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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421127/using-agent-based-models-to-develop-public-policy-about-food-behaviours-future-directions-and-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Philippe J Giabbanelli, Rik Crutzen
Most adults are overweight or obese in many western countries. Several population-level interventions on the physical, economical, political, or sociocultural environment have thus attempted to achieve a healthier weight. These interventions have involved different weight-related behaviours, such as food behaviours. Agent-based models (ABMs) have the potential to help policymakers evaluate food behaviour interventions from a systems perspective. However, fully realizing this potential involves a complex procedure starting with obtaining and analyzing data to populate the model and eventually identifying more efficient cross-sectoral policies...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421016/online-coaching-of-emotion-regulation-strategies-for-parents-efficacy-of-the-online-rational-positive-parenting-program-and-attention-bias-modification-procedures
#2
Oana A David, David Capris, Alexandra Jarda
Parenting programs are currently treatment of choice for behavioral disorders in children and one of their main components is reducing the negativity bias in the child-parent dyad. The Rational Positive Parenting Program (rPPP) is a program with a special focus on parent emotion-regulation functional reappraisal strategies, which has recently received consistent support for reducing child externalizing and internalizing disorders. In the last years, online interventions were proliferated and the Attention Bias Modification (ABM) becoming a promising implicit therapeutic intervention based on attention deployment emotion-regulation strategy, or adjunctive module to usual treatments, with results in multiple domains, varying from pain to self-esteem and emotional disorders (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384572/assessing-surface-water-flood-risk-and-management-strategies-under-future-climate-change-insights-from-an-agent-based-model
#3
K Jenkins, S Surminski, J Hall, F Crick
Climate change and increasing urbanization are projected to result in an increase in surface water flooding and consequential damages in the future. In this paper, we present insights from a novel Agent Based Model (ABM), applied to a London case study of surface water flood risk, designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options; how risk reduction could be achieved by homeowners and government; and the role of flood insurance and the new flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change...
April 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365845/assessing-the-effects-of-rural-livelihood-transition-on-non-point-source-pollution-a-coupled-abm-iecm-model
#4
Chengcheng Yuan, Liming Liu, Jinwei Ye, Guoping Ren, Dong Zhuo, Xiaoxing Qi
Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution...
April 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355160/probing-protein-lipid-interactions-by-fret-between-membrane-fluorophores
#5
Valeriya M Trusova, Galyna P Gorbenko, Todor Deligeorgiev, Nikolai Gadjev
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful fluorescence technique that has found numerous applications in medicine and biology. One area where FRET proved to be especially informative involves the intermolecular interactions in biological membranes. The present study was focused on developing and verifying a Monte-Carlo approach to analyzing the results of FRET between the membrane-bound fluorophores. This approach was employed to quantify FRET from benzanthrone dye ABM to squaraine dye SQ-1 in the model protein-lipid system containing a polycationic globular protein lysozyme and negatively charged lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol...
September 21, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350312/miller-s-pyramid-and-core-competency-assessment-a-study-in-relationship-construct-validity
#6
Betsy White Williams, Phil D Byrne, Dillon Welindt, Michael V Williams
INTRODUCTION: Continuous professional development relies on the link between performance and an educational process aimed at improving knowledge and skill. One of the most broadly used frameworks for assessing skills is Miller's Pyramid. This Pyramid has a series of levels of achievement beginning with knowledge (at the base) and ending with routine application in the clinical setting. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of convergence of two measurement methods, one based on Miller's framework, the second using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/American Board of Medical Specialties (ACGME/ABMS) Core Competency framework...
October 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343916/epidemiologic-trend-of-adult-bacterial-meningitis-in-southern-taiwan-2006-2015
#7
Chia-Yi Lien, Chi-Ren Huang, Wan-Chen Tsai, Che-Wei Hsu, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Chun-Chih Chien, Wen-Neng Chang
The purpose of this study is to analyze recent epidemiologic trend of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) in Taiwan. The clinical features, laboratory data and therapeutic outcomes of 157 patients with ABM from 2006-2015 were analyzed. The results were compared with those of our previous two epidemiologic studies of ABM (1st study: 202 cases, January 1986-June 1999; 2nd study: 181 cases, July 1999-December 2005). Of the 157 patients with ABM, 96 were men and 61 women, and 68.2% (107/157) of them had a postneurosurgical state as the underlying condition...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324951/mentor-s-brain-functional-connectivity-network-during-robotic-assisted-surgery-mentorship
#8
Somayeh B Shafiei, Scott T Doyle, Khurshid A Guru
In many complicated cognitive-motor tasks mentoring is inevitable during the learning process. Although mentors are expert in doing the task, trainee's operation might be new for a mentor. This makes mentoring a very difficult task which demands not only the knowledge and experience of a mentor, but also his/her ability to follow trainee's movements and patiently advise him/her during the operation. We hypothesize that information binding throughout the mentor's brain areas, contributed to the task, changes as the expertise level of the trainee improves from novice to intermediate and expert...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322382/regulation-of-raw-264-7-cell-mediated-immunity-by-polysaccharides-from-agaricus-blazei-murill-via-the-mapk-signal-transduction-pathway
#9
Feier Cheng, Xiaoyan Yan, Miaoqing Zhang, Mingchang Chang, Shaojun Yun, Junlong Meng, Jingyu Liu, Cui-Ping Feng
Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) is a common anticancer folk remedy. Its active ingredients, i.e., polysaccharides, have been isolated and exhibit indirect tumor-suppressing activity via immunological activation. The effects of polysaccharides derived from A. blazei Murill (ABMP) on RAW 264.7 cells were examined by western blotting and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of 500, 1000, and 2000 μg mL(-1) ABMP on the growth of RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated by measuring the OD490 value; the optimum concentration was found to be 1000 μg mL(-1)...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303312/neutral-evolution-and-dispersal-limitation-produce-biogeographic-patterns-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-populations-of-lake-systems
#10
Sahar Shirani, Ferdi L Hellweger
Molecular observations reveal substantial biogeographic patterns of cyanobacteria within systems of connected lakes. An important question is the relative role of environmental selection and neutral processes in the biogeography of these systems. Here, we quantify the effect of genetic drift and dispersal limitation by simulating individual cyanobacteria cells using an agent-based model (ABM). In the model, cells grow (divide), die, and migrate between lakes. Each cell has a full genome that is subject to neutral mutation (i...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301365/preserving-the-legitimacy-of-board-certification
#11
Michael S Hanemann, Holly C Wall, John A Dean
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this discussion were to inform the medical community about the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery's ongoing attempts in Louisiana to achieve equivalency to American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) member boards so that its diplomates may use the term "board certified" in advertising and to ensure public safety by upholding the standards for medical board certification. BACKGROUND: In 2011, Louisiana passed a truth in medical advertising law, which was intended to protect the public by prohibiting the use of the term "board certified" by improperly credentialed physicians...
March 16, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294631/abm-clinical-protocol-3-supplementary-feedings-in-the-healthy-term-breastfed-neonate-revised-2017
#12
Ann Kellams, Cadey Harrel, Stephanie Omage, Carrie Gregory, Casey Rosen-Carole
A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.
March 15, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288787/evolution-of-autobiographical-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#13
Muireann Irish, Ramon Landin-Romero, Annu Mothakunnel, Siddharth Ramanan, Sharpley Hsieh, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
Compromised autobiographical memory (ABM) retrieval is well established in dementia, attributable to degeneration of a core memory brain network. It remains unclear, however, how the progressive spread of atrophy with advancing disease severity impacts ABM retrieval across life epochs. To this end, we conducted a longitudinal study of recent and remote ABM in Alzheimer's disease (AD, n =11), and a frontotemporal lobar degeneration group (FTD, n =13) comprising 7 behavioral variant FTD and 6 semantic dementia patients, in comparison with 23 healthy older Controls...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257982/online-visual-search-attentional-bias-modification-for-adolescents-with-heightened-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
E L De Voogd, R W Wiers, E Salemink
Anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, are both characterized by a negative attentional bias. As Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) can reduce such a bias, and might also affect emotional reactivity, it could be a promising early intervention. However, a growing number of studies also report comparable improvements in both active and placebo groups. The current study investigated the effects of eight online sessions of visual search (VS) ABM compared to both a VS placebo-training and a no-training control group in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 108)...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257926/attention-bias-modification-training-under-working-memory-load-increases-the-magnitude-of-change-in-attentional-bias
#15
Patrick J F Clarke, Sonya Branson, Nigel T M Chen, Bram Van Bockstaele, Elske Salemink, Colin MacLeod, Lies Notebaert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have shown promise as a therapeutic intervention, however current ABM procedures have proven inconsistent in their ability to reliably achieve the requisite change in attentional bias needed to produce emotional benefits. This highlights the need to better understand the precise task conditions that facilitate the intended change in attention bias in order to realise the therapeutic potential of ABM procedures. Based on the observation that change in attentional bias occurs largely outside conscious awareness, the aim of the current study was to determine if an ABM procedure delivered under conditions likely to preclude explicit awareness of the experimental contingency, via the addition of a working memory load, would contribute to greater change in attentional bias...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244416/longitudinal-changes-in-active-bone-marrow-for-cervical-cancer-patients-treated-with-concurrent-chemoradiation-therapy
#16
Sonal S Noticewala, Nan Li, Casey W Williamson, Carl K Hoh, Hanjie Shen, Michael T McHale, Cheryl C Saenz, John Einck, Steven Plaxe, Florin Vaida, Catheryn M Yashar, Loren K Mell
PURPOSE: To quantify longitudinal changes in active bone marrow (ABM) distributions within unirradiated (extrapelvic) and irradiated (pelvic) bone marrow (BM) in cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We sampled 39 cervical cancer patients treated with CRT, of whom 25 were treated with concurrent cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)) and 14 were treated with cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)) plus gemcitabine (50-125 mg/m(2)) (C/G)...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226841/mentor-s-brain-functional-connectivity-network-during-robotic-assisted-surgery-mentorship
#17
Somayeh B Shafiei, Scott T Doyle, Khurshid A Guru, Somayeh B Shafiei, Scott T Doyle, Khurshid A Guru, Somayeh B Shafiei, Khurshid A Guru, Scott T Doyle
In many complicated cognitive-motor tasks mentoring is inevitable during the learning process. Although mentors are expert in doing the task, trainee's operation might be new for a mentor. This makes mentoring a very difficult task which demands not only the knowledge and experience of a mentor, but also his/her ability to follow trainee's movements and patiently advise him/her during the operation. We hypothesize that information binding throughout the mentor's brain areas, contributed to the task, changes as the expertise level of the trainee improves from novice to intermediate and expert...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213584/using-the-biology-card-sorting-task-to-measure-changes-in-conceptual-expertise-during-postsecondary-biology-education
#18
Sarah A Bissonnette, Elijah D Combs, Paul H Nagami, Victor Byers, Juliana Fernandez, Dinh Le, Jared Realin, Selina Woodham, Julia I Smith, Kimberly D Tanner
While there have been concerted efforts to reform undergraduate biology toward teaching students to organize their conceptual knowledge like experts, there are few tools that attempt to measure this. We previously developed the Biology Card Sorting Task (BCST), designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual biological knowledge. Previous results showed the BCST could differentiate between different populations, namely non-biology majors (NBM) and biology faculty (BF). In this study, we administered the BCST to three additional populations, using a cross-sectional design: entering biology majors (EBM), advanced biology majors (ABM), and biology graduate students (BGS)...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196372/resilience-through-adaptation
#19
Guus A Ten Broeke, George A K van Voorn, Arend Ligtenberg, Jaap Molenaar
Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185626/prevalence-of-concomitant-acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-neonates-with-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#20
Sowdhamini S Wallace, Danielle N Brown, Andrea T Cruz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of concomitant acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in neonates with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study from 2005 to 2013 of infants ≤30 days old evaluated in the emergency department of a quaternary care children's hospital with fever and laboratory-confirmed UTI. Definite ABM was defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture with growth of pathogenic bacteria and probable ABM if pleocytosis with ≥ 20 white blood cell was present in an antibiotic-pretreated patient...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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