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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#1
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080976/respiratory-modulation-of-startle-eye-blink-a-new-approach-to-assess-afferent-signals-from-the-respiratory-system
#2
André Schulz, Thomas M Schilling, Claus Vögele, Mauro F Larra, Hartmut Schächinger
Current approaches to assess interoception of respiratory functions cannot differentiate between the physiological basis of interoception, i.e. visceral-afferent signal processing, and the psychological process of attention focusing. Furthermore, they typically involve invasive procedures, e.g. induction of respiratory occlusions or the inhalation of CO2-enriched air. The aim of this study was to test the capacity of startle methodology to reflect respiratory-related afferent signal processing, independent of invasive procedures...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032434/adults-blink-more-deeply-a-comparative-study-of-the-attentional-blink-across-different-age-groups
#3
Natalie Russo, Wendy R Kates, Nicole Shea, Megan LeBlanc, Bradley Wyble
The attentional blink (AB) is thought to help the visual system parse and categorize rapidly changing information by segmenting it into temporal chunks, and is elicited using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. It is reflected in a decrease in accuracy at detecting the second of two targets presented within 200-500 ms of the first, and its development appears to be protracted on tasks that require set-shifting. Here, younger (M = 8.5 years) and older (M = 12.8 years) children and adults (M = 19.13 years) completed a simple AB task with no set-shift requirement in which participants detected two letters in a stream of numbers presented at a rate of 135 ms/item...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986925/contributions-of-the-ventral-striatum-to-conscious-perception-an-intracranial-eeg-study-of-the-attentional-blink
#4
Heleen A Slagter, Ali Mazaheri, Leon C Reteig, Ruud Smolders, Martijn Figee, Mariska Mantione, P Richard Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
: The brain is limited in its capacity to consciously process information, necessitating gating of information. While conscious perception is robustly associated with sustained, recurrent interactions between widespread cortical regions, subcortical regions, including the striatum, influence cortical activity. Here, we examined if the ventral striatum, given its ability to modulate cortical information flow, contributes to conscious perception. Using intracranial EEG, we recorded ventral striatum activity while 7 patients performed an attentional blink task in which they had to detect two targets (T1 and T2) in a stream of distractors...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936434/mineralocorticoid-receptor-haplotype-estradiol-progesterone-and-emotional-information-processing
#5
Danielle A Hamstra, E Ronald de Kloet, Ina Quataert, Myrthe Jansen, Willem Van der Does
BACKGROUND: Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. METHOD: Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922902/tic-symptoms-induced-by-atomoxetine-in-treatment-of-adhd-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Rongwang Yang, Rong Li, Weijia Gao, Zhengyan Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for tic disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX) has been accepted as an alternative medication for patients with ADHD and a comorbid tic disorder. It is rarely reported that tic symptoms are induced by ATX. METHODS: This present report described a boy with ADHD who developed tic symptoms during ATX initiation. We used an ABAB trial to confirm the tics were related to ATX administration...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919677/an-individual-differences-approach-to-multiple-target-visual-search-errors-how-search-errors-relate-to-different-characteristics-of-attention
#7
Stephen H Adamo, Matthew S Cain, Stephen R Mitroff
A persistent problem in visual search is that searchers are more likely to miss a target if they have already found another in the same display. This phenomenon, the Subsequent Search Miss (SSM) effect, has remained despite being a known issue for decades. Increasingly, evidence supports a resource depletion account of SSM errors-a previously detected target consumes attentional resources leaving fewer resources available for the processing of a second target. However, "attention" is broadly defined and is composed of many different characteristics, leaving considerable uncertainty about how attention affects second-target detection...
December 17, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#8
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#9
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
January 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902828/spontaneous-eyeblinks-during-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression-are-associated-with-increased-detection-times
#10
Filip Van Opstal, Esther De Loof, Tom Verguts, Axel Cleeremans
An eyeblink has a clear effect on low-level information processing because it temporarily occludes all visual information. Recent evidence suggests that eyeblinks can also modulate higher level processes (e.g., attentional resources), and vice versa. Despite these putative effects on different levels of information processing, eyeblinks are typically neglected in vision and in consciousness research. The main aim of this study was to investigate the timing and the effect of eyeblinks in an increasingly popular paradigm in consciousness research, namely breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848992/unconscious-processing-of-facial-attractiveness-invisible-attractive-faces-orient-visual-attention
#11
Shao-Min Hung, Chih-Hsuan Nieh, Po-Jang Hsieh
Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739015/summary-statistics-in-the-attentional-blink
#12
Nicolas A McNair, Patrick T Goodbourn, Lauren T Shone, Irina M Harris
We used the attentional blink (AB) paradigm to investigate the processing stage at which extraction of summary statistics from visual stimuli ("ensemble coding") occurs. Experiment 1 examined whether ensemble coding requires attentional engagement with the items in the ensemble. Participants performed two sequential tasks on each trial: gender discrimination of a single face (T1) and estimating the average emotional expression of an ensemble of four faces (or of a single face, as a control condition) as T2...
January 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736118/attentional-capture-and-engagement-during-the-attentional-blink-a-camera-metaphor-of-attention
#13
Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730531/cannot-avert-the-eyes-reduced-attentional-blink-toward-others-emotional-expressions-in-empathic-people
#14
June Kang, Byung-Joo Ham, Christian Wallraven
Empathy is one of the core components of social interaction. Although current models of empathy emphasize the role of attention, few studies have directly examined the relationship between attentional processes and individual differences in empathy. This study hypothesized that empathic people would process emotional expressions more efficiently and automatically compared to less empathic people. Crucially, such a processing advantage should be present only for faces of others compared to one's own face. To test this hypothesis, 100 healthy participants varying in their self-reported empathy levels underwent an attentional blink task that tested preferential attentional processing...
October 11, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697909/light-video-game-play-is-associated-with-enhanced-visual-processing-of-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-targets
#15
Christina J Howard, Robert Wilding, Duncan Guest
There is mixed evidence that video game players (VGPs) may demonstrate better performance in perceptual and attentional tasks than non-VGPs (NVGPs). The rapid serial visual presentation task is one such case, where observers respond to two successive targets embedded within a stream of serially presented items. We tested light VGPs (LVGPs) and NVGPs on this task. LVGPs were better at correct identification of second targets whether they were also attempting to respond to the first target. This performance benefit seen for LVGPs suggests enhanced visual processing for briefly presented stimuli even with only very moderate game play...
February 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613667/dopamine-and-temporal-attention-an-attentional-blink-study-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-on-and-off-medication
#16
H A Slagter, N C van Wouwe, K Kanoff, R P P P Grasman, D O Claassen, W P M van den Wildenberg, S A Wylie
The current study aimed to shed more light on the role of dopamine in temporal attention. To this end, we pharmacologically manipulated dopamine levels in a large sample of Parkinson's disease patients (n=63) while they performed an attentional blink (AB) task in which they had to identify two targets (T1 and T2) presented in close temporal proximity among distractors. We specifically examined 1) differences in the magnitude of the AB between unmedicated Parkinson patients, who have depleted levels of striatal dopamine, and healthy controls, and 2) effects of two dopaminergic medications (l-DOPA and dopamine agonists) on the AB in the Parkinson patients at the group level and as a function of individual baseline performance...
October 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596354/postauricular-reflexes-elicited-by-soft-acoustic-clicks-and-loud-noise-probes-reliability-prepulse-facilitation-and-sensitivity-to-picture-contents
#17
Rachel V Aaron, Stephen D Benning
The startle blink reflex is facilitated during early picture viewing, then inhibited by attention during pleasant and aversive pictures compared to neutral pictures, and finally potentiated during aversive pictures specifically. However, it is unclear whether the postauricular reflex, which is elicited by the same loud acoustic probe as the startle blink reflex but enhanced by appetitive instead of defensive emotion, has the same pattern and time course of emotional modulation. We examined this issue in a sample of 90 undergraduates using serially presented soft acoustic clicks that elicited postauricular (but not startle blink) reflexes in addition to standard startle probes...
December 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559171/differential-contributions-of-gaba-concentration-in-frontal-and-parietal-regions-to-individual-differences-in-attentional-blink
#18
Ken Kihara, Hirohito M Kondo, Jun I Kawahara
UNLABELLED: Selective attention plays an important role in identifying transient objects in a complex visual scene. Attentional control ability varies with observers. However, it is unclear what neural mechanisms are responsible for individual differences in attentional control ability. The present study used the following attentional blink paradigm: when two targets are to be identified in rapid serial visual presentation, the processing of the first target interrupts the identification of the second one appearing within 500 ms after the first-target onset...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552254/perceptual-learning-effect-on-decision-and-confidence-thresholds
#19
Guillermo Solovey, Diego Shalom, Verónica Pérez-Schuster, Mariano Sigman
Practice can enhance of perceptual sensitivity, a well-known phenomenon called perceptual learning. However, the effect of practice on subjective perception has received little attention. We approach this problem from a visual psychophysics and computational modeling perspective. In a sequence of visual search experiments, subjects significantly increased the ability to detect a "trained target". Before and after training, subjects performed two psychophysical protocols that parametrically vary the visibility of the "trained target": an attentional blink and a visual masking task...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496171/online-psychophysics-reaction-time-effects-in-cognitive-experiments
#20
Kilian Semmelmann, Sarah Weigelt
Using the Internet to acquire behavioral data is currently on the rise. However, very basic questions regarding the feasibility of online psychophysics are still open. Here, we aimed to replicate five well-known paradigms in experimental psychology (Stroop, Flanker, visual search, masked priming, attentional blink) in three settings (classical "lab", "web-in-lab", "web") to account for possible changes in technology and environment. Lab and web-in-lab data were both acquired in an in-lab setting with lab using "Gold Standard" methods, while web-in-lab used web technology...
August 5, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
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