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Bor-Sen Chen, Cheng-Wei Li
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics has been investigated in cancer initiation, and development, especially, since the appearance of epigenomics. Epigenetics may be defined as the mechanisms that lead to heritable changes in gene function and without affecting the sequence of genome. These mechanisms explain how individuals with the same genotype produce phenotypic differences in response to environmental stimuli. Recently, with the accumulation of high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, a key goal of systems biology is to construct networks for different cellular levels to explore whole cellular mechanisms...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Ilona Patursky-Polischuk, Judith Kasir, Rachel Miloslavski, Zvi Hayouka, Mirit Hausner-Hanochi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Pinchas Tsukerman, Moshe Biton, Rajini Mudhasani, Stephen N Jones, Oded Meyuhas
TOP mRNAs encode components of the translational apparatus, and repression of their translation comprises one mechanism, by which cells encountering amino acid deprivation downregulate the biosynthesis of the protein synthesis machinery. This mode of regulation involves TSC as knockout of TSC1 or TSC2 rescued TOP mRNAs translation in amino acid-starved cells. The involvement of mTOR in translational control of TOP mRNAs is demonstrated by the ability of constitutively active mTOR to relieve the translational repression of TOP mRNA upon amino acid deprivation...
2014: PloS One
Shihai Liu, Junfeng Sun, Qing Lan
Human gliomas are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In the brain, increased mRNA levels of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) correlate with the degree of malignancy of human gliomas. miR10a/10b expression has been demonstrated to be associated with TGF-β expression in brain tumors, and it is reported that TGF-β induces miR10 expression. Therefore, miR10a/10b expression may be induced by TGF-β expression and may be involved in the TGF-β-induced migration of brain tumor cells. The present study examined the expression of TGF-β and miR10a/10b in the tissues of 10 patients with brain tumors using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the correlation between TGF-β and miR10a or miR10b expression was analyzed...
December 2013: Molecular Medicine Reports
S Assou, T Al-edani, D Haouzi, N Philippe, C-H Lecellier, D Piquemal, T Commes, O Aït-Ahmed, H Dechaud, S Hamamah
STUDY QUESTION: What is the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Several miRNAs are enriched in cumulus cells (CCs) or oocytes, and are predicted to target genes involved in biological functions of the COC. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The transcriptional profiles of human MII oocytes and the surrounding CCs are known. However, very limited data are available about post-transcriptional regulators, such as miRNAs...
November 2013: Human Reproduction
Xiang Li, Feng Xu, ChunKang Chang, John Byon, Thalia Papayannopoulou, H Joachim Deeg, A Mario Marcondes
The transcription factor TWIST-1 is up-regulated in CD34(+) cells in myelodysplastic syndrome and is involved in resistance to apoptosis. There is evidence that TWIST-1 affects apoptosis via microRNAs (miRs). Expression of miRs was determined in myeloid cell lines and primary CD34(+) marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and healthy donors using NanoString/array and validated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels of miR10a and miR10b were significantly higher in CD34(+) marrow cells from 28 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome than in CD34(+) cells from healthy donors (P=0...
March 2013: Haematologica
Lukas Vrba, James C Garbe, Martha R Stampfer, Bernard W Futscher
Epigenetic mechanisms are important regulators of cell type-specific genes, including miRNAs. In order to identify cell type-specific miRNAs regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, we undertook a global analysis of miRNA expression and epigenetic states in three isogenic pairs of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human mammary fibroblasts (HMF), which represent two differentiated cell types typically present within a given organ, each with a distinct phenotype and a distinct epigenotype. While miRNA expression and epigenetic states showed strong interindividual concordance within a given cell type, almost 10% of the expressed miRNA showed a cell type-specific pattern of expression that was linked to the epigenetic state of their promoter...
December 2011: Genome Research
M Svoboda, L Izakovicova Holla, R Sefr, I Vrtkova, I Kocakova, B Tichy, J Dvorak
There is increasing evidence that some microRNAs change their levels in reaction to xenobiotic challenge. The aim of this study was to test the possible involvement of micro-RNAs in response to standard anticancer treatment. Tumor biopsies from 35 patients with rectal cancer before therapy and parallel tumor biopsies from 31 patients two weeks after starting preoperative capecitabine chemoradiotherapy were taken. The expression levels of single miRNA species were measured using TaqMan Micro-RNA assays after reverse transcription from isolated total RNAs...
September 2008: International Journal of Oncology
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