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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923275/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-images-reveal-neuroanatomical-sex-differences-through-the-application-of-voxel-based-morphometry-in-c57bl-6-mice
#1
Cassandra E Meyer, Florian Kurth, Stefano Lepore, Josephine L Gao, Hadley Johnsonbaugh, Mandavi R Oberoi, Stephen J Sawiak, Allan MacKenzie-Graham
Behaviorally relevant sex differences are often associated with structural differences in the brain and many diseases are sexually dimorphic in prevalence and progression. Characterizing sex differences is imperative to gaining a complete understanding of behavior and disease which will, in turn, allow for a balanced approach to scientific research and the development of therapies. In this study, we generated novel tissue probability maps (TPMs) based on 30 male and 30 female in vivo C57BL/6 mouse brain magnetic resonance images and used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze sex differences...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892270/biomimetic-artificial-basilar-membranes-for-next-generation-cochlear-implants
#2
REVIEW
Jongmoon Jang, Jeong Hun Jang, Hongsoo Choi
Patients with sensorineural hearing loss can recover their hearing using a cochlear implant (CI). However, there is a need to develop next-generation CIs to overcome the limitations of conventional CIs caused by extracorporeal devices. Recently, artificial basilar membranes (ABMs) are actively studied for next-generation CIs. The ABM is an acoustic transducer that mimics the mechanical frequency selectivity of the BM and acoustic-to-electrical energy conversion of hair cells. This paper presents recent progress in biomimetic ABMs...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882830/autobiographical-memory-a-candidate-latent-vulnerability-mechanism-for-psychiatric-disorder-following-childhood-maltreatment
#3
Eamon J McCrory, Vanessa B Puetz, Eleanor A Maguire, Andrea Mechelli, Amy Palmer, Mattia I Gerin, Philip A Kelly, Iakovina Koutoufa, Essi Viding
BackgroundAltered autobiographical memory (ABM) functioning has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder and may represent one mechanism by which childhood maltreatment elevates psychiatric risk.AimsTo investigate the impact of childhood maltreatment on ABM functioning.MethodThirty-four children with documented maltreatment and 33 matched controls recalled specific ABMs in response to emotionally valenced cue words during functional magnetic resonance imaging.ResultsChildren with maltreatment experience showed reduced hippocampal and increased middle temporal and parahippocampal activation during positive ABM recall compared with peers...
September 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870154/projecting-prevalence-costs-and-evaluating-simulated-interventions-for-diabetic-end-stage-renal-disease-in-a-canadian-population-of-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-people-an-agent-based-approach
#4
Amy Gao, Nathaniel D Osgood, Ying Jiang, Roland F Dyck
BACKGROUND: Diabetes-related end stage renal disease (DM-ESRD) is a devastating consequence of the type 2 diabetes epidemic, both of which disproportionately affect Indigenous peoples. Projecting case numbers and costs into future decades would help to predict resource requirements, and simulating hypothetical interventions could guide the choice of best practices to mitigate current trends. METHODS: An agent based model (ABM) was built to forecast First Nations and non-First Nations cases of DM-ESRD in Saskatchewan from 1980 to 2025 and to simulate two hypothetical interventions...
September 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859724/meeting-acgme-and-abms-quality-improvement-requirements-in-a-sleep-medicine-fellowship-program
#5
Anita Valanju Shelgikar, Cindy Priddy, R Van Harrison
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe a sustainable program of teaching and implementing quality improvement (QI) in a 12-month sleep medicine fellowship. METHODS: We created a QI curriculum based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) Part IV Maintenance of Certification (MOC) requirements for QI. Two program faculty with prior QI training volunteered to mentor fellows. Our institution's central QI office houses QI experts who teach QI across the health system...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843575/can-less-be-more-open-trial-of-a-stepped-care-approach-for-child-and-adolescent-anxiety-disorders
#6
Jeremy W Pettit, Yasmin Rey, Michele Bechor, Raquel Melendez, Daniella Vaclavik, Victor Buitron, Yair Bar-Haim, Daniel S Pine, Wendy K Silverman
This open trial presents a stepped care treatment approach for youths with anxiety disorders. In Step 1, 124 youths (65 girls; M age=9.7years) participated in a low intensity computer administered attention bias modification (ABM) protocol. Statistically significant reductions in youth anxiety severity were found following Step 1. Youths and parents were then given the option to not continue with further treatment or step up to a higher intensity cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol (Step 2). Of 112 youths who completed Step 1, 67 (59...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838064/a-comparison-of-agent-based-models-and-the-parametric-g-formula-for-causal-inference
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Eleanor J Murray, James M Robins, George R Seage, Kenneth A Freedberg, Miguel A Hernán
Decision-making requires choosing from treatments on the basis of correctly estimated outcome distributions under each treatment. In the absence of randomized trials, 2 possible approaches are the parametric g-formula and agent-based models (ABMs). The g-formula has been used exclusively to estimate effects in the population from which data were collected, whereas ABMs are commonly used to estimate effects in multiple populations, necessitating stronger assumptions. Here, we describe potential biases that arise when ABM assumptions do not hold...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823079/mechanobiological-model-of-arterial-growth-and-remodeling
#8
Maziyar Keshavarzian, Clark A Meyer, Heather N Hayenga
A coupled agent-based model (ABM) and finite element analysis (FEA) computational framework is developed to study the interplay of bio-chemo-mechanical factors in blood vessels and their role in maintaining homeostasis. The agent-based model implements the power of REPAST Simphony libraries and adapts its environment for biological simulations. Coupling a continuum-level model (FEA) to a cellular-level model (ABM) has enabled this computational framework to capture the response of blood vessels to increased or decreased levels of growth factors, proteases and other signaling molecules (on the micro scale) as well as altered blood pressure...
August 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821537/investigating-novice-and-expert-conceptions-of-genetically-modified-organisms
#9
Lisa M Potter, Sarah A Bissonnette, Jonathan D Knight, Kimberly D Tanner
The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when probed with real-world, molecular and cellular, and essentialist cues, and how those conceptions compared across biology expertise...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817304/medical-education-and-leadership-in-breastfeeding-medicine
#10
Julie Scott Taylor, Esther Bell
Physicians' experience with high quality training in breastfeeding during their medical education is historically varied. The process of becoming a board-certified physician entails more than 20 years of education, and although medical school and residency training timelines and courses are relatively standardized across the United States and even internationally, breastfeeding education varies greatly across schools and programs. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) exists, in part, because historically, physicians have received too little clinical training in breastfeeding and infant nutrition...
August 17, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815214/chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-lfo1-is-an-isdg-family-heme-oxygenase
#11
Lisa J Lojek, Allison J Farrand, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Brian W Michel, Sabeeha S Merchant, Antonis Rokas, Eric P Skaar
Heme is essential for respiration across all domains of life. However, heme accumulation can lead to toxicity if cells are unable to either degrade or export heme or its toxic by-products. Under aerobic conditions, heme degradation is performed by heme oxygenases, enzymes which utilize oxygen to cleave the tetrapyrrole ring of heme. The HO-1 family of heme oxygenases has been identified in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells, whereas the IsdG family has thus far been described only in bacteria. We identified a hypothetical protein in the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which encodes a protein containing an antibiotic biosynthesis monooxygenase (ABM) domain consistent with those associated with IsdG family members...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805306/bioprocess-scale-up-down-as-integrative-enabling-technology-from-fluid-mechanics-to-systems-biology-and-beyond
#12
Frank Delvigne, Ralf Takors, Rob Mudde, Walter van Gulik, Henk Noorman
Efficient optimization of microbial processes is a critical issue for achieving a number of sustainable development goals, considering the impact of microbial biotechnology in agrofood, environment, biopharmaceutical and chemical industries. Many of these applications require scale-up after proof of concept. However, the behaviour of microbial systems remains unpredictable (at least partially) when shifting from laboratory-scale to industrial conditions. The need for robust microbial systems is thus highly needed in this context, as well as a better understanding of the interactions between fluid mechanics and cell physiology...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791758/agent-based-computational-model-of-retinal-angiogenesis-simulates-microvascular-network-morphology-as-a-function-of-pericyte-coverage
#13
Joseph Walpole, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Shayn M Peirce, John C Chappell
OBJECTIVE: Define a role for perivascular cells during developmental retinal angiogenesis in the context of endothelial cell Notch1-DLL4 signaling at the multicellular network level. METHODS: The retinal vasculature is highly sensitive to growth factor mediated intercellular signaling. Although endothelial cell signaling has been explored in detail, it remains unclear how pericytes function to modulate these signals that lead to a diverse set of vascular network patterns in health and disease...
August 8, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759865/cognitive-bias-modification-a-review-of-meta-analyses
#14
REVIEW
Emma B Jones, Louise Sharpe
BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, but controversial intervention with considerable divergence amongst conclusions in individual studies and reviews. This systematic review synthesizes meta-analyses of CBM to determine whether CBM is effective, and what parameters most reliably evoke the process of CBM. METHODS: A systematic literature search resulted in twelve meta-analyses in total, from which the published effect sizes were extracted. RESULTS: Attention bias modification (ABM) shifted targeted biases in adults (ES = 0...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752017/attention-bias-modification-abm-review-of-effects-of-multisession-abm-training-on-anxiety-and-threat-related-attention-in-high-anxious-individuals
#15
REVIEW
Karin Mogg, Allison M Waters, Brendan P Bradley
Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce anxiety by reducing attention bias (AB) to threat; however, effects on anxiety and AB are variable. This review examines 34 studies assessing effects of multisession-ABM on both anxiety and AB in high-anxious individuals. Methods include ABM-threat-avoidance (promoting attention-orienting away from threat), ABM-positive-search (promoting explicit, goal-directed attention-search for positive/nonthreat targets among negative/threat distractors), and comparison conditions (e...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738777/aberrantly-binding-micrornas-and-their-interactions-with-nuclear-hormone-receptors
#16
Jeyalakshmi Kandhavelu, Suresh Palanivel, Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu
Nuclear Hormone Receptors (NHRs) are the most important targets that plays vital role in cellular signaling pathways of disease. Regulation of NHRs by using potential non-coding RNAs, miRNA, is clinically important to control a disease. However, the detailed status of miRNA interactions with NHRs remains unclear. Hence, the focus of present study is to investigate the interface at the genome-wide level in human, mouse and rat using computational biology approach. This big-data analysis explored thousands of available miRNAs interactions with the NHRs and the results showed that 11 miRNAs have conserved targets, where six miRNAs genetically conserved among different species...
July 24, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#17
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711114/the-effects-of-training-contingency-awareness-during-attention-bias-modification-on-learning-and-stress-reactivity
#18
Amit Lazarov, Rany Abend, Shiran Seidner, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprising two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprising two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701050/validation-performance-comparison-for-finite-element-models-of-the-human-brain
#19
Logan E Miller, Jillian E Urban, Joel D Stitzel
The objective of this study was to compare the performance of six validated brain finite element (FE) models to localized brain motion validation data in five experimental configurations. Model performance was measured using the objective metric CORA (CORrelation and Analysis), where higher ratings represent better correlation. The KTH model achieved the highest average CORA rating, and the ABM received the highest average rating among models robustly validated against five cadaver impacts in three directions...
July 12, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690682/autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mononuclear-cells-transplantation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-effect-on-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Shobhit Bhansali, Pinaki Dutta, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Ashish Jain, Sunder Mudaliar, Meredith Hawkins, Anura V Kurpad, Deepak Pahwa, Ashok Kumar Yadav, Ratti Ram Sharma, Vivekanand Jha, Neelam Marwaha, Shipra Bhansali, Anil Bhansali
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and insulin deficiency are the cardinal defects in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the plethora of anti-diabetic medications, drugs specifically targeting the β-cells are still desired. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutics strategy to target β-cells; however, their mechanism of action has not been well defined. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (ABM-MNCs) transplantation in T2DM, and explores the mechanistic insights into stem cells action through metabolic studies...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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