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suicide severity

Amanda K Gilmore, Christine K Hahn, Anna E Jaffe, Kate Walsh, Angela D Moreland, Erin F Ward-Ciesielski
INTRODUCTION: Sexual assault (SA) is common, and recent sexual assault is associated with suicidal ideation and prescription opioid (PO) use. PO use is also associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation. The current study examined suicidal ideation among adults seeking medical and psychological follow-up care after a SA medical forensic examination based on PO use and prior SA. METHODS: Adults (n = 60) who received a SA medical forensic exam at the emergency room within 120 h of a SA were invited to receive medical and psychological follow-up care, which included a questionnaire about current mental health symptoms...
May 31, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Travis Labrum, Phyllis Solomon
In this period of post-deinstitutionalization, much of the care for people with severe psychiatric disorders (PD) is provided by their families. A primary stressor for caregivers is fears regarding their own safety and that of others, which has been virtually unexplored. To fill this gap, factors in three domains were assessed: (1) relatives with PD, (2) family caregivers, and (3) interactions with each other. This investigation was a secondary analysis of data obtained from a national survey of caregivers of adults with mental illness conducted by the National Alliance for Caregiving...
June 13, 2018: Health & Social Work
Ana Isabel Vieira, Bárbara C Machado, Célia S Moreira, Paulo P P Machado, Isabel Brandão, António Roma-Torres, Sónia Gonçalves
Evidence suggests several risk factors for both eating disorders (ED) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), but the relationships between these factors are not well understood. Considering our previous work and a conceptual model, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess the relationships among distal and proximal factors for the presence of NSSI in ED. We assessed 245 ED patients with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview for ED. Structural equation modelling revealed that both distal and proximal factors were related to the presence of NSSI in ED, disclosing a mediating role of the proximal factors...
June 14, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Amy M Brausch, Sherry E Woods
BACKGROUND: The relationship between emotion regulation deficits and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is well established. Many studies have documented the strong relationship between NSSI and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The relationship between emotion regulation deficits and suicide is less understood, but recent studies indicate a moderate association. This study aimed to examine the relationship between emotion regulation deficits, NSSI behavior, and suicide ideation in an unselected community sample of adolescents...
June 14, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Erika A Crawford, Taylor A Burke, David Siegel, Shari Jager-Hyman, Lauren B Alloy, Philip C Kendall
OBJECTIVE: The severity of anxiety, in general, has been associated with suicide ideation (SI) among youth, but research has yet to examine the specific anxiety symptoms that may contribute to SI among youth. This study examined the severity of specific anxiety symptom clusters (i.e., tense/restless, somatic/autonomic symptoms, humiliation/rejection, performing in public, separation anxiety, perfectionism, and anxious coping) and SI in youth who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder...
June 14, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Valentina Cavedon, Carlo Zancanaro, Chiara Milanese
Data on the physical and performance characteristics of female wheelchair basketball (WB) players are scarce. In several countries female WB players train and compete with male players on mixed teams due to the limited total population of players, which would otherwise lead to large territorial spread for each team. Any differences in terms of physical characteristics and/or WB skill proficiency between male and female WB players would be relevant to team performance in mixed teams. This work examined anthropometry, body composition, and performance in a set of sport-specific field tests in a sample of 13 female WB players representing about 40% of the eligible population in Italy across a range of functional point scores (Point)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Austin J Gallyer, Sean P Dougherty, Anna R Gai, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Mary E Duffy, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: Firefighters are at increased risk for both problematic alcohol use and suicidality. Research has found that problematic alcohol use is related to suicidality among this population; however, limited data exist regarding what might account for this association. The present two-study investigation (1) examined the association between suicidality and problematic alcohol use among two large samples of firefighters and (2) tested whether interpersonal theory of suicide constructs-perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB)-serve as indirect indicators of this relationship...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shinji Shimodera, Shinsuke Koike, Shuntaro Ando, Syudo Yamasaki, Ryosuke Fujito, Kaori Endo, Yudai Iijima, Yu Yamamoto, Masaya Morita, Ken Sawada, Nobuki Ohara, Yuji Okazaki, Atsushi Nishida
Recently, several epidemiologic studies have reported that lithium in drinking water may be associated with lower rates of suicide mortality, lower incidence of dementia, and lower levels of adolescents' depression and aggression at the population level. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated lithium level in tap water in relation to psychotic experiences in a general population of adolescents. This is the first study to investigate this using a large dataset. Information on psychotic experiences, distress associated with these experiences, and depressive symptoms were collected in 24 public junior high schools in Kochi Prefecture in Japan...
June 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Anke Köbach, Martina Ruf-Leuschner, Thomas Elbert
BACKGROUND: Anecdotal evidence suggests the frequently traumatic nature of female genital mutilation (FGM). At present, systematic research on the psychological sequelae of this tradition has remained limited. The study provides preliminary, high-quality psychodiagnostic data on potential psychopathological consequences of FGM, with a focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), shutdown dissociation and other stress-related variables. METHODS: We investigated a convenience sample of N = 167 women, supported by the women's affairs headquarters in Jijiga (capital of the Ethiopian Somali Region) and a local Ethiopian non-governmental organization...
June 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Alexander Grigorash, Siobhan O'Neill, Raymond Bond, Colette Ramsey, Cherie Armour, Maurice D Mulvenna
BACKGROUND: This paper presents an analysis of call data records pertaining to a telephone helpline in Ireland among individuals seeking mental health and well-being support and among those who are in a suicidal crisis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to examine whether rule sets generated from decision tree classification, trained using features derived from callers' several initial calls, could be used to predict what caller type they would become. METHODS: Machine learning techniques were applied to the call log data, and five distinct patterns of caller behaviors were revealed, each impacting the helpline capacity in different ways...
June 11, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
J Löf, D Clinton, V Kaldo, G Rydén
BACKGROUND: Mentalisation-based treatment (MBT) in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has a growing evidence base, but there is a lack of effectiveness and moderator studies. The present study examined the effectiveness of MBT in a naturalistic setting and explored psychiatric and psychological moderators of outcome. METHOD: Borderline and general psychiatric symptoms, suicidality, self-harm, alexithymia and self-image were measured in a group of BPD patients (n = 75) receiving MBT; assessments were made at baseline, and subsequently after 6, 12 and 18 months (when treatment ended)...
June 11, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Kailyn A Bradley, Carmen M Alonso, Lushna M Mehra, Junqian Xu, Vilma Gabbay
BACKGROUND: Alterations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness. Our previous work has specifically linked anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GABA deficits with anhedonia in youth with major depressive disorder (MDD). As anhedonia reflects alterations within the reward circuitry, we sought to extend this investigation and examine GABA levels in another key reward-related region, the striatum, in the same adolescent population...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Mary F Cwik, Summer Rosenstock, Lauren Tingey, Novalene Goklish, Francene Larzelere, Rosemarie Suttle, Emily Haroz, Kyle Hill, Mariddie Craig, Allison Barlow
Binge drinking appears to be a risk factor, facilitator, and method of suicidal and non-suicidal self-injury for some American Indian (AI) youth. We examined characteristics, patterns, and motivations for binge use among AI adolescents (N = 69; 10-19 years-old) who recently engaged in binge drinking. The majority used alcohol alone (53.7%) or a combination of alcohol and marijuana (31.3%) for their binge event. Gender differences emerged with boys more severely affected than girls. Forty-seven percent reported lifetime suicidal thoughts...
2018: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
Megan Chesin, Michele Cascardi
OBJECTIVES: To test whether three cognitive-affective correlates, mindfulness, emotion reactivity, and depressive symptom severity, have different associations with current suicidal ideation (SI), a history of suicide attempt (SA) and SA+SI among emerging adults. To test whether impulsive-aggression (IA) moderates associations between cognitive-affective correlates of suicidal behavior and suicidality. METHODS: Survey data on current SI, SA history, mindfulness, emotion reactivity, depressive symptom severity, and IA were collected from 780 emerging adults...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Shokei Matsumoto, Kei Hayashida, Shintaro Furugori, Masayuki Shimizu, Kazuhiko Sekine, Mitsuhide Kitano
INTRODUCTION: Because Japan has high suicide rates and low violent crime rates, it is likely that most abdominal stab wounds (ASWs) in Japan are self-inflicted. Although physical examination is one of the most important factors in surgical decision making, such evaluations can be difficult in patients with self-inflicted ASWs due to patient agitation and uncooperative behavior. Therefore, the self-inflicted nature of an injury may strongly affect clinical practice, particularly in Japan, but its influence remains uncertain...
June 2, 2018: Injury
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Dag Jacobsen, Øivind Ekeberg, Mette Brekke
AIMS: Despite the excess mortality and morbidity associated with acute poisoning by substances of abuse, follow-up is frequently not organised. We assessed morbidity, including repeated poisoning, and follow-up after acute poisoning by substances of abuse through charting contacts with health services. We also charted short-term mortality. METHODS: Patients 12 years and older treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at a primary care emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway, were included consecutively from October 2011 through September 2012...
June 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Hyejin Han, Bomi Park, Bohyun Park, Namsoo Park, Ju Ok Park, Ki Ok Ahn, Yang Ju Tak, Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
OBJECTIVES: Due to their developmental characteristics, adolescents have a higher probability than other age groups of experiencing injuries caused by accidents, violence, and intentional self-harm. The severity and characteristics of injuries vary by the intentionality and mechanism of injury; therefore, there is a need for a national-level estimate of the scale and the severity of injuries in adolescents that takes these factors into account. METHODS: By using data from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance Data, National Emergency Department Information System, the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey, and cause of death statistics, we calculated the emergency department (ED) visit rate, hospitalization rate, and death rate of injuries per 100 000 adolescents for each injury mechanism...
May 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Bernd Lenz, Mareike Röther, Polyxeni Bouna-Pyrrou, Christiane Mühle, Ozan Tektas, Johannes Kornhuber
Suicide is a devastating public health issue that imposes severe psychological, social, and economic burdens not only for the individuals but also for their relatives, friends, clinicians, and the general public. Among the different suicidal behaviors, suicide completion is the worst and the most relevant outcome. The knowledge of biological etiopathological mechanisms involved in suicide completion is limited. Hitherto, no objective markers, either alone or in combination, can reliably predict who will complete a suicide...
June 7, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Bereket Duko, Getinet Ayano
Background: People with severe mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide and suicide attempts compared to the general population. In low and middle-income countries, research concerning suicide attempts and completed suicide among people living with severe mental disorder is limited. The objective of this study was to assess suicide and attempts in people with severe mental disorder at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September 2016...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Michael Linden, Isabel Noack
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders can be associated with suicidal or aggressive ideation and behavior, especially in the context of embitterment. The aim of this study is to investigate the types, prevalence, and dangerousness of aggressive and suicidal ideations associated with embitterment. METHODS: When therapists from the department of behavioral medicine detected signs of embitterment, aggression, or suicidal thoughts in their patients, they routinely filled out a questionnaire on aggressive ideation, assessed the embitterment, and contacted a senior psychiatrist...
June 7, 2018: Psychopathology
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