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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678927/digital-technologies-for-the-assessment-of-cognition-a-clinical-review
#1
REVIEW
Amy Chinner, Jasmine Blane, Claire Lancaster, Chris Hinds, Ivan Koychev
Dementia is the most widespread form of neurodegenerative disorder and is associated with an immense societal and personal cost. Prevalence of this disorder is projected to triple worldwide by 2050 leading to an urgent need to make advances in the efficiency of both its care and therapy research. Digital technologies are a rapidly advancing field that provide a previously unavailable opportunity to alleviate challenges faced by clinicians and researchers working in this area. This clinical review aimed to summarise currently available evidence on digital technologies that can be used to monitor cognition...
April 20, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#2
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#3
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665095/enteral-nutrition-and-dementia-integrating-ethics
#4
Denise Baird Schwartz
This narrative review highlights topics related to feeding patients with dementia, including the use of ethical principles and legal precedents; specifies guidelines and practice recommendations; provides an option to assist in applying the recommendations, such as comfort feedings instead of enteral nutrition; promotes the use of early advance care planning to achieve medical therapies based on an individual's wishes; and provides 3 case studies to demonstrate the clinical application of the information presented in the article...
April 17, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663890/methodologies-related-to-computational-models-in-view-of-developing-anti-alzheimer-drugs-an-overview
#5
Kirtee Baheti, Mayura Ajay Kale
BACKGROUND: Since last two decades, there has been more focus on the development strategies related to Anti-Alzheimer's drug research. This may be attributed to the fact that most of the Alzheimer's cases are still mostly unknown except for a few cases, where genetic differences have been identified. With the progress of the disease, the symptoms involve intellectual deterioration, memory impairment, abnormal personality and behavioural patterns, confusion, aggression, mood swings, irritability Current therapies available for this disease give only symptomatic relief and do not focus on manipulations of biololecular processes...
April 17, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661649/-overal-cognitive-assessment-in-basque-speaking-people-with-advanced-dementia-validation-to-the-basque-language-of-the-severe-mini-mental-state-examination-smmse-smmse-eus
#6
Cristina Buiza, Javier Yanguas, Amaia Zulaica, Iván Antón, Enrique Arriola, Alvaro García
INTRODUCTION: Adaptation and validation to the Basque language of tests to assess advanced cognitive impairment is a not covered need for Basque-speaking people. The present work shows the validation of the Basque version of the Severe Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 109 people with advanced dementia (MEC<15) took part in the validation study, and were classified as GDS 5-7 on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). All participants were Spanish-Basque bilingual...
April 13, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661329/hearing-loss-in-the-elderly
#7
REVIEW
Rohan Patel, Brian J McKinnon
Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss (ARHL), is the result of physiologic and pathologic changes associated with advancing age. ARHL presents typically with a high-frequency hearing loss, which contributes to greater trouble hearing consonants within words. Consonants convey the bulk of meaning within a word, and this loss of linguistic information results in complaints associated with ARHL. Hearing aids and cochlear implants significantly improve the lives of older adults with hearing loss, in particular, those with depression and dementia...
May 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660938/the-alzheimer-s-disease-assessment-scale-cognitive-subscale-adas-cog-modifications-and-responsiveness-in-pre-dementia-populations-a-narrative-review
#8
Jacqueline K Kueper, Mark Speechley, Manuel Montero-Odasso
The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale- Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) was developed in the 1980s to assess the level of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Advancements in the research field have shifted focus toward pre-dementia populations, and use of the ADAS-Cog has extended into these pre-dementia studies despite concerns about its ability to detect important changes at these milder stages of disease progression. If the ADAS-Cog cannot detect important changes, our understanding of pre-dementia disease progression may be compromised and trials may incorrectly conclude that a novel treatment approach is not beneficial...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656802/impact-on-the-brain-of-the-inflammatory-response-to-surgery
#9
Sarah Saxena, Mervyn Maze
The brain is both the orchestrator as well as the target of the innate immune system's response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. When trauma-induced inflammation is not appropriately regulated persistent neuro-inflammation interferes with the synaptic plasticity that underlies the learning and memory aspects of cognition. The complications that ensue, include postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at two poles of a constellation that is now termed perioperative neurocognitive disorders...
April 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651270/disparities-in-functional-outcome-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-among-asians-and-pacific-islanders
#10
Kazuma Nakagawa, Sage L King, Todd B Seto, Marjorie K L M Mau
Background: Disparities in outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have been inadequately studied. We sought to assess differences in functional outcome between Asians and NHOPI after ICH. Methods: A multiracial prospective cohort study of ICH patients was conducted from 2011 to 2016 at a tertiary center in Honolulu, HI, USA to assess racial disparities in outcome after ICH. Favorable outcome was defined as 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤2...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650876/-home-medical-care-promotion-for-multidisciplinary-cooperation
#11
Yasuhiko Midorikawa, Kiyokazu Tamotsu, Shigeyuki Tsukita, Morikazu Kimura, Toshiaki Yamauchi
It may be said that the effective functioning of an integrated community care system depends entirely on home medical care. "Cooperation"is necessary in pushing home medical care forward and it is vital to advance as a system. In Iwaki-city, the municipal government and the medical association have been sponsoring many types of multidisciplinary cooperation workshops for home medical-care promotion. There was administrative participation, and cooperation became the main workshop focus. We hold workshops 2 times a year...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649909/-music-memory-and-improved-swallowing-in-advanced-dementia
#12
Dan Cohen, Stephen G Post, Angela Lo, Robin Lombardo, Brandon Pfeffer
Background Dysphagia and difficulty with eating affects a significant portion of individuals with advanced dementia. Such problems with oral intake can have serious health consequences including mealtime distress, dehydration and malnutrition, aspiration, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality risk. Design We present the first data indicating that "Music & Memory" interventions improve swallowing in individuals with advanced dementia, thereby making oral feeding easier and potentially diminishing reliance on PEG...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642850/using-observational-facial-descriptors-to-infer-pain-in-persons-with-and-without-dementia
#13
Stefan Lautenbacher, Anna Lena Walz, Miriam Kunz
BACKGROUND: For patients with advanced dementia, pain diagnosis and assessment requires observations of pain-indicative behavior by others. One type of behavior that has been shown to be a promising candidate is the facial response to pain. To further test how pain-indicative facial responses are, we investigated the predictive power of observational facial descriptors to (i) predict the self-report of pain and (ii) to differentiate between non-painful and painful conditions. In addition, the expertise of the observers (nurses vs...
April 11, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628030/-cognitive-impairment-dementia-assessment-and-follow-up-functional-aspects
#14
Rosa López Mongil
The importance of functional status is increasingly being recognized in current clinical management. This is especially important in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a priority due to its direct relationship with dementia and awareness that functional alterations are what separates MCI from dementia. Adequate assessment of MCI during the follow-up of this condition allows identification of its progress, whether towards normal cognitive function or detection and diagnosis of the incipient stages of dementia, thus providing the benefits of early diagnosis...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628028/-disorders-associated-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-risk-factors-and-predictors
#15
Manuel Antón Jiménez, José Luis González Guerrero
Traditionally, cognitive impairment has been associated not only with ageing itself but also with concomitant comorbidities that interact in the disease continuum from the prodromic phases. Notable among these are delirium, nutritional alterations, balance and gait, infections and even a progressive incidence of neoplasms. However, with regard to diagnosis and staging, clinicians should perhaps remain especially alert to the possibility of pharmacological iatrogeny, which is not limited to psychopharmacological treatment...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627920/advances-in-pharmacotherapy-of-late-life-depression
#16
REVIEW
John L Beyer, Kim G Johnson
This paper reviews recent research on late-life depression (LLD) pharmacotherapy, focusing on updated information for monotherapy and augmentation treatments. We then review new research on moderators of clinical response and how to use the information for improved efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent review shows that sertraline, paroxetine, and duloxetine were superior to placebo for the treatment of LLD. There is concern that paroxetine could have adverse outcomes in the geriatric population due to anticholinergic properties; however, studies show no increases in mortality, dementia risk, or cognitive measures...
April 7, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623063/amyloid-%C3%AE-plaques-in-clinical-alzheimer-s-disease-brain-incorporate-stable-isotope-tracer-in-vivo-and-exhibit-nanoscale-heterogeneity
#17
Norelle C Wildburger, Frank Gyngard, Christelle Guillermier, Bruce W Patterson, Donald Elbert, Kwasi G Mawuenyega, Theresa Schneider, Karen Green, Robyn Roth, Robert E Schmidt, Nigel J Cairns, Tammie L S Benzinger, Matthew L Steinhauser, Randall J Bateman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with clinical manifestations of progressive memory decline and loss of executive function and language. AD affects an estimated 5.3 million Americans alone and is the most common form of age-related dementia with a rapidly growing prevalence among the aging population-those 65 years of age or older. AD is characterized by accumulation of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain, which leads to one of the pathological hallmarks of AD-Aβ plaques. As a result, Aβ plaques have been extensively studied after being first described over a century ago...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614675/the-vascular-hypothesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-key-to-preclinical-prediction-of-dementia-using-neuroimaging
#18
Jack de la Torre
The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (VHAD) was proposed 24 years ago from observations made in our laboratory using aging rats subjected to chronic brain hypoperfusion. In recent years, VHAD has become a mother-lode to numerous neuroimaging studies targeting cerebral hemodynamic changes, particularly brain hypoperfusion in elderly patients at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a growing consensus among neuroradiologists that brain hypoperfusion is likely involved in the pathogenesis of AD and that disturbed cerebral blood flow (CBF) can serve as a key biomarker for predicting conversion of mild cognitive impairment to AD...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608338/exploring-provider-surrogate-communication-during-polst-discussions-for-individuals-with-advanced-dementia
#19
Hyejin Kim, Christine Bradway, Susan E Hickman, Mary Ersek
OBJECTIVES: This qualitative descriptive study explored provider-surrogate communication during Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) discussions for patients with advanced dementia. METHODS: Data from participant observations and audio-recordings of ten POLST discussions were analyzed using directed content analysis within the context of an existing conceptual model of Communication and Surrogate Decision Making. RESULTS: Surrogates primarily focused on making sense of the clinical information about life-sustaining treatments during POLST conversations...
April 2, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606132/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-telementoring-using-echo%C3%A2-technology-on-healthcare-professionals-knowledge-and-self-efficacy-in-assessing-and-managing-pain-for-people-with-advanced-dementia-nearing-the-end-of-life
#20
Bannin De Witt Jansen, Kevin Brazil, Peter Passmore, Hilary Buchanan, Doreen Maxwell, Sonja J McIlfatrick, Sharon M Morgan, Max Watson, Carole Parsons
BACKGROUND: Pain assessment and management in advanced and end-stage dementia are challenging; patients are at risk of under-diagnosis, under-assessment and under-treatment. Previous research has highlighted the importance of needs-driven training and development in this area for physicians, nurses and healthcare assistants (HCAs) across specialties, disciplines and care settings. This study used teleconferencing technology to connect healthcare professionals across multiple settings and disciplines in real-time clinics, based on the Project ECHO© model...
April 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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