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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045914/suicide-exposures-and-bereavement-among-american-adults-evidence-from-the-2016-general-social-survey
#1
William Feigelman, Julie Cerel, John L McIntosh, David Brent, Nina Gutin
BACKGROUND: We investigated lifetime suicide exposures and bereavement among a representative sample of American adults from the 2016 General Social Survey. METHODS: Questions on lifetime suicide exposures, bereavement and mental health status were administered to 1432 respondents. Suicide exposed and bereaved respondents were compared to non-exposed respondents on three different measures of mental health functioning with cross tabulations and means comparison tests...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044007/depressive-symptoms-monoamines-levels-mao-b-activity-and-effect-of-treatment-in-a-subset-of-depressed-individuals-from-government-sector-hospital-at-karachi
#2
Farah Zeb, Sabira Naqvi, Razaur Rahman, Ahsana Dar Farooq
Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in developing countries including Pakistan. This study was designed to assess the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, monoamines and their metabolite levels, MAO-B activities before and after treatment with antidepressants in a sub-set of Karachi population in Pakistan. Drug naive depressed subjects were evaluated before and after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Symptoms of depressed mood and anxiety psychic (90%) were more frequent whereas, suicidal thoughts (~50%) and feelings of guilt (~30%) were less common...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042882/validation-of-the-korean-depressive-symptom-inventory-suicidality-subscale
#3
Sooyeon Suh, Hyera Ryu, Carol Chu, Melanie Hom, Megan L Rogers, Thomas Joiner
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to validate a Korean version of the self-report Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS). METHODS: 553 South Korean undergraduate students (aged 18-34 years, 74.8% females) completed questionnaires. Participants completed Korean versions of the self-report Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS), and a measure of suicide-related symptom history...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039414/-the-limbic-system-in-youth-depression-brain-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-adolescent-in-patients-with-severe-depression
#4
Ronny Redlich, Nils Opel, Christian Bürger, Katharina Dohm, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Förster, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Jonathan Repple, Verena Enneking, Elisabeth Leehr, Joshua Böhnlein, Lena Winters, Neele Froböse, Sophia Thrun, Julia Emtmann, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Volker Arolt, Georg Romer, Christian Postert, Udo Dannlowski
Adolescent-onset Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of recurrent depressive episodes, suicidal behaviors, and psychiatric morbidity throughout the lifespan. The objective of the present study was to investigate brain structural and functional changes in adolescent patients with MDD. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the influence of early-life stress on brain function and structure. The study investigated adolescent patients with severe MDD (n=20, mean age=16.0, range=15-18 years) and a control sample of matched healthy adolescents (n=21, mean age= 16...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038254/characterization-of-copy-number-control-of-two-haloferax-volcanii-replication-origins-using-deletion-mutants-and-haloarchaeal-artificial-chromosomes-hacs
#5
Sandy Maurer, Katharina Ludt, Jörg Soppa
Haloferax volcanii is polyploid and contains about 20 genome copies under optimal conditions. However, the chromosome copy number is highly regulated and ranges from two during phosphate starvation to more than 40 under phosphate surplus. The aim of this study was the characterization of the influence of two replication origins on the genome copy number. The origin repeats and the genes encoding Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) proteins were deleted. The core origin oriC1-orc1 (ori1) deletion mutant had a lower genome copy number and a higher fitness than the wild-type, in stark contrast to the oriC2-orc5 (ori2) deletion mutant...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037462/suicide-in-castellon-2009-2015-do-sociodemographic-and-psychiatric-factors-help-understand-urban-rural-differences
#6
Carlos Suso-Ribera, Rafael Mora-Marín, Carmen Hernández-Gaspar, Lidón Pardo-Guerra, María Pardo-Guerra, Adela Belda-Martínez, Ramón Palmer-Viciedo
INTRODUCTION: Studies have pointed to rurality as an important factor influencing suicide. Research so far suggests that several sociodemograpic and psychiatric factors might influence urban-rural differences in suicide. Also, their contribution appears to depend on sex and age. Unfortunately, studies including a comprehensive set of explanatory variables altogether are still scare and most studies have failed to present their analyses split by sex and age groups. Also, urban-rural differences in suicide in Spain have been rarely investigated...
October 13, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036335/period-effects-in-the-risk-of-subsequent-labour-market-marginalisation-in-young-suicide-attempters
#7
T Niederkrotenthaler, M Helgesson, S Rahman, M Wang, E Mittendorfer-Rutz
Background: Suicide attempt in young age is associated with subsequent labour market marginalisation, but little is known about how marginalisation is affected by changes in suicide attempt rates and social insurance legislation and by age differences. Methods: Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of > 2.4 million Swedish residents per birth cohort, aged 19-40 years in 1999; 2004 and 2009, respectively, and followed up for 4 years. Suicide attempters treated in inpatient care in the three years preceding study entry (n > 7000 per cohort) were compared with the general population of the same age without attempt (1987 to end of follow-up)...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035706/serious-suicide-attempts-in-outpatients-with-multiple-substance-use-disorders
#8
R Icick, E Karsinti, J-P Lépine, V Bloch, G Brousse, F Bellivier, F Vorspan
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health concern and suicide attempts (SA) are frequent and burdensome in people suffering from substance use disorders (SUDs). In particular, serious SAs are a preoccupying form of attempt, which remain largely overlooked in these populations, especially regarding basic risk factors such as gender, addictive comorbidity and substance use patterns. Thus, we undertook a gender-specific approach to identify the risk factors for serious SAs in outpatients with multiple SUDs...
September 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035574/a-6-month-open-label-extension-study-of-vortioxetine-in-pediatric-patients-with-depressive-or-anxiety-disorders
#9
Robert L Findling, Adelaide S Robb, Melissa P DelBello, Michael Huss, Nora K McNamara, Elias H Sarkis, Russell E Scheffer, Lis H Poulsen, Grace Chen, Ole M Lemming, Philippe Auby
OBJECTIVES: In this 6-month open-label extension (OLE) of NCT01491035 (a 14-day, open-label, pharmacokinetic/safety lead-in study), the long-term safety and tolerability of vortioxetine (5-20 mg/day) were investigated in children and adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR™ diagnosis of depressive or anxiety disorder in the United States or Germany. The study also was designed to provide data to inform dose selection and titration in future pediatric studies with vortioxetine. METHODS: Safety evaluations included spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs), the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), and the Pediatric Adverse Events Rating Scale (PAERS; clinician administered)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033890/an-enigmatic-case-of-acute-mercury-poisoning-clinical-immunological-findings-and-platelet-function
#10
Ilka Kleffner, Susann Eichler, Tobias Ruck, Lisa Schüngel, Steffen Pfeuffer, Philipp Polzer, Ralf Dittrich, Rainer Dziewas, Catharina C Gross, Kerstin Göbel, Heinz Wiendl, Beate E Kehrel, Sven G Meuth
Severe mercury intoxication is very rare in developed countries, but still occurs as the result of volatile substance abuse, suicide attempts, occupational hazards, or endemic food ingestion as reported in the cases of public health disasters in Iraq and in Minamata Bay, Japan. Here, we describe the dramatic physical and cognitive decline of a 23-year-old patient caused by a severe methyl mercury (MeHg) intoxication of unknown origin. We show serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the patient's brain, as well as ex vivo analyses of blood and cerebrospinal fluid including multicolor flow cytometric measurements, functional assays of hemostaseologic efficacy, and evaluation of regulatory effector molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033859/multi-watt-near-infrared-phototherapy-for-the-treatment-of-comorbid-depression-an-open-label-single-arm-study
#11
Theodore A Henderson, Larry D Morries
BACKGROUND: The treatment of depression has been hampered by low efficacy of antidepressant medications and safety concerns with alternative modalities. Recent work demonstrated that multi-Watt transcranial near-infrared light therapy (NILT) can effectively treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current objective is to explore multi-Watt NILT efficacy in a proof-of-concept study as a treatment for depression. METHODS: Thirty-nine sequential patients treated for TBI between March 2013 and May 2017 provided depression self-assessment data and/or were administered the Hamilton depression rating scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032547/genome-wide-mutagenesis-in-borrelia-burgdorferi
#12
Tao Lin, Lihui Gao
Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a functional genomics approach to identify bacterial virulence determinants and virulence factors by simultaneously screening multiple mutants in a single host animal, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and spirochete and tick biology. The signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis has been developed to investigate virulence determinants and pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutants in genes important in virulence are identified by negative selection in which the mutants fail to colonize or disseminate in the animal host and tick vector...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032046/past-present-and-future-of-genetic-research-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Anahita Bassir Nia, Matthew C Eveleth, Jonathan M Gabbay, Yonis J Hassan, Bosi Zhang, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a major mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1-3%, characterized by a persistent pattern of instability in relationships, mood, impulse regulation, and sense of self. This results in impulsive self-damaging behavior, high suicide rates, and severe functional impairment. BPD has a complex, multifactorial etiology, resulting from an interaction among genetic and environmental substrates, and has moderate to high heritability based on twin and family studies...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030873/a-feasibility-study-for-a-triple-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-investigating-the-effects-of-oral-isotretinoin-on-mood-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-acne-vulgaris
#14
S Rea, S Tucker, V Frittelli, R Gunnarsson
Isotretinoin is used in the treatment of severe acne vulgaris (AV), but has controversially been associated with depression and suicide. Large prospective studies have failed to translate this clinically. We undertook a feasibility study to investigate the parameters of a triple-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effect of oral isotretinoin on quality of life (QoL) and mood in patients with AV. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomized for 2 weeks to isotretinoin or doxycycline...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027588/mental-disorders-and-the-risk-for-the-subsequent-first-suicide-attempt-results-of-a-community-study-on-adolescents-and-young-adults
#15
Marcel Miché, Patrizia Denise Hofer, Catharina Voss, Andrea Hans Meyer, Andrew Thomas Gloster, Katja Beesdo-Baum, Roselind Lieb
Adolescents and young adults represent the high-risk group for first onset of both DSM-IV mental disorders and lifetime suicide attempt (SA). Yet few studies have evaluated the temporal association of prior mental disorders and subsequent first SA in a young community sample. We examined (a) such associations using a broad range of specific DSM-IV mental disorders, (b) the risk of experiencing the outcome due to prior comorbidity, and (c) the proportion of SAs that could be attributed to prior disorders. During a 10-year prospective study, data were gathered from 3021 community subjects, 14-24 years of age at baseline...
October 11, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027157/animal-models-for-bipolar-disorder-from-bedside-to-the-cage
#16
REVIEW
Dominik K E Beyer, Nadja Freund
Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. Patients suffering from this disorder experience dramatic mood swings with a wide variety of typical behavioral facets, affecting overall activity, energy, sexual behavior, sense of self, self-esteem, circadian rhythm, cognition, and increased risk for suicide. Effective treatment options are limited and diagnosis can be complicated. To overcome these obstacles, a better understanding of the neurobiology underlying bipolar disorder is needed...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024902/psychological-and-behavioral-characteristics-of-suicide-attempts-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-in-chinese-adolescents
#17
Zhen-Zhen Liu, Hua Chen, Qi-Gui Bo, Ren-Hong Chen, Feng-Wen Li, Lei Lv, Cun-Xian Jia, Xianchen Liu
BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts (SA) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are prevalent in adolescents and important risk factors of suicide death. Both SA and NSSI are associated with multiple psychosocial, behavioral, biological and genetic factors. This study examined similarities and differences in psychological vulnerability and internalizing and externalizing problems between adolescents with SA and NSSI. METHODS: Participants consisted of 11,831 students and had a mean age of 14...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020650/decision-making-under-risk-and-under-ambiguity-in-depressed-suicide-attempters-depressed-non-attempters-and-healthy-controls
#18
Eberhard A Deisenhammer, Steffen K Schmid, Georg Kemmler, Bernadette Moser, Margarete Delazer
BACKGROUND: A number of neuropsychological alterations have been found in patients who have attempted suicide. Most studies investigating decision making (DM) abilities in suicide attempters so far have used one single DM task and included patients with a lifetime history of suicide attempts. These studies have yielded conflicting results. METHOD: In this study, currently depressed in-patients who had a recent suicide attempt (within the last six months) (n = 21), depressed in-patients without a lifetime history of suicide attempts (n = 31) and a healthy control group (n = 26) were assessed with two tasks for the assessment of DM...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018995/impulsivity-and-response-latency-in-non-suicidal-self-injury-the-role-of-negative-urgency-in-emotion-regulation
#19
Brooke L Maxfield, Carolyn M Pepper
Impulsivity is thought to be a contributing factor in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet the research is limited and inconsistent. In particular, little is known about how impulsivity is associated with response latency between initial urge and later self-injury, emotion regulation processes, or severity of NSSI. In this study, we tested group differences between participants with and without a history of NSSI on a questionnaire measure of impulsivity. In addition, we tested hypothesized correlations between impulsivity and relevant variables within the NSSI sample using questionnaires and self-reported response latency between urge and injury...
October 11, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018204/a-new-stress-sensor-and-risk-factor-for-suicide-the-t-allele-of-the-functional-genetic-variant-in-the-gabra6-gene
#20
Xenia Gonda, Jane Sarginson, Nora Eszlari, Peter Petschner, Zoltan G Toth, Daniel Baksa, Gabor Hullam, Ian M Anderson, J F William Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Low GABA transmission has been reported in suicide, and GABRA6 rs3219151 T allele has been associated with greater physiological and endocrine stress response in previous studies. Although environmental stress also plays a role in suicide, the possible role of this allele has not been investigated in this respect. In our present study effect of rs3219151 of GABRA6 gene in interaction with recent negative life events on lifetime and current depression, current anxiety, as well as lifetime suicide were investigated using regression models in a white European general sample of 2283 subjects...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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