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Kathryn Bennett, Katharina Manassis, Stephanie Duda, Alexa Bagnell, Gail A Bernstein, E Jane Garland, Lynn D Miller, Amanda Newton, Lehana Thabane, Pamela Wilansky
We conducted an overview of systematic reviews about child and adolescent anxiety treatment options (psychosocial; medication; combination; web/computer-based treatment) to support evidence informed decision-making. Three questions were addressed: (i) Is the treatment more effective than passive controls? (ii) Is there evidence that the treatment is superior to or non-inferior to (i.e., as good as) active controls? (iii) What is the quality of evidence for the treatment? Pre-specified inclusion criteria identified high quality systematic reviews (2000-2015) reporting treatment effects on anxiety diagnosis and symptom severity...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Laura E Walker, Annie T Sadosty, James E Colletti, Deepi G Goyal, Kharmene L Sunga, Sharonne N Hayes
Since 1995, women have comprised more than 40% of all medical school graduates. However, representation at leadership levels in medicine remains considerably lower. Gender representation among the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) boards of directors (BODs) has not previously been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the relative representation of women on ABMS BODs and compare it with the in-training and in-practice gender composition of the respective specialties. The composition of the ABMS BODs was obtained from websites in March 2016 for all Member Boards...
October 7, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Kyle S Martin, Christopher D Kegelman, Kelley M Virgilio, Julianna A Passipieri, George J Christ, Silvia S Blemker, Shayn M Peirce
Numerous studies have pharmacologically modulated the muscle milieu in the hopes of promoting muscle regeneration; however, the timing and duration of these interventions are difficult to determine. This study utilized a combination of in silico and in vivo experiments to investigate how inflammation manipulation improves muscle recovery following injury. First, we measured macrophage populations following laceration injury in the rat tibialis anterior (TA). Then we calibrated an agent-based model (ABM) of muscle injury to mimic the observed inflammation profiles...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Rebecca B Price, Meredith Wallace, Jennie M Kuckertz, Nader Amir, Simona Graur, Logan Cummings, Paul Popa, Per Carlbring, Yair Bar-Haim
Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Gina R A Ferrari, Martin Möbius, Amras van Opdorp, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attentional bias modification (ABM) paradigms, we developed an ABM task that is controlled by eye-tracking. This task allows to assess and train both disengagement from negative pictures and maintained attention to positive pictures. As a proof-of-principle study with an unselected student sample, this positive training (PT; N = 44) was compared to a negative training (NT; N = 42), which reinforced the opposite attentional pattern. Importantly, training trials were completed only if participants performed the correct gaze patterns...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Julie A Patterson, David A Holdford, Kunai Saxena
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-benefit of appointment-based medication synchronization (ABMS) offered in community pharmacies for patients taking chronic medications to prevent negative outcomes associated with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Decision-tree analysis based on published literature and publicly available data. METHODS: Program benefits were based on linking published findings of improvements in medication adherence due to the implementation of an ABMS program to a claims-based study of disease-related medical costs associated with different levels of adherence...
September 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
Sarah Reece-Stremtan, Larry Gray
A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive, but to provide a basic framework for physician education regarding breastfeeding...
September 13, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley
Anxiety disorders are common and difficult to treat. Some cognitive models of anxiety propose that attention bias to threat causes and maintains anxiety. This view led to the development of a computer-delivered treatment: attention bias modification (ABM) which predominantly trains attention avoidance of threat. However, meta-analyses indicate disappointing effectiveness of ABM-threat-avoidance training in reducing anxiety. This article considers how ABM may be improved, based on a review of key ideas from models of anxiety, attention and cognitive control...
August 7, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Elise M Clerkin, Joshua C Magee, Tony T Wells, Courtney Beard, Nancy P Barnett
OBJECTIVE: Attention biases may be an important treatment target for both alcohol dependence and social anxiety. This is the first ABM trial to investigate two (vs. one) targets of attention bias within a sample with co-occurring symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol dependence. Additionally, we used trial-level bias scores (TL-BS) to capture the phenomena of attention bias in a more ecologically valid, dynamic way compared to traditional attention bias scores. METHOD: Adult participants (N = 86; 41% Female; 52% African American; 40% White) with elevated social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were randomly assigned to an 8-session training condition in this 2 (Social Anxiety ABM vs...
August 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Anna Koziróg, Katarzyna Rajkowska, Anna Otlewska, Małgorzata Piotrowska, Alina Kunicka-Styczyńska, Bogumił Brycki, Paulina Nowicka-Krawczyk, Marta Kościelniak, Beata Gutarowska
The aim of this study was to select effective and safe microbiocides for the disinfection and protection of historical wooden surfaces at the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. We tested seven active compounds against bacteria and moulds, of which didecyldimethylammonium chloride and N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecylpropane-1,3-diamine were effective even at 0.02%-2%. Subsequently, eight microbiocides containing the selected active ingredients were chosen and applied three times on the surface of wood samples colonized by bacteria and moulds...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhenzhen Shi, Stephen K Chapes, David Ben-Arieh, Chih-Hang Wu
We present an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate a hepatic inflammatory response (HIR) in a mouse infected by Salmonella that sometimes progressed to problematic proportions, known as "sepsis". Based on over 200 published studies, this ABM describes interactions among 21 cells or cytokines and incorporates 226 experimental data sets and/or data estimates from those reports to simulate a mouse HIR in silico. Our simulated results reproduced dynamic patterns of HIR reported in the literature. As shown in vivo, our model also demonstrated that sepsis was highly related to the initial Salmonella dose and the presence of components of the adaptive immune system...
2016: PloS One
Caroline Schill, Nanda Wijermans, Maja Schlüter, Therese Lindahl
Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level...
2016: PloS One
Lois Margaret Nora, Sylvia Fonte McGreal, Samantha Guastella Nugent
The authors present snapshots of board certification in 1916, the year that the American Board of Ophthalmology was founded, 60 years later in 1976 as periodic recertification emerged, and speculation about what certification might look like in 2036. The concept of board certification and continuous certification in the medical specialties took shape at the beginning of the 20th century with the convergence of a new system of assessment, the emergence of certifying boards, and the creation of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS)...
September 2016: Ophthalmology
Susan H Day
This article reviews globalization of quality standards in medicine, with emphasis on accreditation and certification. In conjunction with the 100th anniversary of the American Board of Ophthalmology, the author explores globalization movements, standards of quality, expectations of others seeking certification, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) International, interrelationships with the ABMS, and considerations both pragmatic and philosophical in addressing globalization of standards.
September 2016: Ophthalmology
Nuttiiya Seekhao, Caroline Shung, Joseph JaJa, Luc Mongeau, Nicole Y K Li-Jessen
We present an efficient and scalable scheme for implementing agent-based modeling (ABM) simulation with In Situ visualization of large complex systems on heterogeneous computing platforms. The scheme is designed to make optimal use of the resources available on a heterogeneous platform consisting of a multicore CPU and a GPU, resulting in minimal to no resource idle time. Furthermore, the scheme was implemented under a client-server paradigm that enables remote users to visualize and analyze simulation data as it is being generated at each time step of the model...
May 2016: IEEE International Symposium on Parallel & Distributed Processing, Workshops and Phd Forum: [proceedings]
Wenchao Li, Ruijiang Xu, Minghua Du, Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Simple bone cysts are common benign lytic bone lesions in children. The main goals of treatment for bone cysts are to prevent pathological fractures, support the healing process, and prevent recurrence. This retrospective study compared fixation with titanium elastic intramedullary nailing (TEN) versus aspiration and injection of autogenous bone marrow (ABM) for the treatment of simple bone cysts in children. METHODS: Forty-six patients (mean follow-up, 62 months; range, 34-71 months) who presented with bone cysts (30 in the humerus, 16 in the femur) from January 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Iman Elfeddali, Hein de Vries, Catherine Bolman, Thomas Pronk, Reinout W Wiers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a multiple-sessions Web-based Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) self-help intervention in 434 smokers who made a quit-attempt. METHOD: Respondents were randomized to receive 6 sessions of ABM- or placebo-training in a period of 2 weeks. Smoking-related cognitions (e.g., self-efficacy and intention to quit) and cognitive biases (i.e., attentional and approach bias) for smoking-cues were assessed before training (pretest). Primary outcome-variable was continued abstinence, 6 months after baseline...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Nobuyuki Sasaki, Masahiro Abo, Takatoshi Hara, Naoki Yamada, Masachika Niimi, Wataru Kakuda
Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for upper limb motor area in stroke patients is beneficial, it has been poorly investigated in rTMS for leg motor area. Furthermore, no study has examined the usefulness of rTMS for leg motor area in patients in the early phase of stroke. Twenty-one patients with a hemispheric stroke lesion in the early phase were randomly assigned into two groups: the high-frequency (HF)-rTMS group [N = 11] and the sham stimulation group [N = 10]. Patients received rTMS for 5 consecutive days, beginning 10...
August 9, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Motolani E Ogunsanya, Shan Jiang, Andrew V Thach, Benita A Bamgbade, Carolyn M Brown
PURPOSE: The purposes of the study were to examine the prevalence of prostate cancer screening (PCS) in the United States and to identify predictors of PCS guided by Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use (ABM). METHODS: PCS rates were analyzed in men (aged ≥40y) using 2014 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Descriptive analysis was conducted using sampling weights to determine the prevalence of PCS (i.e., had a prostate-specific antigen test)...
July 20, 2016: Urologic Oncology
S C Phang, R A Stillman, J Cucherousset, J R Britton, D Roberts, W R C Beaumont, R E Gozlan
Predicting fish responses to modified flow regimes is becoming central to fisheries management. In this study we present an agent-based model (ABM) to predict the growth and distribution of young-of-the-year (YOY) and one-year-old (1+) Atlantic salmon and brown trout in response to flow change during summer. A field study of a real population during both natural and low flow conditions provided the simulation environment and validation patterns. Virtual fish were realistic both in terms of bioenergetics and feeding...
2016: Scientific Reports
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