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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817304/medical-education-and-leadership-in-breastfeeding-medicine
#1
Julie Scott Taylor, Esther Bell
Physicians' experience with high quality training in breastfeeding during their medical education is historically varied. The process of becoming a board-certified physician entails more than 20 years of education, and although medical school and residency training timelines and courses are relatively standardized across the United States and even internationally, breastfeeding education varies greatly across schools and programs. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) exists, in part, because historically, physicians have received too little clinical training in breastfeeding and infant nutrition...
August 17, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815214/chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-lfo1-is-an-isdg-family-heme-oxygenase
#2
Lisa J Lojek, Allison J Farrand, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Brian W Michel, Sabeeha S Merchant, Antonis Rokas, Eric P Skaar
Heme is essential for respiration across all domains of life. However, heme accumulation can lead to toxicity if cells are unable to either degrade or export heme or its toxic by-products. Under aerobic conditions, heme degradation is performed by heme oxygenases, enzymes which utilize oxygen to cleave the tetrapyrrole ring of heme. The HO-1 family of heme oxygenases has been identified in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells, whereas the IsdG family has thus far been described only in bacteria. We identified a hypothetical protein in the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which encodes a protein containing an antibiotic biosynthesis monooxygenase (ABM) domain consistent with those associated with IsdG family members...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805306/bioprocess-scale-up-down-as-integrative-enabling-technology-from-fluid-mechanics-to-systems-biology-and-beyond
#3
Frank Delvigne, Ralf Takors, Rob Mudde, Walter van Gulik, Henk Noorman
Efficient optimization of microbial processes is a critical issue for achieving a number of sustainable development goals, considering the impact of microbial biotechnology in agrofood, environment, biopharmaceutical and chemical industries. Many of these applications require scale-up after proof of concept. However, the behaviour of microbial systems remains unpredictable (at least partially) when shifting from laboratory-scale to industrial conditions. The need for robust microbial systems is thus highly needed in this context, as well as a better understanding of the interactions between fluid mechanics and cell physiology...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791758/agent-based-computational-model-of-retinal-angiogenesis-simulates-microvascular-network-morphology-as-a-function-of-pericyte-coverage
#4
Joseph Walpole, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Shayn M Peirce, John C Chappell
OBJECTIVE: Define a role for perivascular cells during developmental retinal angiogenesis in the context of endothelial cell Notch1-DLL4 signaling at the multicellular network level. METHODS: The retinal vasculature is highly sensitive to growth factor mediated intercellular signaling. Although endothelial cell signaling has been explored in detail, it remains unclear how pericytes function to modulate these signals that lead to a diverse set of vascular network patterns in health and disease...
August 8, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759865/cognitive-bias-modification-a-review-of-meta-analyses
#5
REVIEW
Emma B Jones, Louise Sharpe
BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, but controversial intervention with considerable divergence amongst conclusions in individual studies and reviews. This systematic review synthesizes meta-analyses of CBM to determine whether CBM is effective, and what parameters most reliably evoke the process of CBM. METHODS: A systematic literature search resulted in twelve meta-analyses in total, from which the published effect sizes were extracted. RESULTS: Attention bias modification (ABM) shifted targeted biases in adults (ES = 0...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752017/attention-bias-modification-abm-review-of-effects-of-multisession-abm-training-on-anxiety-and-threat-related-attention-in-high-anxious-individuals
#6
REVIEW
Karin Mogg, Allison M Waters, Brendan P Bradley
Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce anxiety by reducing attention bias (AB) to threat; however, effects on anxiety and AB are variable. This review examines 34 studies assessing effects of multisession-ABM on both anxiety and AB in high-anxious individuals. Methods include ABM-threat-avoidance (promoting attention-orienting away from threat), ABM-positive-search (promoting explicit, goal-directed attention-search for positive/nonthreat targets among negative/threat distractors), and comparison conditions (e...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738777/aberrantly-binding-micrornas-and-their-interactions-with-nuclear-hormone-receptors
#7
Jeyalakshmi Kandhavelu, Suresh Palanivel, Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu
Nuclear Hormone Receptors (NHRs) are the most important targets that plays vital role in cellular signaling pathways of disease. Regulation of NHRs by using potential non-coding RNAs, miRNA, is clinically important to control a disease. However, the detailed status of miRNA interactions with NHRs remains unclear. Hence, the focus of present study is to investigate the interface at the genome-wide level in human, mouse and rat using computational biology approach. This big-data analysis explored thousands of available miRNAs interactions with the NHRs and the results showed that 11 miRNAs have conserved targets, where six miRNAs genetically conserved among different species...
July 24, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#8
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711114/the-effects-of-training-contingency-awareness-during-attention-bias-modification-on-learning-and-stress-reactivity
#9
Amit Lazarov, Rany Abend, Shiran Seidner, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprising two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprising two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701050/validation-performance-comparison-for-finite-element-models-of-the-human-brain
#10
Logan E Miller, Jillian E Urban, Joel D Stitzel
The objective of this study was to compare the performance of six validated brain finite element (FE) models to localized brain motion validation data in five experimental configurations. Model performance was measured using the objective metric CORA (CORrelation and Analysis), where higher ratings represent better correlation. The KTH model achieved the highest average CORA rating, and the ABM received the highest average rating among models robustly validated against five cadaver impacts in three directions...
July 12, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690682/autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mononuclear-cells-transplantation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-effect-on-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity
#11
Shobhit Bhansali, Pinaki Dutta, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Ashish Jain, Sunder Mudaliar, Meredith Hawkins, Anura V Kurpad, Deepak Pahwa, Ashok Kumar Yadav, Ratti Ram Sharma, Vivekanand Jha, Neelam Marwaha, Shipra Bhansali, Anil Bhansali
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and insulin deficiency are the cardinal defects in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the plethora of anti-diabetic medications, drugs specifically targeting the β-cells are still desired. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutics strategy to target β-cells; however, their mechanism of action has not been well defined. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (ABM-MNCs) transplantation in T2DM, and explores the mechanistic insights into stem cells action through metabolic studies...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679174/invited-commentary-causal-inference-across-space-and-time-quixotic-quest-worthy-goal-or-both
#12
Jessie K Edwards, Catherine R Lesko, Alexander P Keil
The g-formula and agent-based models (ABMs) are 2 approaches used to estimate causal effects. In the current issue of the Journal, Murray et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;000(0):000-000) compare the performance of the g-formula and ABMs to estimate causal effects in 3 target populations. In their thoughtful paper, the authors outline several reasons that a causal effect estimated using an ABM may be biased when parameterized from at least 1 source external to the target population. The authors have addressed an important issue in epidemiology: Often causal effect estimates are needed to inform public health decisions in settings without complete data...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673036/invited-commentary-agent-based-models-bias-in-the-face-of-discovery
#13
Katherine M Keyes, Melissa Tracy, Stephen J Mooney, Aaron Shev, Magdalena Cerdá
Agent-based models (ABMs) have grown in popularity in epidemiologic applications, but the assumptions necessary for valid inference have only partially been articulated. In this issue, Murray et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;000(0):000-000) provided a much-needed analysis of the consequence of some of these assumptions, comparing analysis using an ABM to a similar analysis using the parametric g-formula. In particular, their work focused on the biases that can arise in ABMs that use parameters drawn from distinct populations whose causal structures and baseline outcome risks differ...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645858/vascular-adaptation-pattern-formation-and-cross-validation-between-an-agent-based-model-and-a-dynamical-system
#14
Marc Garbey, Stefano Casarin, Scott A Berceli
Myocardial infarction is the global leading cause of mortality (Go et al., 2014). Coronary artery occlusion is its main etiology and it is commonly treated by Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery (Wilson et al, 2007). The long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory (Benedetto, 2016) as the graft faces the phenomenon of restenosis during the post-surgery, which consists of re-occlusion of the lumen and usually requires secondary intervention even within one year after the initial surgery (Harskamp, 2013)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612504/effect-of-attention-bias-modification-on-brain-function-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-preliminary-electroencephalogram-and-psycho-behavioral-study
#15
J Tayama, T Saigo, S Ogawa, A Takeoka, T Hamaguchi, M Hayashida, S Fukudo, S Shirabe
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a reciprocal relationship with anxiety. In this intervention-based study, we investigated the utility of attention bias modification (ABM) therapy in patients with IBS. We hypothesized that IBS-related electroencephalographic abnormalities would be normalized after ABM therapy. METHODS: Seventeen patients with IBS and 13 healthy subjects completed five ABM intervention sessions over a 2-month period...
June 14, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595895/understanding-the-dissemination-of-appointment-based-synchronization-models-using-the-cfir-framework
#16
Julie Patterson, David Holdford
BACKGROUND: The appointment based model (ABM) is a innovative model of pharmacy practice that combines medication synchronization with scheduled monthly appointments to improve patient medication adherence and convenience. It is being implemented in many pharmacies across the United States. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to use the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to discuss the barriers and facilitators of ABM implementation in community pharmacies while identifying priorities for additional implementation research...
September 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593562/assessing-the-impacts-of-the-changes-in-farming-systems-on-food-security-and-environmental-sustainability-of-a-chinese-rural-region-under-different-policy-scenarios-an-agent-based-model
#17
Chengcheng Yuan, Liming Liu, Xiaoxing Qi, Yonghu Fu, Jinwei Ye
Since China has undergone a series of economic reforms and implemented opening up policies, its farming systems have significantly changed and have dramatically influenced the society, economy, and environment of China. To assess the comprehensive impacts of these changes on food security and environmental sustainability, and establish effective and environment-friendly subsidy policies, this research constructed an agent-based model (ABM). Daligang Town, which is located in the two-season rice region of Southern China, was selected as the case study site...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585809/bsim-2-0-an-advanced-agent-based-cell-simulator
#18
Antoni Matyjaszkiewicz, Gianfranco Fiore, Fabio Annunziata, Claire S Grierson, Nigel J Savery, Lucia Marucci, Mario di Bernardo
Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a number of advantages relative to traditional continuum modeling approaches, permitting incorporation of great detail and realism into simulations, allowing in silico tracking of single-cell behaviors and correlation of these with emergent effects at the macroscopic level. In this study we present BSim 2.0, a radically new version of BSim, a computational ABM framework for modeling dynamics of bacteria in typical experimental environments including microfluidic chemostats...
June 23, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577533/an-agent-based-model-simulation-of-influenza-interactions-at-the-host-level-insight-into-the-influenza-related-burden-of-pneumococcal-infections
#19
Hélène Arduin, Matthieu Domenech de Cellès, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier, Lulla Opatowski
BACKGROUND: Host-level influenza virus-respiratory pathogen interactions are often reported. Although the exact biological mechanisms involved remain unelucidated, secondary bacterial infections are known to account for a large part of the influenza-associated burden, during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Those interactions probably impact the microorganisms' transmission dynamics and the influenza public health toll. Mathematical models have been widely used to examine influenza epidemics and the public health impact of control measures...
June 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542193/an-agent-based-model-of-leukocyte-transendothelial-migration-during-atherogenesis
#20
Rita Bhui, Heather N Hayenga
A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of hemodynamics and cytokines on leukocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) and subsequent accumulation of leukocyte-derived foam cells in the artery wall. However, a comprehensive mechanobiological model to capture these spatiotemporal events and predict the growth and remodeling of an atherosclerotic artery is still lacking. Here, we present a multiscale model of leukocyte TEM and plaque evolution in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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