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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#1
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909591/mobbing-exposure-of-anaesthesiology-residents-in-turkey
#2
Gülnihal Aykut, Esra Mercanoğlu Efe, Selcan Bayraktar, Sinem Şentürk, İrem Başeğmez, Özlem Özkumit, Elmas Kabak, Belgin Yavaşçaoğlu, Hülya Bilgin
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, psychological problems that are caused by working conditions, like burn out syndrome, are more commonly observed. In our study, we aimed to evaluate mobbing exposure, factors causing mobbing and precautions for mobbing in residency students who are educated in anaesthesiology and reanimation clinics in Turkey. METHODS: After obtaining consent from the ethics committee, we sent our questionnaires to the secretariats of the departments by postal mail...
August 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909451/gender-differences-in-somatic-symptoms-and-current-suicidal-risk-in-outpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Hong Jin Jeon, Jong-Min Woo, Hyo-Jin Kim, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Seong Jin Cho, Sung Man Chang, Doo-Heum Park, Jong Woo Kim, Ikki Yoo, Jung-Yoon Heo, Jin Pyo Hong
OBJECTIVE: Although somatic symptoms are common complaints of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), their associations with suicide are still unclear. METHODS: A total of 811 MDD outpatients of aged between 18 to 64 years were enrolled nationwide in Korea with the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Depression and Somatic Symptom Scale (DSSS). RESULTS: On stepwise regression analysis, current suicidality scores were most strongly associated with chest pain in men, and neck or shoulder pain in women...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908442/-poor-self-esteem-is-correlated-with-suicide-intent-independently-from-the-severity-of-depression
#4
C Perrot, L Vera, P Gorwood
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a major Public Health concern, and low self-esteem might represent a major risk factor. Our main objective was to assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicide intent. More specifically, we aimed to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social) and suicide intent. We also sought the role of depression in the relationship of self-esteem to suicide intent. METHOD: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a suicide prevention department at the CMME (Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France)...
November 28, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902435/overexpression-of-the-fratricide-immunity-protein-comm-leads-to-growth-inhibition-and-morphological-abnormalities-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#5
Daniel Straume, Gro Anita Stamsås, Zhian Salehian, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein
The important human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a naturally transformable species. When developing the competent state, it expresses proteins involved in DNA-uptake, DNA-processing and homologous recombination. In addition to the proteins required for the transformation process, competent pneumococci express proteins involved in a predatory DNA-acquisition-mechanism termed fratricide. This is a mechanism by which the competent pneumococci secrete a muralytic fratricin termed CbpD, which lyse susceptible sister cells or closely related streptococcal species...
November 28, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901520/depot-antipsychotics-where-do-we-stand
#6
Ahsan Y Khan, Salman Salaria, Muhammad Ovais, George D Ide
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medication is a major problem for patients with schizophrenia. To counter this problem, pharmaceutical companies began developing depot antipsychotics. Although there are currently 5 first-generation and 6 second-generation depot antipsychotics available worldwide, many physicians are still reluctant to use this category of drug initially. This review provides the latest information about the use of depot antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment as well as several studies in support of depot antipsychotic use as first-line treatment for patients with schizophrenia...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898287/international-association-for-hospice-and-palliative-care-position-statement-euthanasia-and-physician-assisted-suicide
#7
Liliana De Lima, Roger Woodruff, Katherine Pettus, Julia Downing, Rosa Buitrago, Esther Munyoro, Chitra Venkateswaran, Sushma Bhatnagar, Lukas Radbruch
BACKGROUND: Reports about regulations and laws on Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) are becoming increasingly common in the media. Many groups have expressed opposition to euthanasia and PAS while those in favor argue that severely chronically ill and debilitated patients have a right to control the timing and manner of their death. Others argue that both PAS and euthanasia are ethically legitimate in rare and exceptional cases. Given that these discussions as well as the new and proposed laws and regulations may have a powerful impact on patients, caregivers, and health care providers, the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) has prepared this statement...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896818/coupling-immunity-and-programmed-cell-suicide-in-prokaryotes-life-or-death-choices
#8
Eugene V Koonin, Feng Zhang
Host-pathogen arms race is a universal, central aspect of the evolution of life. Most organisms evolved several distinct yet interacting strategies of anti-pathogen defense including resistance to parasite invasion, innate and adaptive immunity, and programmed cell death (PCD). The PCD is the means of last resort, a suicidal response to infection that is activated when resistance and immunity fail. An infected cell faces a decision between active defense and altruistic suicide or dormancy induction, depending on whether immunity is "deemed" capable of preventing parasite reproduction and consequent infection of other cells...
November 29, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896608/developing-tools-to-counteract-and-prevent-suicide-bomber-incidents-a-case-study-in-value-sensitive-design
#9
Lambèr Royakkers, Marc Steen
Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber COunteraction and Prevention'). For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users' perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into account these values, and related design criteria, in their decision-making during the innovation process? Based on a case study of several innovation processes in this project, we conclude the researchers/developers involved are able to do something similar to VSD (without them knowing about VSD or calling it 'VSD'), supported by relatively simple exercises in the project, e...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895323/elevated-cyp2c19-expression-is-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-and-hippocampal-homeostasis-impairment
#10
M M Jukić, N Opel, J Ström, T Carrillo-Roa, S Miksys, M Novalen, A Renblom, S C Sim, E M Peñas-Lledó, P Courtet, A Llerena, B T Baune, D J de Quervain, A Papassotiropoulos, R F Tyndale, E B Binder, U Dannlowski, M Ingelman-Sundberg
The polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes psychoactive compounds and is expressed in the adult liver and fetal brain. Previously, we demonstrated that the absence of CYP2C19 is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in 1472 Swedes. Conversely, transgenic mice carrying the human CYP2C19 gene (2C19TG) have shown an anxious phenotype and decrease in hippocampal volume and adult neurogenesis. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine whether the 2C19TG findings could be translated to humans, (2) evaluate the usefulness of the 2C19TG strain as a tool for preclinical screening of new antidepressants and (3) provide an insight into the molecular underpinnings of the 2C19TG phenotype...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894372/affective-lability-mediates-the-association-between-childhood-trauma-and-suicide-attempts-mixed-episodes-and-co-morbid-anxiety-disorders-in-bipolar-disorders
#11
M Aas, C Henry, F Bellivier, M Lajnef, S Gard, J-P Kahn, T V Lagerberg, S R Aminoff, T Bjella, M Leboyer, O A Andreassen, I Melle, B Etain
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown associations between a history of childhood trauma and more severe or complex clinical features of bipolar disorders (BD), including suicide attempts and earlier illness onset. However, the psychopathological mechanisms underlying these associations are still unknown. Here, we investigated whether affective lability mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and the severe clinical features of BD. METHOD: A total of 342 participants with BD were recruited from France and Norway...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894037/psychopathology-profiles-of-acutely-suicidal-adolescents-associations-with-post-discharge-suicide-attempts-and-rehospitalization
#12
Johnny Berona, Adam G Horwitz, Ewa K Czyz, Cheryl A King
BACKGROUND: Suicidal adolescents are heterogeneous, which can pose difficulties in predicting suicidal behavior. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) psychopathology profiles predict the future onset of psychopathology and suicide-related outcomes. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of YSR psychopathology profiles among suicidal adolescents and prospective associations with post-discharge rates of suicide attempts and psychiatric rehospitalization. METHODS: Participants were acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (N=433 at baseline; n=355 at follow-up) who were enrolled in a psychosocial intervention trial during hospitalization...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893032/effect-of-group-vs-individual-cognitive-processing-therapy-in-active-duty-military-seeking-treatment-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Patricia A Resick, Jennifer Schuster Wachen, Katherine A Dondanville, Kristi E Pruiksma, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Alan L Peterson, Jim Mintz, Elisa V Borah, Antoinette Brundige, Elizabeth A Hembree, Brett T Litz, John D Roache, Stacey Young-McCaughan
Importance: Cognitive processing therapy (CPT), an evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has not been tested as an individual treatment among active-duty military. Group CPT may be an efficient way to deliver treatment. Objective: To determine the effects of CPT on PTSD and co-occurring symptoms and whether they differ when administered in an individual or a group format. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized clinical trial, 268 active-duty servicemembers consented to assessment at an army medical center from March 8, 2012, to September 23, 2014, and were randomized to group or individual CPT...
November 23, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892842/complicated-grief-after-suicide-bereavement-and-other-causes-of-death
#14
Ilanit Tal, Christine Mauro, Charles F Reynolds, M Katherine Shear, Naomi Simon, Barry Lebowitz, Natalia Skritskaya, Yuanjia Wang, Xin Qiu, Alana Iglewicz, Danielle Glorioso, Julie Avanzino, Julie Loebach Wetherell, Jordan F Karp, Don Robinaugh, Sidney Zisook
We compared baseline demographic characteristics, clinical features, and grief-related thoughts, feelings and behaviors of individuals bereaved by suicide, accident/homicide and natural causes participating in a complicated grief (CG) treatment clinical trial. Severity of CG and depression and current depression diagnosis did not vary by loss type. After adjusting for baseline demographic features, time since death and relationship to the deceased, those with CG after suicide had the highest rates of lifetime depression, pre-loss passive suicidal ideation, self-blaming thoughts, and impaired work and social adjustment...
November 28, 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888514/the-burden-of-premature-mortality-of-epilepsy-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-from-the-mortality-task-force-of-the-international-league-against-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
David J Thurman, Giancarlo Logroscino, Ettore Beghi, W Allen Hauser, Dale C Hesdorffer, Charles R Newton, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Josemir W Sander, Torbjörn Tomson
Since previous reviews of epidemiologic studies of premature mortality among people with epilepsy were completed several years ago, a large body of new evidence about this subject has been published. We aim to update prior reviews of mortality in epilepsy and to reevaluate and quantify the risks, potential risk factors, and causes of these deaths. We systematically searched the Medline and Embase databases to identify published reports describing mortality risks in cohorts and populations of people with epilepsy...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884383/histomorphometric-study-of-basilar-artery-in-normal-and-suicide-persons
#16
Suresh Kumar Parmar, V Satya Prasad
BACKGROUND: Depression in association with cerebro-vascular risk factors and white matter lesions is increasingly referred to as 'vascular depression'. There are several brain areas known for playing a role in patho-physiology of depression which may lead to suicidal tendencies, are fed by basilar artery. Therefore, the arterial histoarchitecture was studied in the normal and suicide individuals to establish a relationship between the vascular structural changes and depression. METHODS: 40 post-mortem samples (both sexes) of basilar artery have been collected and were grouped into normal and suicide groups...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883204/mindfulness-moderates-the-association-between-perceived-burdensomeness-and-suicide-ideation-in-adults-with-elevated-depressive-symptoms
#17
Victor Buitron, Ryan M Hill, Jeremy W Pettit
A conceptual model in which the associations between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation, and between thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation, are moderated by mindfulness was examined. Participants were 218 undergraduates (mean age = 20.81) with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Mindfulness significantly moderated the association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation; participants with thoughts of burdensomeness experienced lower levels of suicide ideation if they were high, as opposed to low, in mindfulness...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878517/risks-associated-with-misuse-of-ketamine-as-a-rapid-acting-antidepressant
#18
Weili Zhu, Zengbo Ding, Yinan Zhang, Jie Shi, Kenji Hashimoto, Lin Lu
Major depression is a serious psychiatric disorder and remains a leading cause of disability worldwide. Conventional antidepressants take at least several weeks to achieve a therapeutic response and this lag period has hindered their ability to attain beneficial effects in depressed individuals at high risk of suicide. The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine has been shown to have rapid antidepressant effects in both rodents and humans. The emergence of ketamine as a fast-acting antidepressant provides promising new insights into the development of a rapid treatment response in patients with clinical depression...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878061/oral-apremilast-for-the-treatment-of-plaque-psoriasis
#19
REVIEW
James Q Del Rosso, Leon Kircik
This article provides an update on the use of oral apremilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor, for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Emphasis is placed on safety evaluations, although efficacy considerations are also addressed. Both two-year and three -year data analyses support the favorable safety profile reported in pivotal trials with this agent. Although effective in many study subjects despite baseline characteristics, higher response rates were noted in those with a baseline psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score <20 and in subjects not previously treated with systemic therapy for psoriasis...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876651/ventral-striatum-functional-connectivity-during-rewards-and-losses-and-symptomatology-in-depressed-patients
#20
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Srivastava Kodavaganti, Garry Smyda, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Mary Phillips
BACKGROUND: The ventral striatum (VS) and striatal network supports goal motivated behavior. Identifying how depressed patients differ in their striatal network during the processing of emotionally salient events is a step towards uncovering biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: 38 depressed and 30 healthy adults completed a task that examined brain activation to the anticipation and receipt of monetary rewards and losses. Data were collected using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner...
November 19, 2016: Biological Psychology
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