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Keumseok Koh, Rebecca Reno, Ayaz Hyder
Recent advances in computing resources have increased interest in systems modeling and population health. While group model building (GMB) has been effectively applied in developing system dynamics models (SD), few studies have used GMB for developing an agent-based model (ABM). This article explores the use of a GMB approach to develop an ABM focused on food insecurity. In our GMB workshops, we modified a set of the standard GMB scripts to develop and validate an ABM in collaboration with local experts and stakeholders...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Christian E Vincenot
Progress in understanding and managing complex systems comprised of decision-making agents, such as cells, organisms, ecosystems or societies, is-like many scientific endeavours-limited by disciplinary boundaries. These boundaries, however, are moving and can actively be made porous or even disappear. To study this process, I advanced an original bibliometric approach based on network analysis to track and understand the development of the model-based science of agent-based complex systems (ACS). I analysed research citations between the two communities devoted to ACS research, namely agent-based (ABM) and individual-based modelling (IBM)...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Brenda Barnes, Ana L Hincapie, Heidi Luder, James Kirby, Stacey Frede, Pamela C Heaton
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of 3 different appointment-based model (ABM) designs on medication adherence and medication use outcomes controlling for patient and pharmacy characteristics. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis in a large grocery store chain from January 1, 2012, to October 31, 2015. A total of 500 comparison and 613 intervention patients in 3 different model designs were analyzed. The outcome measures were proportion of days covered for selected medication classes, number of fills, administered vaccinations, number of trips, statin use in persons with diabetes, use of high-risk medications in older adults, and medication therapy for persons with asthma...
March 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Sheraz Khoja, Nhat Huynh, Alicia M P Warnecke, Liana Asatryan, Michael W Jakowec, Daryl L Davies
The deleterious effects of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on human health have been documented worldwide. The enormous socioeconomic burden coupled with lack of efficacious pharmacotherapies underlies the need for improved treatment strategies. At present, there is a growing body of preclinical evidence that demonstrates the potential of avermectins [ivermectin (IVM), selamectin (SEL), abamectin (ABM), and moxidectin (MOX)] in treatment of AUDs. Avermectins are derived by fermentation of soil micro-organism, Streptomyces avermitilis, and have been extensively used for treatment of parasitic infections...
March 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Raul A Borracci, Mariano A Giorgi
BACKGROUND: Diffusion of medical innovations among physicians rests on a set of theoretical assumptions, including learning and decision-making under uncertainty, social-normative pressures, medical expert knowledge, competitive concerns, network performance effects, professional autonomy or individualism and scientific evidence. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and test four real data-based, agent-based computational models (ABM) to qualitatively and quantitatively explore the factors associated with diffusion and application of innovations among cardiologists...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Lucas Fievet, Didier Sornette
Since the 2008 financial crisis, agent-based models (ABMs), which account for out-of-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneous preferences, time horizons and strategies, have often been envisioned as the new frontier that could revolutionise and displace the more standard models and tools in economics. However, their adoption and generalisation is drastically hindered by the absence of general reliable operational calibration methods. Here, we start with a different calibration angle that qualifies an ABM for its ability to achieve abnormal trading performance with respect to the buy-and-hold strategy when fed with real financial data...
2018: PloS One
Steven Barnes, Julie Prescott
BACKGROUND: Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers...
February 28, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Kristian Buch, Jacob Bodilsen, Andreas Knudsen, Lykke Larsen, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Merete Storgaard, Christian Brandt, Lothar Wiese, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Nielsen, Anne-Mette Lebech
BACKGROUND: The ability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate to distinguish between acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) and aseptic meningitis/encephalitis (AME) is debated. We assessed the diagnostic value of CSF lactate to discriminate between ABM and AME. METHODS: We included 176 patients from a prospective adult cohort with neuroinfections. In total, 51 ABM and 125 AME patients with clinically and/or microbiologically diagnosed acute meningitis were examined with CSF-lactate and traditional markers for infection...
February 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Robert Chase Cockrell, Gary An
Sepsis, a manifestation of the body's inflammatory response to injury and infection, has a mortality rate of between 28%-50% and affects approximately 1 million patients annually in the United States. Currently, there are no therapies targeting the cellular/molecular processes driving sepsis that have demonstrated the ability to control this disease process in the clinical setting. We propose that this is in great part due to the considerable heterogeneity of the clinical trajectories that constitute clinical "sepsis," and that determining how this system can be controlled back into a state of health requires the application of concepts drawn from the field of dynamical systems...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Terunao Takahara, Yumika Arai, Yuta Kono, Hideki Shibata, Masatoshi Maki
MAP1B (microtubule-associated protein 1B) binds to microtubules and regulates microtubule dynamics. Previously, we showed calcium-dependent interaction between MAP1B and a calcium-binding protein ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2), which is involved in regulation of the protein secretion pathway. Although ALG-2 generally binds to proteins through two consensus binding motifs such as ABM-1 and ABM-2, the absence of these motifs in MAP1B suggests a unique binding mode between MAP1B and ALG-2. Here, we identified the region of mouse MAP1B responsible for binding to ALG-2, and found point mutations that abrogated binding of MAP1B to ALG-2...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Simon Alderton, Ewan T Macleod, Neil E Anderson, Gwen Palmer, Noreen Machila, Martin Simuunza, Susan C Welburn, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to incorporate climatic drivers which affect tsetse fly (G. m. morsitans) population dynamics, and ultimately disease transmission. The model was used to gain a greater understanding of how tsetse populations fluctuate seasonally, and investigate any response observed in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease transmission, with a view to gaining a greater understanding of disease dynamics...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pan Liu, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Xiaoxue Fu, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
OBJECTIVE: Children with behavioral inhibition, a temperament characterized by biologically based hypervigilance to novelty and social withdrawal, are at high risk for developing anxiety. This study examined the effect of a novel attention training protocol, attention bias modification (ABM), on symptomatic, behavioral, and neural risk markers in children with behavioral inhibition. METHOD: Nine- to 12-year-old typically developing children identified as having behavioral inhibition (N = 84) were assigned to a 4-session active ABM training (n = 43) or placebo protocol (n = 41) using a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial approach...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
B V Gomes, D M Guimarães, D Szczupak, K Neves
The evolution of mating strategies is not well understood. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation in mating strategies, with varying levels of support. Specifically, female dispersion, adult sex ratio and mate guarding have been proposed as drivers of the evolution of monogamous strategies. In this study, we used an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how different mating behaviors evolve in a population under different conditions related to these putative drivers, looking to understand the interaction between them...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley
Research in experimental psychopathology and cognitive theories of anxiety highlight threat-related attention biases (ABs) and underpin the development of a computer-delivered treatment for anxiety disorders: attention-bias modification (ABM) training. Variable effects of ABM training on anxiety and ABs generate conflicting research recommendations, novel ABM training procedures, and theoretical controversy. This article summarises an updated cognitive-motivational framework, integrating proposals from cognitive models of anxiety and attention, as well as evidence of ABs...
February 2, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Jun-Jun Lee, Chia-Yi Lien, Chun-Chih Chien, Chi-Ren Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Wen-Neng Chang
Anaerobic infection is a very uncommon condition in adult bacterial meningitis (ABM), and its clinical characteristics have yet to be clarified. We enrolled 540 patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis during a study period of 30 years (1986-2015), of whom 13 (2.4%) had anaerobic infections. These 13 patients were eight men and five women, aged 22-77 years. Among them, 53.8% (7/13) had a postneurosurgical state as the preceding event, and 79.6% (10/13) had underlying medical conditions including diabetes mellitus, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, cerebral infarct and alcoholism...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
H L Rocha, R C Almeida, E A B F Lima, A C M Resende, J T Oden, T E Yankeelov
Cancer results from a complex interplay of different biological, chemical, and physical phenomena that span a wide range of time and length scales. Computational modeling may help to unfold the role of multiple evolving factors that exist and interact in the tumor microenvironment. Understanding these complex multiscale interactions is a crucial step towards predicting cancer growth and in developing effective therapies. We integrate different modeling approaches in a multiscale, avascular, hybrid tumor growth model encompassing tissue, cell, and sub-cell scales...
January 2018: Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences: M3AS
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Mehdi Jalalpour, Thomas A Glass
Social networks as well as neighborhood environments have been shown to effect obesity-related behaviors including energy intake and physical activity. Accordingly, harnessing social networks to improve targeting of obesity interventions may be promising to the extent this leads to social multiplier effects and wider diffusion of intervention impact on populations. However, the literature evaluating network-based interventions has been inconsistent. Computational methods like agent-based models (ABM) provide researchers with tools to experiment in a simulated environment...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Milad Yousefi, Moslem Yousefi, F S Fogliatto, R P M Ferreira, J H Kim
The objective of this study was to develop an agent based modeling (ABM) framework to simulate the behavior of patients who leave a public hospital emergency department (ED) without being seen (LWBS). In doing so, the study complements computer modeling and cellular automata (CA) techniques to simulate the behavior of patients in an ED. After verifying and validating the model by comparing it with data from a real case study, the significance of four preventive policies including increasing number of triage nurses, fast-track treatment, increasing the waiting room capacity and reducing treatment time were investigated by utilizing ordinary least squares regression...
January 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Mark Houston
Numerous clinical trials suggest that we have reached a limit in our ability to decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) utilizing the traditional diagnostic evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies for the top five cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking. About 80% of heart disease (heart attacks, angina, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure) can be prevented by optimal nutrition, optimal exercise, optimal weight and body composition, mild alcohol intake and avoiding smoking...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Abm Kamrul Hasan, Raman Sivasankar, Salil G Nair, Wamia U Hasan, Zulaidi Latif
BACKGROUND: Intravenous cannulation is usually done in children after inhalational induction with volatile anesthetic agents. The optimum time for safe intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide has been studied in premedicated children, but there is no information for the optimum time for cannulation with inhalational induction in children without premedication. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for intravenous cannulation after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication...
February 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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