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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316855/the-role-of-noninvasive-cardiovascular-testing-applied-clinical-nutrition-and-nutritional-supplements-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-coronary-heart-disease
#1
Mark Houston
Numerous clinical trials suggest that we have reached a limit in our ability to decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) utilizing the traditional diagnostic evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies for the top five cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking. About 80% of heart disease (heart attacks, angina, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure) can be prevented by optimal nutrition, optimal exercise, optimal weight and body composition, mild alcohol intake and avoiding smoking...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316032/optimum-time-for-intravenous-cannulation-after-induction-with-sevoflurane-oxygen-and-nitrous-oxide-in-children-without-any-premedication
#2
Abm Kamrul Hasan, Raman Sivasankar, Salil G Nair, Wamia U Hasan, Zulaidi Latif
BACKGROUND: Intravenous cannulation is usually done in children after inhalational induction with volatile anesthetic agents. The optimum time for safe intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide has been studied in premedicated children, but there is no information for the optimum time for cannulation with inhalational induction in children without premedication. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for intravenous cannulation after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication...
January 8, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314670/eliminating-hepatitis-c-virus-as-a-public-health-threat-among-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-multi-modelling-approach-to-understand-differences-in-sexual-risk-behaviour
#3
Nick Scott, Mark Stoové, David P Wilson, Olivia Keiser, Carol El-Hayek, Joseph Doyle, Margaret Hellard
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed globally. Using a multi-modelling approach we estimate the time and number of direct-acting antiviral treatment courses required to achieve an 80% reduction in HCV prevalence among HIV-positive MSM in the state of Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Three models of HCV transmission, testing and treatment among MSM were compared: a dynamic compartmental model; an agent-based model (ABM) parametrized to local surveillance and behavioural data ("ABM1"); and an ABM with a more heterogeneous population ("ABM2") to determine the influence of extreme variations in sexual risk behaviour...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310816/the-clinical-characteristics-of-adult-bacterial-meningitis-caused-by-non-pseudomonas-ps-aeruginosa-pseudomonas-species-a-clinical-comparison-with-ps-aeruginosa-meningitis
#4
Chi-Ren Huang, Chia-Yi Lien, Wan-Chen Tsai, Wei-An Lai, Che-Wei Hsu, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Chun-Chih Chien, Wen-Neng Chang
Adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) caused by non-Pseudomonas (Ps.) aeruginosa Pseudomonas (NPAP) species infection has rarely been reported. The clinical characteristics of 52 cases of Pseudomonas ABM (11 NPAP- and 41 Ps. aeruginosa-related meningitis) collected during a 30-year study period (1986-2015) were included. Eleven cases of NPAP ABM were identified in the literature, and their clinical data were also collected. Therefore, a total of 22 NPAP ABM cases were enrolled. The clinical characteristics of the NPAP ABM and Ps...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304757/attentional-bias-modification-in-reducing-test-anxiety-vulnerability-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Wenpeng Cai, Yu Pan, Huangyangzi Chai, Yi Cui, Jin Yan, Wei Dong, Guanghui Deng
BACKGROUND: A tendency to selectively process a threat to positive information may be involved in the etiology of anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine whether attentional bias modification (ABM) can be used to modify high test-anxiety individuals' attention to emotional information and whether this change is related to anxiety vulnerability. METHODS: Seventy-seven undergraduates were included: 28 individuals received a 5-day modified dot probe task as ABM training, 29 individuals received a 5-day classic dot probe task as placebo, and 20 individuals did not receive an intervention between the two test sections...
January 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284023/growth-phenotype-analysis-of-heme-synthetic-enzymes-in-a-halophilic-archaeon-haloferax-volcanii
#6
Naoki Kosugi, Takuma Araki, Junpei Fujita, Satoru Tanaka, Taketomo Fujiwara
Halophilic euryarchaea lack many of the genes necessary for the protoporphyrin-dependent heme biosynthesis pathway previously identified in animals and plants. Bioinformatic analysis suggested the presence of two heme biosynthetic processes, an Fe-coproporphyrinogen III (coproheme) decarboxylase (ChdC) pathway and an alternative heme biosynthesis (Ahb) pathway, in Haloferax volcanii. PitA is specific to the halophilic archaea and has a unique molecular structure in which the ChdC domain is joined to the antibiotics biosynthesis monooxygenase (ABM)-like domain by a histidine-rich linker sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258631/attention-bias-modification-augments-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Amit Lazarov, Sofi Marom, Naomi Yahalom, Daniel S Pine, Haggai Hermesh, Yair Bar-Haim
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) is a first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, since many patients remain symptomatic post-treatment, there is a need for augmenting procedures. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the potential augmentation effect of attention bias modification (ABM) for CBGT. METHODS: Fifty patients with SAD from three therapy groups were randomized to receive an 18-week standard CBGT with either ABM designed to shift attention away from threat (CBGT + ABM), or a placebo protocol not designed to modify threat-related attention (CBGT + placebo)...
December 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239482/using-agent-based-modeling-to-study-multiple-risk-factors-and-multiple-health-outcomes-at-multiple-levels
#8
Yong Yang
Most health studies focus on one health outcome and examine the influence of one or multiple risk factors. However, in reality, various pathways, interactions, and associations exist not only between risk factors and health outcomes but also among the risk factors and among health outcomes. The advance of system science methods, Big Data, and accumulated knowledge allows us to examine how multiple risk factors influence multiple health outcomes at multiple levels (termed a 3M study). Using the study of neighborhood environment and health as an example, I elaborate on the significance of 3M studies...
November 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223199/the-influence-of-homophilous-interactions-on-diversity-effects-in-group-problem-solving
#9
Claudia P Estévez-Mujica, Andrés Acero, William Jiménez-Leal, César Garcia-Diaz
Increasingly diversity researchers call for further studies of group micro-processes and dynamics to understand the paradoxical effects of diversity on group performance. In this study, based on analyses of in-group, networked, homophilous interactions, we aim to explain further the effects of diversity on group performance in a parallel problem-solving task, both experimentally and computationally. We developed a 'whodunit' problem-solving experiment with 116 participants assigned to different-sized groups...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223196/application-of-psychological-theories-in-agent-based-modeling-the-case-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#10
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207507/zinc-ameliorate-oxidative-stress-and-hormonal-disturbance-induced-by-methomyl-abamectin-and-their-mixture-in-male-rats
#11
Sameeh A Mansour, Mostafa A Abbassy, Hassan A Shaldam
Exposure to mixtures of toxicants (e.g., pesticides) is common in real life and a subject of current concern. The present investigation was undertaken to assess some toxicological effects in male rats following exposure to methomyl (MET), abamectin (ABM), and their combination (MET+ABM), and to evaluate the ameliorative effect of zinc co-administration. Three groups of rats were designated for MET, ABM, and the mixture treatments. Three other groups were designated for zinc in conjunction with the pesticides...
December 3, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206991/clinical-predictors-of-malaria-acute-bacterial-meningitis-and-treatment-outcomes-among-febrile-children-admitted-with-altered-mental-status-in-northwestern-tanzania
#12
Shakilu Jumanne, John Meda, Adolfine Hokororo, Kelvin Leshabari
Background: Malaria and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the leading infectious causes of febrile encephalopathy in malaria endemic settings. The clinical distinction of the two conditions is complicated by overlap in clinical features. Objective: To determine the clinical predictors for malaria, ABM and treatment outcome in febrile children aged 2 months to 12 years with altered mentation at two tertiary hospitals in Northwestern Tanzania. Methods: Prospective study of 103 children to document demographic data and physical examination findings, such as level of consciousness and meningeal irritations...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194393/developing-a-novel-parameter-estimation-method-for-agent-based-model-in-immune-system-simulation-under-the-framework-of-history-matching-a-case-study-on-influenza-a-virus-infection
#13
Tingting Li, Zhengguo Cheng, Le Zhang
Since they can provide a natural and flexible description of nonlinear dynamic behavior of complex system, Agent-based models (ABM) have been commonly used for immune system simulation. However, it is crucial for ABM to obtain an appropriate estimation for the key parameters of the model by incorporating experimental data. In this paper, a systematic procedure for immune system simulation by integrating the ABM and regression method under the framework of history matching is developed. A novel parameter estimation method by incorporating the experiment data for the simulator ABM during the procedure is proposed...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181450/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-to-distinguish-bacterial-meningitis-from-cerebral-malaria-in-children
#14
James M Njunge, Ian N Oyaro, Nelson K Kibinge, Martin K Rono, Symon M Kariuki, Charles R Newton, James A Berkley, Evelyn N Gitau
Background. Few hospitals in high malaria endemic countries in Africa have the diagnostic capacity for clinically distinguishing acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) from cerebral malaria (CM). As a result, empirical use of antibiotics is necessary. A biochemical marker of ABM would facilitate precise clinical diagnosis and management of these infections and enable rational use of antibiotics. Methods. We used label-free protein quantification by mass spectrometry to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers that distinguish ABM (n=37) from CM (n=22) in Kenyan children...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163327/the-state-of-neurocritical-care-fellowship-training-and-attitudes-toward-accreditation-and-certification-a-survey-of-neurocritical-care-fellowship-program-directors
#15
Rajat Dhar, Venkatakrishna Rajajee, Anna Finley Caulfield, Matthew B Maas, Michael L James, Avinash Bhargava Kumar, Stephen A Figueroa, David McDonagh, Agnieszka Ardelt
Neurocritical care as a recognized and distinct subspecialty of critical care has grown remarkably since its inception in the 1980s. As of 2016, there were 61 fellowship training programs accredited by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS) in the United States and more than 1,000 UCNS-certified neurointensivists from diverse medical backgrounds. In late 2015, the Program Accreditation, Physician Certification, and Fellowship Training (PACT) Committee of the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) was convened to promote and support excellence in the training and certification of neurointensivists...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#16
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148087/an-agent-based-model-of-evolving-community-flood-risk
#17
Gina L Tonn, Seth D Guikema
Although individual behavior plays a major role in community flood risk, traditional flood risk models generally do not capture information on how community policies and individual decisions impact the evolution of flood risk over time. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the temporal aspects of flood risk through a combined analysis of the behavioral, engineering, and physical hazard aspects of flood risk. Additionally, the study aims to develop a new modeling approach for integrating behavior, policy, flood hazards, and engineering interventions...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122206/the-evolution-of-accelerated-long-term-forgetting-evidence-from-the-time-study
#18
Sharon Savage, Serge Hoefeijzers, Fraser Milton, Claire Streatfield, Michaela Dewar, Adam Zeman
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) occurs when newly learned information decays faster than normal over extended delays. It has been recognised most frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy, including Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA), but can also be drug-induced. Little is known about the evolution of ALF over time and its impacts upon other memory functions, such as autobiographical memory (ABM). Here we investigate the long-term outcome of ALF and ABM in a group of patients with TEA and a single case of baclofen-induced ALF...
October 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078771/a-spatial-agent-based-model-of-anopheles-vagus-for-malaria-epidemiology-examining-the-impact-of-vector-control-interventions
#19
Md Zahangir Alam, S M Niaz Arifin, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, M Sohel Rahman
BACKGROUND: Malaria, being a mosquito-borne infectious disease, is still one of the most devastating global health issues. The malaria vector Anopheles vagus is widely distributed in Asia and a dominant vector in Bandarban, Bangladesh. However, despite its wide distribution, no agent based model (ABM) of An. vagus has yet been developed. Additionally, its response to combined vector control interventions has not been examined. METHODS: A spatial ABM, denoted as ABM[Formula: see text], was designed and implemented based on the biological attributes of An...
October 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077720/goal-directed-therapy-for-suspected-acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-adults-and-adolescents-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Emma C Wall, Mavuto Mukaka, Brigitte Denis, Veronica S Mlozowa, Malango Msukwa, Khumbo Kasambala, Mulinda Nyrienda, Theresa J Allain, Brian Faragher, Robert S Heyderman, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Mortality from acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in sub-Saharan African adults and adolescents exceeds 50%. We tested if Goal Directed Therapy (GDT) was feasible for adults and adolescents with clinically suspected ABM in Malawi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sequential patient cohorts of adults and adolescents with clinically suspected ABM were recruited in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Malawi using a before/after design. Routine care was monitored in year one (P1)...
2017: PloS One
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