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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813661/tissue-resident-macrophages-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-originate-from-embryonic-hematopoiesis-and-promote-tumor-progression
#1
Yu Zhu, John M Herndon, Dorothy K Sojka, Ki-Wook Kim, Brett L Knolhoff, Chong Zuo, Darren R Cullinan, Jingqin Luo, Audrey R Bearden, Kory J Lavine, Wayne M Yokoyama, William G Hawkins, Ryan C Fields, Gwendalyn J Randolph, David G DeNardo
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential components of the cancer microenvironment and play critical roles in the regulation of tumor progression. Optimal therapeutic intervention requires in-depth understanding of the sources that sustain macrophages in malignant tissues. In this study, we investigated the ontogeny of TAMs in murine pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) models. We identified both inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages as sources of TAMs. Unexpectedly, significant portions of pancreas-resident macrophages originated from embryonic development and expanded through in situ proliferation during tumor progression...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813653/the-yolk-sac-feeds-pancreatic-tumors
#2
Jeffrey W Pollard
In this issue of Immunity, Zhu et al. (2017) report that tumor-associated macrophages in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) originate from both the yolk sac (YS) and bone marrow. Differential ablation of these populations indicates that only the YS-derived macrophages promote PDAC progression and growth.
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812305/point-should-radiation-therapy-after-surgery-for-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-be-standard-practice
#3
Camille Berriochoa, Carisa Bohnak, Nicole Chahine, Chirag Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811976/long-lived-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-slice-cultures-enable-precise-study-of-the-immune-microenvironment
#4
Xiuyun Jiang, Y David Seo, Jae Hyuck Chang, Andrew Coveler, Eslam N Nigjeh, Sheng Pan, Florencia Jalikis, Raymond S Yeung, Ian N Crispe, Venu G Pillarisetty
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a deadly disease that is rarely cured, despite many recent successes with immunotherapy for other malignancies. As the human disease is heavily infiltrated by effector T cells, we postulated that accurately modeling the PDA immune microenvironment would allow us to study mechanisms of immunosuppression that could be overcome for therapeutic benefit. Using viable precision-cut slices from fresh PDA, we developed an organotypic culture system for this purpose. We confirmed that cultured slices maintain their baseline morphology, surface area, and microenvironment after at least 6 d in culture, and demonstrated slice survival by MTT assay and by immunohistochemistry staining with Ki-67 and cleaved-Caspase-3 antibodies...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811827/pharmacodynamics-and-medicinal-chemistry-of-an-external-chinese-herbal-formula-for-mammary-precancerous-lesions
#5
Ruixue Chen, Guijuan Zhang, Yi Ma, Fengjie Bie, Hongxia Fan, Min Ma
Ruyan Neixiao Cream (RYNXC) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula for treating mammary precancerous disease. This study was carried out to investigate in vivo anticancer effect of RYNXC and multiple constituents. 32 virginal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (BC), mammary precancer models group (MODEL), tamoxifen group (TAM), and Ruyan Neixiao Cream group (RYNXC). TAM was intervened by tamoxifen; RYNXC was intervened by Ruyan Neixiao Cream. The chromatographic separation was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#6
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810292/-clinicopathologic-features-of-mammary-microglandular-adenosis-with-carcinoma-a-study-of-5-cases
#7
W Chen, C Wang, Z H Zhang, W M Zhang, Y Xu, G X Song
Objective: To study the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical features, differential diagnoses and prognosis of mammary microglandular adenosis with carcinoma (MGACA) with micropapillary pattern. Methods: Five cases of MGACA were collected from 2010 to 2016 and reviewed for their clinical, histologic features and outcome.EnVision method were done for S-100 protein, cytokeratin (CK), p63, Calponin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC), PR, ER and HER2. Results: Histologically, microglandular adenosis(MGA), atypical MGA (AMGA) and invasive carcinoma were seen in all five cases of MGACA...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810144/integrated-genomic-characterization-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#8
(no author information available yet)
We performed integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiling of 150 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) specimens, including samples with characteristic low neoplastic cellularity. Deep whole-exome sequencing revealed recurrent somatic mutations in KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, RNF43, ARID1A, TGFβR2, GNAS, RREB1, and PBRM1. KRAS wild-type tumors harbored alterations in other oncogenic drivers, including GNAS, BRAF, CTNNB1, and additional RAS pathway genes. A subset of tumors harbored multiple KRAS mutations, with some showing evidence of biallelic mutations...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808857/the-surgeon-s-role-in-treating-chronic-pancreatitis-and-incidentally-discovered-pancreatic-lesions
#9
Vikrom K Dhar, Brent T Xia, Syed A Ahmad
Chronic pancreatitis and incidentally discovered pancreatic lesions present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for surgeons. While both decompressive and resection procedures have been described for treatment of chronic pancreatitis, optimal management must be tailored to each patient's individual disease characteristics, parenchymal morphology, and ductal anatomy. Surgeons should strive to achieve long-lasting pain relief while preserving native pancreatic function. For patients with incidentally discovered pancreatic lesions, differentiating benign, pre-malignant, and malignant lesions is critical as earlier treatment is thought to result in improved survival...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808501/evolving-treatment-landscape-for-early-and-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Sally C Lau, Winson Y Cheung
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an infrequent cancer with a high disease related mortality rate, even in the context of early stage disease. Until recently, the rate of death from pancreatic cancer has remained largely similar whereby gemcitabine monotherapy was the mainstay of systemic treatment for most stages of disease. With the discovery of active multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, namely FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, the treatment landscape of pancreatic cancer is slowly evolving...
July 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808290/molecular-mr-imaging-of-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Miloslav Polasek, Yan Yang, Daniel T Schühle, Mohammad A Yaseen, Young R Kim, Yu Sub Sung, Alexander R Guimaraes, Peter Caravan
Fibrosis with excessive amounts of type I collagen is a hallmark of many solid tumours, and fibrosis is a promising target in cancer therapy, but tools for its non-invasive quantification are missing. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging with a gadolinium-based probe targeted to type I collagen (EP-3533) to image and quantify fibrosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. An orthotopic syngeneic mouse model resulted in tumours with 2.3-fold higher collagen level compared to healthy pancreas. Animals were scanned at 4...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808255/critical-role-for-arginase-2-in-obesity-associated-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Tamara Zaytouni, Pei-Yun Tsai, Daniel S Hitchcock, Cory D DuBois, Elizaveta Freinkman, Lin Lin, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Patrick J Lenehan, Brian M Wolpin, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Eduardo M Torres, Nicholas Stylopoulos, Clary B Clish, Nada Y Kalaany
Obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Despite recent identification of metabolic alterations in this lethal malignancy, the metabolic dependencies of obesity-associated PDA remain unknown. Here we show that obesity-driven PDA exhibits accelerated growth and a striking transcriptional enrichment for pathways regulating nitrogen metabolism. We find that the mitochondrial form of arginase (ARG2), which hydrolyzes arginine into ornithine and urea, is induced upon obesity, and silencing or loss of ARG2 markedly suppresses PDA...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807830/usp5-promotes-tumorigenesis-and-progression-of-pancreatic-cancer-by-stabilizing-foxm1-protein
#13
Xin-Yan Li, Hai-Yun Wu, Xiao-Fang Mao, Li-Xin Jiang, Yong-Xiang Wang
Increased ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5) has been associated with tumorigenesis of malignancy including glioblastoma, melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of USP5 in tumorigenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been studied yet. In this study, we demonstrated that USP5 was significantly upregulated in a panel of PDAC cell lines and correlated with FoxM1 protein expression. USP5 knockdown inhibited proliferation of PANC-1 and SW1990, two PDAC cell lines. In the mouse xenografted pancreatic tumor model, suppression of USP5 significantly decreased tumor growth, correlated with down regulation of FoxM1...
August 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807821/popdc1-is-suppressed-in-human-breast-cancer-tissues-and-is-negatively-regulated-by-egfr-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#14
Johanna Ndamwena Amunjela, Steven John Tucker
Breast cancer molecular heterogeneity has resulted in disparities in therapeutic response and targeting of molecular subtypes of breast cancer. This necessitates identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatment. Suppression of Popeye domain-containing (POPDC) proteins is hypothesized to promote malignant cell behaviour and poor clinical outcomes in various cancers. We aimed to determine whether POPDC proteins are suppressed in human ductal carcinoma tissues and if this correlates to clinical progression and Her2 status...
August 11, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807345/ampk-expression-patterns-are-significantly-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-breast-cancer-patients
#15
Jaudah Al-Maghrabi, Kaltoom Al-Sakkaf, Imtiaz Ahmad Qureshi, Nadeem Shafique Butt, Lila Damnhory, Mohamed Elshal, Basim Al-Maghrabi, Alia Aldahlawi, Sawsan Ashoor, Barry Brown, Pauline Dobson, Mohamad Nidal Khabaz
Many investigators have examined the functions of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cancer biology and its anti-neoplastic features in cancer models. The goal of this research is to assess the association of the immunohistochemical expression of AMPK in human mammary tumours with the clinical data of breast cancer patients. 449 cases of previously diagnosed breast cancer, and 27 tissue samples of fibroadenomas and normal breast were utilized for detection of AMPK expression using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807337/evaluation-of-cd43-expression-in-non-hematopoietic-malignancies
#16
Bjorn H Batdorf, Steven H Kroft, Paul R Hosking, Alexandra M Harrington, Alexander C Mackinnon, Horatiu Olteanu
OBJECTIVES: CD43 is normally expressed only on the surface of leukocytes, and is considered a sensitive and specific marker for hematologic malignancies. As such, it may have diagnostic utility in confirming hematolymphoid lineage in cases that are negative for CD45. Aberrant CD43 expression has been described in non-hematopoietic tumors, although literature data on this topic is variable and sometimes contradictory. To clarify and expand on existing literature findings, we evaluated CD43 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large cohort (307) of non-hematopoietic neoplasms, including poorly differentiated malignancies...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806663/management-of-breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-in-catalonia-spain-results-from-the-grup-oncologic-calal%C3%A3-occit%C3%A3-catalonia-survey-with-9-year-follow-up
#17
M J Cambra, B Farrús, F Moreno, Ll Anglada, M Arenas, R Ballester, J Casals, M Cusidó, V García, C Gutiérrez, M Mollà, A Pedro, V Reyes, X Sanz
INTRODUCTION: Reliable data on DCIS incidence and management are not available in many countries. The present study describes the management of DCIS in Catalonia, Spain in the year 2005 and compares these findings to data obtained in France. Local recurrence and late toxicity rates from 2005 through the end of 2014 are reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational survey of patients with pure DCIS (n = 270) diagnosed during 2005. A written questionnaire, the same as used in the French survey, was completed by 14 doctors at 12 cancer centres in Catalonia, Spain...
August 11, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806416/the-impact-of-malignant-nipple-discharge-cytology-ndc-in-surgical-management-of-breast-cancer-patients
#18
Isabella Castellano, Jasna Metovic, Davide Balmativola, Laura Annaratone, Nelson Rangel, Elena Vissio, Riccardo Arisio, Luigia Macrì, Carla Pecchioni, Ivana Sarotto, Francesca Montarolo, Francesca Muscarà, Caterina Marchiò, Paola Cassoni, Janina Kulka, Anna Sapino
BACKGROUND: The role of nipple discharge cytology (NDc) in the surgical management of breast cancer patients is unclear. We aimed: (i) to evaluate the effect of malignant NDc on the surgical approach to the nipple-areola complex, and (ii) to verify the association between malignant NDc and nipple malignancy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a case series of 139 patients with NDc who underwent breast surgery. The clinical and histological findings, types of surgery with emphasis on nipple-areola complex amputation, immunohistochemical phenotypes of the carcinomas and measurements of the tumor-nipple distance were recorded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806320/the-value-of-quality-assured-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-breast-for-the-early-detection-of-breast-cancer-in-asymptomatic-women
#19
Uwe Fischer, Susanne Luftner-Nagel, Friedemann Baum, Katharina Marten-Engelke, Susanne Wienbeck
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the exclusive performance of quality-assured high-resolution breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early detection of breast cancer in a population of asymptomatic women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1189 MRI examinations performed in 789 asymptomatic women (mean age, 51.1 years) were evaluated. All examinations were performed using open bilateral surface coil, dedicated compression device, and high spatial resolution (matrix, 512 × 512)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803777/paraoxonase-2-facilitates-pancreatic-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-by-stimulating-glut1-mediated-glucose-transport
#20
Arvindhan Nagarajan, Shaillay Kumar Dogra, Lisha Sun, Neeru Gandotra, Thuy Ho, Guoping Cai, Gary Cline, Priti Kumar, Robert A Cowles, Narendra Wajapeyee
Metabolic deregulation is a hallmark of human cancers, and the glycolytic and glutamine metabolism pathways were shown to be deregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To identify new metabolic regulators of PDAC tumor growth and metastasis, we systematically knocked down metabolic genes that were overexpressed in human PDAC tumor samples using short hairpin RNAs. We found that p53 transcriptionally represses paraoxonase 2 (PON2), which regulates GLUT1-mediated glucose transport via stomatin. The loss of PON2 initiates the cellular starvation response and activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
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