neutral pictures, and finally potentiated during aversive pictures specifically. However, it is unclear whether the postauricular reflex, which is elicited by the same loud acoustic probe as the startle blink reflex but enhanced by appetitive instead of defensive emotion, has the same pattern and time course of emotional modulation. We examined this issue in a sample of 90 undergraduates using serially presented soft acoustic clicks that elicited postauricular (but not startle blink) reflexes in addition to standard startle probes...
December 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559171/differential-contributions-of-gaba-concentration-in-frontal-and-parietal-regions-to-individual-differences-in-attentional-blink
#11
Ken Kihara, Hirohito M Kondo, Jun I Kawahara
UNLABELLED: Selective attention plays an important role in identifying transient objects in a complex visual scene. Attentional control ability varies with observers. However, it is unclear what neural mechanisms are responsible for individual differences in attentional control ability. The present study used the following attentional blink paradigm: when two targets are to be identified in rapid serial visual presentation, the processing of the first target interrupts the identification of the second one appearing within 500 ms after the first-target onset...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552254/perceptual-learning-effect-on-decision-and-confidence-thresholds
#12
Guillermo Solovey, Diego Shalom, Verónica Pérez-Schuster, Mariano Sigman
Practice can enhance of perceptual sensitivity, a well-known phenomenon called perceptual learning. However, the effect of practice on subjective perception has received little attention. We approach this problem from a visual psychophysics and computational modeling perspective. In a sequence of visual search experiments, subjects significantly increased the ability to detect a "trained target". Before and after training, subjects performed two psychophysical protocols that parametrically vary the visibility of the "trained target": an attentional blink and a visual masking task...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496171/online-psychophysics-reaction-time-effects-in-cognitive-experiments
#13
Kilian Semmelmann, Sarah Weigelt
Using the Internet to acquire behavioral data is currently on the rise. However, very basic questions regarding the feasibility of online psychophysics are still open. Here, we aimed to replicate five well-known paradigms in experimental psychology (Stroop, Flanker, visual search, masked priming, attentional blink) in three settings (classical "lab", "web-in-lab", "web") to account for possible changes in technology and environment. Lab and web-in-lab data were both acquired in an in-lab setting with lab using "Gold Standard" methods, while web-in-lab used web technology...
August 5, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427541/staring-down-death
#14
Thomas E Joiner, Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Carol Chu, Ian H Stanley, Gary H Wynn, Peter M Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Lowered eye blink rate may be a clinically useful indicator of acute, imminent, and severe suicide risk. Diminished eye blink rates are often seen among individuals engaged in heightened concentration on a specific task that requires careful planning and attention. Indeed, overcoming one's biological instinct for survival through suicide necessitates premeditation and concentration; thus, a diminished eye blink rate may signal imminent suicidality. AIMS: This article aims to spur research and clinical inquiry into the role of eye blinks as an indicator of acute suicide risk...
May 2016: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407133/reconsidering-temporal-selection-in-the-attentional-blink
#15
Patrick T Goodbourn, Paolo Martini, Michael Barnett-Cowan, Irina M Harris, Evan J Livesey, Alex O Holcombe
Two episodes of attentional selection cannot occur very close in time. This is the traditional account of the attentional blink, whereby observers fail to report the second of two temporally proximal targets. Recent analyses have challenged this simple account, suggesting that attentional selection during the attentional blink is not only (a) suppressed, but also (b) temporally advanced then delayed, and (c) temporally diffused. Here, we reanalyzed six data sets using mixture modeling of report errors, and revealed much simpler dynamics...
August 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385675/threatening-faces-fail-to-guide-attention-for-adults-with-autistic-like-traits
#16
Michael C W English, Murray T Maybery, Troy A W Visser
Individuals diagnosed with autistic spectrum conditions often show deficits in processing emotional faces relative to neurotypical peers. However, little is known about whether similar deficits exist in neurotypical individuals who show high-levels of autistic-like traits. To address this question, we compared performance on an attentional blink task in a large sample of adults who showed low- or high-levels of autistic-like traits on the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We found that threatening faces inserted as the second target in a rapid serial visual presentation were identified more accurately among individuals with low- compared to high-levels of autistic-like traits...
July 7, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381631/on-the-relationship-between-response-selection-and-response-inhibition-an-individual-differences-approach
#17
Angela D Bender, Hannah L Filmer, K G Garner, Claire K Naughtin, Paul E Dux
The abilities to select appropriate responses and suppress unwanted actions are key executive functions that enable flexible and goal-directed behavior. However, to date it has been unclear whether these two cognitive operations tap a common action control resource or reflect two distinct processes. In the present study, we used an individual differences approach to examine the underlying relationships across seven paradigms that varied in their response selection and response inhibition requirements: stop-signal, go-no-go, Stroop, flanker, single-response selection, psychological refractory period, and attentional blink tasks...
November 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379003/character-decomposition-and-transposition-processes-in-chinese-compound-words-modulates-attentional-blink
#18
Hongwen Cao, Min Gao, Hongmei Yan
The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375464/eeg-and-eye-tracking-demonstrate-vigilance-enhancement-with-challenge-integration
#19
Indu P Bodala, Junhua Li, Nitish V Thakor, Hasan Al-Nashash
Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using "challenge integration," a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272126/composition-dependent-trap-distributions-in-cdse-and-inp-quantum-dots-probed-using-photoluminescence-blinking-dynamics
#20
Heejae Chung, Kyung-Sang Cho, Weon-Kyu Koh, Dongho Kim, Jiwon Kim
Although Group II-VI quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications in QD-based devices, the presence of toxic ions in II-VI QDs raises environmental concerns. To fulfill the demands of nontoxic QDs, synthetic routes for III-V QDs have been developed. However, only a few comparative analyses on optical properties of III-V QDs have been performed. In this study, the composition-related energetic trap distributions have been explored by using three different types of core/multishell QDs: CdSe-CdS (CdSe/CdS/ZnS), InP-ZnSe (InP/ZnSe/ZnS), and InP-GaP (InP/GaP/ZnS)...
July 21, 2016: Nanoscale
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