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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030758/the-perceptual-wink-model-of-non-switching-attentional-blink-tasks
#1
Patrice Rusconi, David E Huber
The attentional blink (AB) is a temporary deficit for a second target (T2) when that target appears after a first target (T1). Although sophisticated models have been developed to explain the substantial AB literature in isolation, the current study considers how the AB relates to perceptual dynamics more broadly. We show that the time-course of the AB is closely related to the time course of the transition from positive to negative repetition priming effects in perceptual identification. Many AB tasks involve a switch between a T1 defined in one manner and a T2 defined in a different manner...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#2
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943091/single-neuron-correlates-of-conscious-perception-in-the-human-medial-temporal-lobe
#3
Thomas P Reber, Jennifer Faber, Johannes Niediek, Jan Boström, Christian E Elger, Florian Mormann
The neuronal mechanisms giving rise to conscious perception remain largely elusive [1]. It is known that the strength of single-neuron activity correlates with conscious perception, especially in anterior regions of the ventral pathway in non-human primates [2-4] and in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) [5, 6]. It is unclear, however, whether single-neuron correlates of conscious perception are characterized solely by the magnitude of neuronal responses, and whether the correlates of perception are equally prominent across different regions of the human MTL...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939935/the-exogenous-and-endogenous-control-of-attentional-focusing
#4
Lisa N Jefferies, James T Enns, Vincent Di Lollo
Selective visual attention involves prioritizing both the location (orienting) and distribution (focusing) of processing. To date, much more research has examined attentional orienting than focusing. One of the most well-established findings is that orienting can be exogenous, as when a unique change in luminance draws attention to a spatial location (e.g., Theeuwes in Atten Percept Psychophys 51:599-606, 1992; Yantis and Jonides in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10:601, 1984), and endogenous, as when a red distractor shape diverts attention when one is looking for a red target (e...
September 22, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890182/transient-heart-rate-acceleration-in-association-with-spontaneous-eyeblinks
#5
Tamami Nakano, Chiho Kuriyama
The reason why people spontaneously blink several times more frequently than is necessary for ocular lubrication has been a mystery. However, spontaneous eyeblinks selectively occur at attentional breakpoints of information processing, suggesting the involvement of spontaneous eyeblink in attentional disengagement from external stimuli. Physiological activity also changes considerably according to attention state. Heart rate decreases when attention is directed at stimuli, while it increases as attention is released...
November 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765147/the-association-between-ocular-surface-measurements-with-visual-field-reliability-indices-and-gaze-tracking-results-in-preperimetric-glaucoma
#6
Takahiro Arai, Hiroshi Murata, Masato Matsuura, Tomohiko Usui, Ryo Asaoka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the relationship between gaze tracking (GT) results and ocular surface condition in glaucoma. METHOD: The Humphrey 24-2 visual field (VF) was measured in 34 eyes of 30 patients with open-angle glaucoma without VF damage. Tear break-up time, Schirmer's test, tear meniscus volume (TMV) and presence of superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) were also measured in order to describe the condition of the ocular surface. Various GT parameters were calculated: the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 1° and 2° (move1-2), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 3° and 5° (move3-5), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus more than 6° (move≥6), the average tracking failure frequency per stimulus (TFF) and the average blinking frequency...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756199/consciousness-and-working-memory-current-trends-and-research-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Boris B Velichkovsky
Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755012/perceptual-similarity-induces-overinvestment-in-an-attentional-blink-task
#8
Ellen MacLellan, David I Shore, Bruce Milliken
The overinvestment account of the attentional blink (AB) posits that the AB results from the allocation of more resources than necessary to encode a first target (T1), which in turn lowers the resources available to encode a second target (T2) shortly thereafter. Across two experiments, we examined whether resource allocation to T1, and thus overinvestment that results in an AB effect, might be limited by perceptual mechanisms that evaluate the need for encoding resources. The key result observed in both experiments was that a relatively easy to encode T1 can nonetheless result in an AB when it is perceptually similar to a more difficult to encode T1...
July 28, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754276/physiological-correlates-of-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-early-adolescents
#9
Melissa D Latham, Nina Cook, Julian G Simmons, Michelle L Byrne, Jonathan W L Kettle, Orli Schwartz, Nandita Vijayakumar, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B Allen
Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images...
July 25, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741100/training-and-the-attentional-blink-raising-the-ceiling-does-not-remove-the-limits
#10
James T Enns, Paul Kealong, Jennifer G Tichon, Troy A W Visser
The attentional blink (AB) is a widely studied deficit in reporting the second of two sequentially presented targets when they occur within 500 milliseconds. The AB often is interpreted to index a structural limit in sequential visual processing. However, this interpretation is challenged by reports that the deficit can be reduced with several hundred trials of specific training (Braun in Nature, 393(6684), 424-425, 1998; Choi et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(30), 12242-12247, 2012; Taatgen et al...
July 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740823/is-performance-on-probed-serial-recall-tasks-in-schizophrenia-related-to-duration-of-attentional-blink
#11
David P McAllindon, Philip G Tibbo, Gail A Eskes
Schizophrenia is associated with a deficit in working memory, with the degree of working memory impairment related to the level of social and occupational functioning. This study tests the hypothesis that the working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia can be explained by slow processing of visual stimuli, as measured by the attentional blink (AB) task. Individuals with schizophrenia (SC) and controls (HC) were recruited from an early intervention service for psychosis and the local community...
March 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732659/eye-tracking-measures-of-uncertainty-during-perceptual-decision-making
#12
Tad T Brunyé, Aaron L Gardony
Perceptual decision making involves gathering and interpreting sensory information to effectively categorize the world and inform behavior. For instance, a radiologist distinguishing the presence versus absence of a tumor, or a luggage screener categorizing objects as threatening or non-threatening. In many cases, sensory information is not sufficient to reliably disambiguate the nature of a stimulus, and resulting decisions are done under conditions of uncertainty. The present study asked whether several oculomotor metrics might prove sensitive to transient states of uncertainty during perceptual decision making...
October 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713304/eye-behavior-associated-with-internally-versus-externally-directed-cognition
#13
Mathias Benedek, Robert Stoiser, Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner
What do our eyes do when we are focused on internal representations such as during imagination or planning? Evidence from mind wandering research suggests that spontaneous shifts from externally directed cognition (EDC) to internally directed cognition (IDC) involves oculomotor changes indicative of visual disengagement. In the present study, we investigated potential differences in eye behavior between goal-directed forms of IDC and EDC. To this end, we manipulated the focus of attention (internal versus external) in two demanding cognitive tasks (anagram and sentence generation)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686138/automatic-recruitment-of-the-motor-system-by-undetected-graspable-objects-a-motor-evoked-potential-study
#14
Nicolas A McNair, Ashleigh D Behrens, Irina M Harris
Previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested that the motor properties associated with graspable objects may be automatically accessed when people passively view these objects. We directly tested this by measuring the excitability of the motor pathway when participants viewed pictures of graspable objects that were presented during the attentional blink (AB), when items frequently go undetected. Participants had to identify two briefly presented objects separated by either a short or long SOA...
November 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643206/right-visual-field-advantage-in-the-attentional-blink-asymmetry-in-attentional-gating-across-time-and-space
#15
Dafna Bergerbest, Orit Shilkrot, Michal Joseph, Moti Salti
When two targets are presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), recognition of the second target (T2) is usually reduced when presented 150-500 ms after the first target, demonstrating an attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have shown a left visual-field (LVF) advantage in T2 recognition, when T2 was embedded in one of two streams, demanding top-down attention for its recognition. Here, we explored the impact of bottom-up saliency on spatial asymmetry in the AB. When T2 was spatially shifted outside from the RSVP, creating an abrupt onset of T2, right T2s showed a right visual-field (RVF) advantage...
June 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641813/sensors-and-bioassays-powered-by-upconverting-materials
#16
REVIEW
Diego Mendez-Gonzalez, Enrique Lopez-Cabarcos, Jorge Rubio-Retama, Marco Laurenti
In recent years, considerable efforts have been done to better understand the peculiar emission properties of upconverting materials due to their widespread applications in different and important technological fields such as upconversion-based photoactivated cancer therapies, photoactivated drug-delivery, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, bioimaging. However, one of the most promising applications of upconverting materials concerns the field of sensing, due to their unique emission properties. In fact, the minimal autofluorescence, blinking, photo-bleaching, and high photostability makes them an excellent alternative to organic dyes or quantum dots...
June 10, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604795/individual-differences-in-dual-target-rsvp-task-performance-relate-to-entrainment-but-not-to-individual-alpha-frequency
#17
Cornelia Kranczioch
The attentional blink (AB) paradigm is widely used to study visual temporal attention. An important feature of the standard AB paradigm is repetitive visual stimulation, more precisely the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of numerous distracters interspersed with two targets. The RSVP stream is likely to result in entrainment of visual cortex, which has been suggested to negatively affect target identification in the AB paradigm. The present EEG study tested this idea with an inter-individual differences approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602816/neurobiological-correlates-of-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults-lower-prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-and-spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-but-greater-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical-circuitry
#18
Cole Korponay, Daniela Dentico, Tammi Kral, Martina Ly, Ayla Kruis, Robin Goldman, Antoine Lutz, Richard J Davidson
Studies consistently implicate aberrance of the brain's reward-processing and decision-making networks in disorders featuring high levels of impulsivity, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use disorder, and psychopathy. However, less is known about the neurobiological determinants of individual differences in impulsivity in the general population. In this study of 105 healthy adults, we examined relationships between impulsivity and three neurobiological metrics - gray matter volume, resting-state functional connectivity, and spontaneous eye-blink rate, a physiological indicator of central dopaminergic activity...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557492/decision-making-training-reduces-the-attentional-blink
#19
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, K G Garner, Paul E Dux
Practice or training on a particular task often yields gains for the trained task; however, the extent to which these benefits generalize to other stimuli/tasks is contentious. It has been suggested that behavioral decision-making/response selection training may enhance temporal visual attention, as measured using the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Here, we show that AB can indeed be reduced through response selection training, which requires repeatedly performing a speeded decision-making task. Training gains garnered by this approach transferred to distinct AB measures, but not to unrelated measures of visual search and multitasking ability...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495634/network-targeted-cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-attentional-control
#20
Michael Esterman, Michelle Thai, Hidefusa Okabe, Joseph DeGutis, Elyana Saad, Simon E Laganiere, Mark A Halko
Developing non-invasive brain stimulation interventions to improve attentional control is extremely relevant to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, yet few studies have identified reliable biomarkers that can be readily modified to improve attentional control. One potential biomarker of attention is functional connectivity in the core cortical network supporting attention - the dorsal attention network (DAN). We used a network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) procedure, intended to enhance cortical functional connectivity in the DAN...
August 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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