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Advanced Dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228201/widespread-brain-tau-and-its-association-with-ageing-braak-stage-and-alzheimer-s-dementia
#1
Val J Lowe, Heather J Wiste, Matthew L Senjem, Stephen D Weigand, Terry M Therneau, Bradley F Boeve, Keith A Josephs, Ping Fang, Mukesh K Pandey, Melissa E Murray, Kejal Kantarci, David T Jones, Prashanthi Vemuri, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Christopher G Schwarz, Mary M Machulda, Michelle M Mielke, Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Autopsy data have proposed that a topographical pattern of tauopathy occurs in the brain with the development of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. We evaluated the findings of tau-PET to better understand neurofibrillary tangle development as it is seen in cognitively unimpaired and impaired individuals. The evolution of Alzheimer's disease tauopathy in cognitively unimpaired individuals needs to be examined to better understand disease pathogenesis. Tau-PET was performed in 86 cognitively impaired individuals who all had abnormal amyloid levels and 601 cognitively unimpaired individuals...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227101/the-magic-of-crystal-structure-based-inhibitor-optimization-development-of-a-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibitor-with-picomolar-affinity-and-in-vivo-activity
#2
Urban Košak, Boris Brus, Damijan Knez, Simon Žakelj, Jurij Trontelj, Anja Pišlar, Roman Šink, Marko Jukič, Marko Živin, Adrian Podkowa, Florian Nachon, Xavier Brazzolotto, Jure Stojan, Janko Kos, Nicolas Coquelle, Kinga Salat, Jacques-Philippe Colletier, Stanislav Gobec
The enzymatic activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in the brain increases with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, thus classifying BChE as a promising drug target in advanced Alzheimer's disease. We used structure-based drug-discovery approaches to develop potent, selective and reversible human BChE inhibitors. The most potent, compound 3, had a picomolar inhibition constant versus BChE due to strong cation-π interactions, as revealed by the solved crystal structure of its complex with human BChE...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220126/can-the-retina-be-used-to-diagnose-and-plot-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Deepti Mahajan, Marcela Votruba
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of senile dementia. It impairs the quality of life of a person and their family, posing a serious economic and social threat in developed countries. The fact that the diagnosis can only be definitively made post-mortem, or when the disease is fairly advanced, presents a serious problem if novel therapeutic interventions are to be devised and used early in the course of the disease. There is therefore a pressing need for more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests with which we can detect AD in the preclinical stage...
December 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219936/end-of-life-care-discussion-for-residents-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-facilities
#4
Hsiu-Li Huang, Li-Chueh Weng, WeWen-Yu Hu, Yea-Ing Lotus Shyu, Wen-Pin Yu, Kang-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals play an important role in end-of-life care decisions. Although the factors affecting end-of-life care in long-term care facilities have been well studied in Western contexts, few studies have examined factors affecting end-of-life care discussions for residents with dementia among multidisciplinary professionals in Asian or Taiwanese contexts. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to the end-of-life care discussions of registered nurses, social workers, and physicians with residents with dementia and their families...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214858/cognitive-impairment-dementia-and-personality-stability-among-older-adults
#5
Antonio Terracciano, Yannick Stephan, Martina Luchetti, Angelina R Sutin
There is contrasting evidence on personality stability in advanced age, and limited knowledge on the impact of cognitive impairment and dementia on trait stability. Group- and individual-level longitudinal analyses of the five major dimensions of personality assessed twice over 4 years ( N = 9,935) suggest that rank-order stability was progressively lower with advancing age (from rtt = 0.68 for age 50 to 60 years to rtt = 0.58 for age >80 years). Stability was low in the dementia group ( rtt = 0.43), and this was not simply due to lower reliability given that internal consistency remained adequate in the dementia group...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213518/cognitive-impairment-of-patients-with-chronic-renal-disease-on-hemodialysis-and-its-relationship-with-sociodemographic-and-clinical-characteristics
#6
Gabriela Dutra Gesualdo, Juliana Gomes Duarte, Marisa Silvana Zazzetta, Luciana Kusumota, Karina Gramani Say, Sofia Cristina Iost Pavarini, Fabiana de Souza Orlandi
Cognitive impairment and dementia commonly occur in individuals with chronic kidney disease, especially in advanced stages, but are still poorly diagnosed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cognitive ability of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis and its relationship with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit in the interior of the State of São Paulo involving 99 patients...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#7
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209381/do-patients-want-to-listen-to-a-diagnosis-of-dementia-in-korea-preferences-on-disclosing-a-diagnosis-of-dementia-and-discussing-advance-care-planning-in-elderly-patients-with-memory-concerns-and-their-families
#8
Joon Hyung Jung, Min Joo Kim, Soo-Hee Choi, Na Young Han, Jee Eun Park, Hye Youn Park, Ji Won Han, Dong Young Lee, Hye Yoon Park
Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate preferences regarding the disclosure of a dementia diagnosis and advance care planning (ACP) in patients with memory complaints and their families. Methods: A total of 98 patients who visited the department of psychiatry at a tertiary hospital with memory complaints and 62 family members completed a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included preferences on disclosure of dementia and cancer diagnosis, awareness and preferences on ACP...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207114/elderly-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mice-with-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-the-aorta-do-not-develop-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies
#10
Reut Shnerb Ganor, Dror Harats, Ginette Schiby, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Irit Lubitz, Aviv Shaish, Ophira Salomon
Atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. These diseases share common risk factors, which are exhibited in old age, including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein (Apo) ε4 allele. We previously demonstrated that factor XI (FXI) deficiency in mice reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area in coronary sinuses and the aortic arch. This led us to investigate whether FXI deficiency in elderly ApoE knockout (KO) mice would decrease pathological alterations compatible with atherosclerosis and AD...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206491/new-advances-in-tau-imaging-in-parkinsonism
#11
Mikaeel Valli, Antonio P Strafella
Currently, the differential diagnosis between atypical parkinsonisms and classical idiopathic Parkinson's disease can be quite difficult because of the significant overlap of clinical presentation and symptoms. Neurodegenerative conditions, including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are primarily characterized by accumulation of tau protein in the brain. Recent imaging developments for tau pathology may provide a promising tool for the assessment of diagnosis, prognosis, and progression of these neurodegenerative disorders...
December 5, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204655/blood-pressure-trajectories-in-the-20-years-before-death
#12
João Delgado, Kirsty Bowman, Alessandro Ble, Jane Masoli, Yang Han, William Henley, Scott Welsh, George A Kuchel, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer
Importance: There is mixed evidence that blood pressure (BP) stabilizes or decreases in later life. It is also unclear whether BP trajectories reflect advancing age, proximity to end of life, or selective survival of persons free from hypertension. Objective: To estimate individual patient BP for each of the 20 years before death and identify potential mechanisms that may explain trajectories. Design, Study, and Participants: We analyzed population-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care and linked hospitalization electronic medical records from the United Kingdom, using retrospective cohort approaches with generalized linear mixed-effects modeling...
December 4, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202654/sensation-and-psychiatry-linking-age-related-hearing-loss-to-late-life-depression-and-cognitive-decline
#13
Bret R Rutherford, Katharine Brewster, Justin S Golub, Ana H Kim, Steven P Roose
Recent research has linked age-related hearing loss to impaired performance across cognitive domains and increased risk for dementia diagnosis. The data linking hearing impairment to incident late-life depression are more mixed but suggest that diminished hearing does increase risk for depression. Behavioral mechanisms may explain these associations, such as the withdrawal of older adults from situations in which they may have difficulty hearing and communicating, which may contribute to the development of social isolation, loneliness, and consequent cognitive decline and depression...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201994/speed-of-processing-training-results-in-lower-risk-of-dementia
#14
Jerri D Edwards, Huiping Xu, Daniel O Clark, Lin T Guey, Lesley A Ross, Frederick W Unverzagt
Introduction: Cognitive training improves cognitive performance and delays functional impairment, but its effects on dementia are not known. We examined whether three different types of cognitive training lowered the risk of dementia across 10 years of follow-up relative to control and if greater number of training sessions attended was associated with lower dementia risk. Methods: The Advanced Cognitive Training in Vital Elderly (NCT00298558) study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 2802) among initially healthy older adults, which examined the efficacy of three cognitive training programs (memory, reasoning, or speed of processing) relative to a no-contact control condition...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201866/getting-lost-behavior-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cognitive-and-anatomical-model
#15
Chathuri Yatawara, Daryl Renick Lee, Levinia Lim, Juan Zhou, Nagaendran Kandiah
Background: Getting lost behavior (GLB) in the elderly is believed to involve poor top-down modulation of visuospatial processing, by impaired executive functions. However, since healthy elderly and elderly with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a different pattern of cognitive decline, it remains unclear whether this hypothesis can explain GLB in dementia. Objective: We sought to identify whether poor executive functions and working memory modulate the relationship between visuospatial processing and prevalence of GLB in healthy elderly and patients with AD...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200836/computerized-cognitive-stimulation-and-engagement-programs-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-comparing-feasibility-acceptability-and-cognitive-and-psychosocial-effects
#16
Leila Djabelkhir, Ya-Huei Wu, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Victoria Cristancho-Lacroix, Fabienne Marlats, Hermine Lenoir, Ariela Carno, Anne-Sophie Rigaud
Purpose: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with a higher risk of dementia and is becoming a topic of interest for pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. With advances in technology, computer-based cognitive exercises are increasingly integrated into traditional cognitive interventions, such as cognitive training. Another type of cognitive intervention involving technology use is cognitive engagement, consisting of involving participants in highly motivational and mentally challenging activities, such as learning to use a form of new digital technology...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200563/problems-of-face-recognition-in-patients-with-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Ketaki Patwardhan, Anupama Ramakanth Pai
Introduction: Faces are very special as they are most essential for social cognition in humans. It is partly understood that face processing in its abstractness involves several extra striate areas. One of the most important causes for caregiver suffering in patients with anterior dementia is lack of empathy. This apart from being a behavioral disorder could be also due to failure to categorize the emotions of the people around them. Patients and Methods: Inlusion criteria: DSM IV for Bv FTD Tested for prosopagnosia - familiar faces, famous face, smiling face, crying face and reflected face using a simple picture card (figure 1)...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199451/the-support-needs-of-family-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia-in-india-implications-for-health-services
#18
Neha Lamech, Shruti Raghuraman, Sridhar Vaitheswaran, Thara Rangaswamy
The World Alzheimer's Report estimates that 4.1 million people in India have dementia. Caregivers of persons with dementia face physical, psychological, social and financial problems related to caring for a person with dementia. Literature on the caregiving experience however is highly specific to the sociocultural context and cannot be generalized. In low and middle income countries much of the caregiving takes place in people's homes and is provided by family caregivers. Aim This study aims to explore the needs and challenges of family caregivers in Chennai, India...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194372/what-is-our-current-understanding-of-prpsc-associated-neurotoxicity-and-its-molecular-underpinnings
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Hughes, Mark Halliday
The prion diseases are a collection of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that cause rapid onset dementia and ultimately death. Uniquely, the infectious agent is a misfolded form of the endogenous cellular prion protein, termed PrPSc. Despite the identity of the molecular agent remaining the same, PrPSc can cause a range of diseases with hereditary, spontaneous or iatrogenic aetiologies. However, the link between PrPSc and toxicity is complex, with subclinical cases of prion disease discovered, and prion neurodegeneration without obvious PrPSc deposition...
December 1, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192686/evidence-summary-the-relationship-between-oral-health-and-dementia
#20
B Daly, A Thompsell, J Sharpling, Y M Rooney, L Hillman, K L Wanyonyi, S White, J E Gallagher
This is the fourth and final paper of a series of reviews undertaken to explore the relationships between oral health and general medical conditions, in order to support teams within Public Health England, health practitioners and policy makers. This review aimed to explore the most contemporary evidence on whether poor oral health and dementia occurs in the same individuals or populations, to outline the nature of the relationship between these two health outcomes and to discuss the implication of any findings for health services and future research...
December 1, 2017: British Dental Journal
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