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Makoto Matsubayashi, Yuu Matsuura, Satoko Nukata, Yuusuke Daizi, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Isao Teramoto, Tomohide Matsuo, Shigehiko Uni, Takeshi Hatta, Akira Kaneko, Naotoshi Tsuji, Kazumi Sasai
Thus far, Entamoeba species have been classified based on morphology such as the number of nuclei in mature cysts and their hosts. Using recently developed molecular tools, ruminant Entamoeba spp. are currently classified into four species/genotypes: E. bovis and Entamoeba ribosomal lineages (RL) 1, 2, and 4. However, the distribution or pathogenicity of ruminant Entamoeba has not been well documented. In the present study, we examined a total of 25 fecal and seven environmental samples collected from six farms in Japan from 2016 to 2017 by the floatation method and PCR and sequencing analyses...
November 28, 2017: Parasitology Research
Cheng-Fang Tsai, Yu-Kai Cheng, Dah-Yuu Lu, Shu-Lin Wang, Chen-Ni Chang, Pei-Chun Chang, Wei-Lan Yeh
Connexins are widely supported as tumor suppressors due to their downregulation in cancers, nevertheless, more recent evidence suggests roles for connexins in facilitating tumor progression in later stages, including metastasis. One of the key factors regulating the expression, modification, stability, and localization of connexins is hormone receptors in hormone-dependent cancers. It is reasonable to consider that hormones/hormone receptors may modulate connexins expression and play critical roles in the cellular control of connexins during breast cancer progression...
November 24, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Go Yamako, Etsuo Chosa, Koji Totoribe, Yuu Fukao, Gang Deng
Simple methods for quantitative evaluations of individual motor performance are crucial for the early detection of motor deterioration. Sit-to-stand movement from a chair is a mechanically demanding component of activities of daily living. Here, we developed a novel method using the ground reaction force and center of pressure measured from the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to quantify sit-to-stand movement (sit-to-stand score) and investigated the age-related change in the sit-to-stand score as a method to evaluate reduction in motor performance...
2017: PloS One
Yuu Ozaki-Honda, Sachiko Seki, Mutsunori Fujiwara, Masaaki Matsuura, Shuichi Fujita, Hisazumi Ikeda, Masahiro Umeda, Takao Ayuse, Tohru Ikeda
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a significant process in the invasion and metastasis of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the cadherin switch has been identified as one of the hallmarks of EMT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of the cadherin switch in the prognosis of OSCC and generate a model for prognostic predictions. Seventy-six biopsy and/or initial surgical specimens from OSCC patients were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in either overall OSCC cells in tumor nests or in OSCC cells at the invasive front...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
Elena M Willner, Yuu Kamada, Yuki Suzuki, Tomoko Emura, Kumi Hidaka, Hendrik Dietz, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Masayuki Endo
We demonstrate direct observation of the dynamic opening and closing behavior of photocontrollable DNA origami nanoscissors using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). First the conformational change between the open and closed state controlled by adjustment of surrounding salt concentration could be directly observed during AFM scanning. Then light-responsive moieties were incorporated into the nanoscissors to control these structural changes by photoirradiation. Using photoswitchable DNA strands, we created a photoresponsive nanoscissors variant and were able to distinguish between the open and closed conformations after respective irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) light by gel electrophoresis and AFM imaging...
October 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Emi Kurimoto, Satoru Matsuda, Yuji Shimizu, Yuu Sako, Takao Mandai, Takahiro Sugimoto, Hiroki Sakamoto, Haruhide Kimura
Activation of muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) is a promising approach for improving cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. However, an M1 selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), at 30 mg/kg, induced diarrhea in wild-type mice, but not in M1R knock-out mice. Moreover, BQCA (0.1-1000 nM) augmented electric field stimulation (EFS) -induced ileum contraction in an in vitro Magnus assay. Thus, we decided to establish a drug-screening strategy to discover novel M1 PAMs producing potent cognitive improvement with minimized gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Shoichi Haimoto, Yusuke Nishimura, Masahito Hara, Yuu Yamamoto, Toshiki Fukuoka, Ryuichi Fukuyama, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Howard J Ginsberg
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) provoked by physiological head rotation is known as rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) or Bow Hunter syndrome. RVAS most often occurs at C1-2 level with head rotation and presents with symptoms of VBI. Several previously published studies have reported RVAS at subaxial sites (V2 segment), however, tumor-induced RVAS has never been reported. The authors report the first case of RVAS at V2 segment due to compression from a spinal tumor. A 71-year-old man presented with symptoms of dizziness provoked by head rotation or neck extension...
October 2017: NMC Case Report Journal
Takahiro Kataoka, Reo Etani, Norie Kanzaki, Yusuke Kobashi, Yuto Yunoki, Tsuyoshi Ishida, Akihiro Sakoda, Yuu Ishimori, Kiyonori Yamaoka
Although radon inhalation increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in mouse organs, the mechanisms and pathways have not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the details of SOD activation in mouse brain tissue following the inhalation of radon at concentrations of 500 or 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h. After inhalation, brains were removed quickly for analysis. Radon inhalation increased the manganese (Mn)-SOD level and mitochondrial SOD activity. However, the differences were not significant...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Kenichi Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Shimo, Naito Kurio, Tatsuo Okui, Soichiro Ibaragi, Yuki Kunisada, Kyoichi Obata, Masanori Masui, Pang Pai, Yuu Horikiri, Nobuyuki Yamanaka, Masaharu Takigawa, Akira Sasaki
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as an adjunct to fracture healing therapies, but the mechanisms underlying its action are not known. We reported that sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling was activated in osteoblasts at the dynamic remodeling site of a bone fracture. Mechanical stimulation is a crucial factor in bone remodeling, and it is related to the primary cilia as a sensor of hedgehog signaling. Here we observed that LIPUS promoted callus formation in accord with Gli2-positive cells after 14 days at the mouse femur fractured site compared with a control group...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yoritaka Akimoto, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Atsuko Gunji, Yuu Kaneko, Michiko Asano, Junko Matsuo, Miho Ota, Hiroshi Kunugi, Takashi Hanakawa, Reiko Mazuka, Yoko Kamio
Irony comprehension requires integration of social contextual information. Previous studies have investigated temporal aspects of irony processing and its neural substrates using psychological/electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, but have not clarified the temporospatial neural mechanisms of irony comprehension. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the neural generators of alpha-band (8-13Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) occurring from 600 to 900ms following the onset of a critical sentence at which social situational contexts activated ironic representation...
September 27, 2017: Brain and Language
Monira Pervin, Keiko Unno, Aimi Nakagawa, Yuu Takahashi, Kazuaki Iguchi, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Minoru Hoshino, Aya Hara, Akiko Takagaki, Fumio Nanjo, Akira Minami, Shinjiro Imai, Yoriyuki Nakamura
BACKGROUND: The consumption of green tea catechins (GTCs) suppresses age-related cognitive dysfunction in mice. GTCs are composed of several catechins, of which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, followed by epigallocatechin (EGC). Orally ingested EGCG is hydrolyzed by intestinal biota to EGC and gallic acid (GA). To understand the mechanism of action of GTCs on the brain, their permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) as well as their effects on cognitive function in mice and on nerve cell proliferation in vitro were examined...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Sayaka Matsuura, Yumiko Shirai, Miyu Kubo, Chisako Nayama, Masami Okitsu, Yuu Oiwa, Sonoko Yasui, Yoshiko Suzuki, Tomohiro Murata, Eiji Ishikawa, Chikao Miki, Yasuhiro Hamada
Serum transthyretin (TTR), also known as prealbumin, is a reliable nutritional indicator and an independent prognostic factor for maintenance hemodialysis patients. However, we recently reported that serum TTR levels did not affect protein-energy wasting (PEW). In this study, we investigated factors affecting serum TTR levels in 60 maintenance hemodialysis patients. The patients were divided into High-TTR and Low-TTR groups according to the median serum TTR level. Albumin levels were significantly higher and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly lower in the High-TTR group than in the Low-TTR group...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Akihiko Goto, Yoshihiko Tagawa, Yuu Moriya, Sho Sato, Masami Yamamoto, Takeshi Wakabayashi, Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Joost DeJongh, Tamara J van Steeg, Toshiya Moriwaki, Satoru Asahi
A recent study suggested that the pharmacokinetics (PK) of highly-fat distributed compounds can be affected by acute changes in the volume of adipose tissue. The present study investigates possible influences of body composition on the disposition of the highly lipophilic compound TAK-357 in two rat strains. Physiologically-based PK (PBPK) modeling and simulation was applied on single and multiple dose PK data of TAK-357 in obese Wistar fatty rats and Wistar lean rats having approximately 45% and 13% body fat, respectively...
September 25, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Pei-Yuu Yang, Chen-Jei Tai
Afatinib (Gilotrif™) is widely used to treat patients with mutant activating epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR-) dependent lung adenocarcinoma; however, it has various adverse side effects. Here, we report a patient with afatinib-induced paronychia. After Chinese medicine treatment with the well-known anticancer Chinese herbs, Jen-Ren-Hwo-Minq-Saan, and decoction of Ban-Zhi-Lian (Scutellaria barbata) with Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao (Hedyotis diffusa Willd), patient's condition was significantly improved. This shows that these Chinese medicines can not only be used in cancer treatment but also be used in the afatinib-induced paronychia...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Tohru Ikeda, Sachiko Seki, Mutsunori Fujiwara, Masaaki Matsuura, Yuu Ozaki-Honda, Shuichi Fujita, Hisazumi Ikeda, Masahiro Umeda, Izumi Asahina
A novel system auxiliary to the Union for International Cancer Control classification may allow the prognosis of patients with malignant tumors at similar stages to be predicted, as currently this is challenging. The present study generated a novel system to predict populations at low risk among patients with stage III/IV oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A total of 41 patients who were diagnosed at stages III/IV OSCC and underwent surgical tumor resection were analyzed. Band-like or follicular lymphocyte infiltration, intraepithelial micro-abscess formation and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration were histopathologically evaluated...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
Saki Gotoh, Yuu Miyauchi, Rick Moore, Masahiko Negishi
Low glucose stimulated phosphorylation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) at Ser(350) in correlation with an increased gluconeogenesis in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells. Only glucose, but neither insulin nor glucagon, stimulated this phosphorylation. Here, serine/threonine kinase, vaccinia related kinase 1 (VRK1)-mediated phosphorylation of PXR is now defined as this glucose-elicited novel signal. In low glucose conditions, VRK1 directly phosphorylates PXR at Ser(350), enabling PO3-PXR to scaffold protein phosphatase PP2Cα...
December 2017: Cellular Signalling
Shunsuke Hirooka, Yuu Hirose, Yu Kanesaki, Sumio Higuchi, Takayuki Fujiwara, Ryo Onuma, Atsuko Era, Ryudo Ohbayashi, Akihiro Uzuka, Hisayoshi Nozaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
Some microalgae are adapted to extremely acidic environments in which toxic metals are present at high levels. However, little is known about how acidophilic algae evolved from their respective neutrophilic ancestors by adapting to particular acidic environments. To gain insights into this issue, we determined the draft genome sequence of the acidophilic green alga Chlamydomonas eustigma and performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses between Ceustigma and its neutrophilic relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii The results revealed the following features in Ceustigma that probably contributed to the adaptation to an acidic environment...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ryoko Koga, Mohamed O Radwan, Tomohiko Ejima, Yosuke Kanemaru, Hiroshi Tateishi, Taha F S Ali, Halil Ibrahim Ciftci, Yuri Shibata, Yuu Taguchi, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Masami Otsuka, Mikako Fujita
Despite various inhibitors targeting the zinc center(s) of enzymes, drugs that target zinc fingers have not been examined in detail. We previously developed a dithiol compound named SN-1 that has an inhibitory effect on the function of zinc finger transcription factors, but its mechanism of action has not yet been elucidated. To establish a general principle for new drugs, the details of the action of SN-1 against a zinc finger protein were examined. As a zinc-finger-containing protein, we focused on TRAF6, which is related to cancer and inflammation...
September 8, 2017: ChemMedChem
Bor-Ren Huang, Tzu-Sheng Chen, Da-Tian Bau, I-Chen Chuang, Cheng-Fang Tsai, Pei-Chun Chang, Dah-Yuu Lu
We found that the coagulation and cytokine pathways were important mechanisms involve in the degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVD) using a microarray approach to analyze gene expression in different grades of specimens. Furthermore, using a cytokine/chemokine array, a significant increase in CXCL8 expression was observed in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells after thrombin treatment. The enhancement of CXCL8 expression by thrombin was activated by the PAR1 receptor. Importantly, analysis of degenerated human NP tissue samples showed that EGFR expression positively correlated with the grade of tissue degeneration...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhen Chen, Yue Wu, Yi-Shing Ma, Yuu Kobayashi, Yao-Yao Zhao, Yusuke Miura, Hitoshi Chiba, Shu-Ping Hui
Cardiolipin (CL) exists as crucial functional phospholipid in mitochondria. The oxidation of CL is concerned with mitochondrial dysfunction and various diseases. As main oxidation products, CL hydroperoxide (CL-OOH) plays a key role in intermediating oxidative reaction. Thus, direct analysis of CL-OOH is of great interest. In the present study, CL and CL-OOH profiles were analyzed in oxidized HepG2 cell lipid via HPLC-Orbitrap MS/MS. Furthermore, the contents of individual molecular species were compared between intact and AAPH-oxidized HepG2 cells...
July 31, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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