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Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Rola F Turki, Mourad Assidi, Huda A Banni, Hanan A Zahed, Sajjad Karim, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdulrahim A Rouzi, Osama Bajouh, Hassan S Jamal, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani, Adel M Abuzenadah
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent spontaneous abortion is an obstetric complication that affects couples at reproductive age. Previous reports documented a clear relationship between parents with chromosomal abnormalities and both recurrent miscarriages and infertility. However, limited data is available from the Arabian Peninsula which is known by higher rates of consanguineous marriages. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and thrombophilic polymorphisms, and to correlate them with RPL and consanguinity in Saudi Arabia...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Fatima El-Assaad, Steven A Krilis, Bill Giannakopoulos
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by a procoagulant state that predisposes to recurrent thrombosis and miscarriages. Two major discoveries have advanced our understanding of the underlying complex pathogenesis of the APS. The first was the discovery that beta-2 glycoprotein-1 (β2GPI) is the major auto antigen in APS. The second was the discovery in more recent years that β2GPI contains allosteric disulphide bonds susceptible to posttranslational modification that may be involved in the development of autoantibodies in APS...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Yuki Ito, Eriko Shiraishi, Atsuko Kato, Takayuki Haino, Kouhei Sugimoto, Aikou Okamoto, Nao Suzuki
PURPOSE: To identify the utility and issues associated with the use of decision trees in oncofertility patient care in Japan. METHODS: A total of 35 women who had been diagnosed with cancer, but had not begun anticancer treatment, were enrolled. We applied the oncofertility decision tree for women published by Gardino et al. to counsel a consecutive series of women on fertility preservation (FP) options following cancer diagnosis. Percentage of women who decided to undergo oocyte retrieval for embryo cryopreservation and the expected live-birth rate for these patients were calculated using the following equation: expected live-birth rate = pregnancy rate at each age per embryo transfer × (1 - miscarriage rate) × No...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Afsoon Zarei, Parastoo Sohail, Mohammad Ebrahim Parsanezhad, Saeed Alborzi, Alamtaj Samsami, Maryam Azizi
PURPOSE: To compare the pregnancy outcomes between four regimens of luteal phase support (LPS), including vaginal progesterone, oral dydrogesterone, combination of oral dydrogesterone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog (GnRH-α), and combination of oral dydrogesterone and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), in Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer (FET) cycles. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was performed during a 6-month period, including candidates for FET...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
G Chistyakova, I Gazieva, I Remizova, L Ustyantseva, V Lyapunov, S Bychkova
We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3 (+) CD95(+)-cells and cytokine-producing CD4 (+) IFN-γ(+)-, CD4 (+) IL-4(+ )-lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
A M Kurmanova, G M Kurmanova, V N Lokshin
The viral hepatitis abnormalities in the female reproductive system are due to hepatic and extrahepatic damage. On the background of HBV- and HCV-infections, menstrual disorders prevail in the structure of reproductive system pathology; disorders of reproductive function in the form of pregnancy loss and infertility are detected in each second case. Depression of T-cell immunity in the immune status is observed in the patients with intact reproductive function. When miscarriage was in past medical history then divergent changes subpopulations of lymphocytes are found...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
N M Mamedalieva, A M Kurmanova, G N Moshkalova, V Kim
A study of the endometrium of women with herpetic infection has shown that early miscarriages (under 12 weeks) occurs as activation of cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells with CD16 + phenotype and a pronounced suppression level of CD56 + cells endometrial type, and late miscarriages (13-22 weeks of gestation) occurs as cell deficit, followed by reduction of all CD8 + cytotoxic lymphocytes, and of CD56 + and CD16 + NK cells.
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
N M Scott, J F Lauzon-Joset, A C Jones, K T Mincham, N M Troy, J Leffler, M Serralha, S L Prescott, S A Robertson, C Pasquali, A Bosco, P G Holt, D H Strickland
Infection-associated inflammatory stress during pregnancy is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction and/or miscarriage. Treatment strategies for protection of at-risk mothers are limited to a narrow range of vaccines, which do not cover the bulk of the common pathogens most frequently encountered. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that oral treatment during pregnancy with a microbial-derived immunomodulator (OM85), currently used clinically for attenuation of infection-associated airway inflammatory symptoms in infants-adults, markedly reduces risk for fetal loss/growth restriction resulting from maternal challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or influenza...
October 19, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Gözde Işik, Şayeste Demirezen, Hanife Güler Dönmez, Mehmet Sinan Beksaç
CONTEXT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30...
July 2016: Journal of Cytology
Tomofumi Fushima, Akiyo Sekimoto, Takahiro Minato, Takuya Ito, Yuji Oe, Kiyomi Kisu, Emiko Sato, Kenichi Funamoto, Yoshitaka Kimura, Sadayoshi Ito, Hiroshi Sato, Nobuyuki Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria that typically develops after 20 weeks of gestation. A reduction in uterine blood flow causes placental ischemia and placental release of anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) followed by PE. Although the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model is widely used in rats, investigating the genetics of PE has been problematic because it has been difficult to make a useful RUPP model in mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ihssane El Bouchikhi, Laila Bouguenouch, Fatima Zohra Moufid, Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini, Khadija Belhassan, Imane Samri, Ayoub Tahri Joutei, Karim Ouldim, Samir Atmani
OBJECTIVE: Secundum atrial septal defect (ASDII) has multifactorial etiology that is combination of environmental (e.g., mother's exposure to toxicity, ethnicity) and genetic causes. Aim of the present study was to screen a Moroccan population with ASDII for NKX2-5 variants and to assess risk factors that may contribute to emergence of the disorder. METHODS: Thirty-two non-syndromic ASDII patients were screened for NKX2-5 variants using direct sequencing of polymerase chain reactionamplified coding regions...
October 12, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
A Mekinian, J Cohen, G Kayem, L Carbillon, P Nicaise-Roland, B Gaugler, E Darai, M Bornes, O Fain
About 1-3% of women experience early recurrent miscarriages, defined by ≥3 fetal loss before 14 weeks of gestation. About half of these recurrent early miscarriages could be related to a genetic cause. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is used in several European countries, but it is still prohibited in France except for couples at risk for transmission of severe genetic diseases. The immune dysregulation, and in particular allo-immune excessive response, could be responsible for fetal loss in remaining cases, although currently we lack biomarker to confirm the immune-mediated fetal loss...
October 14, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Chenchit Chayachinda, Thanapa Rekhawasin
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the predictors of the adverse reproductive outcomes in patients who had been hospitalised with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The retrospective cohort study was conducted by contacting all the patients admitted with PID or tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) during January 2004 and December 2011. Those who were sexually active and aged 14-40 years were included. The exclusion criteria were no intention to conceive or undergoing hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral complete or partial salpingectomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Natalie M Crawford, Anne Z Steiner
Thyroid hormones are important for normal reproductive function, and maternal thyroid dysfunction has been associated with infertility, miscarriage, preterm birth, and poor neurodevelopment in the offspring. Thyroid autoimmunity is the leading cause of thyroid dysfunction in women of reproductive age. Women with thyroid autoimmunity, even with normal thyroid function, appear to be at a higher risk for poor reproductive outcomes, including miscarriage and preterm birth. Thyroxine replacement in women with thyroid autoimmunity with or without appreciable thyroid dysfunction may improve pregnancy outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Yongsheng Zhu, Hong Lu, Zhenghao Huo, Zhanbin Ma, Jie Dang, Wei Dang, Lin Pan, Jing Chen, Huijun Zhong
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common health problem that affects women of reproductive age. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs are important factors in miscarriage. This study investigated the role of miR-16 in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the pathogenesis of RSA. In this report, clinical samples revealed that miR-16 expression was significantly elevated in the villi and decidua of RSA patients. In vitro, miR-16 upregulation inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Na Cui, Huixia Wang, Wei Wang, Jie Zhang, Yueming Xu, Lei Jiang, Aimin Yang, Guimin Hao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) among polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that was performed in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Patients who were under 35 years old were included in the study and were divided into four groups based on their BMI...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
C L Roberts, C S Algert, J B Ford, T A Nippita, J M Morris
STUDY QUESTION: After an initial midtrimester loss, is the interval to the next conception associated with the risk of a recurrent loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who had a pregnancy loss at 14-19 weeks gestation, conception at least 3 months after this initial loss was associated with a reduced risk of a recurrent loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been thought to increase risk but recent studies of pregnancy after a loss have found no effect; however, these studies have been based almost entirely on an initial first trimester (<14 weeks) loss...
October 14, 2016: Human Reproduction
Aimee Seungdamrong
Subclinical hypothyroidism has been found to be associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, such as infertility, miscarriage, preterm birth, and complications of pregnancy. Multiple studies have investigated the relationships between thyroid function, thyroid antibodies, fertility, and pregnancy. Thyroid autoimmunity is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient locations. Thyroid antibodies have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as miscarriage and infertility. Debate exists regarding the method of identification of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy, which can be conducted by targeted screening or by universal screening...
October 14, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
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