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Korsakoff's Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128903/impairment-of-thiamine-transport-at-the-gut-bbb-axis-contributes-to-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#1
P M Abdul-Muneer, Saleena Alikunju, Heather Schuetz, Adam M Szlachetka, Xiaotang Ma, James Haorah
Wernicke's encephalopathy, a common neurological disease, is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Neuropathy resulting from thiamine deficiency is a hallmark of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol users. The underlying mechanisms of this deficiency and progression of neuropathy remain to be understood. To uncover the unknown mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in alcohol abuse, we used chronic alcohol consumption or thiamine deficiency diet ingestion in animal models. Observations from animal models were validated in primary human neuronal culture for neurodegenerative process...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128624/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-complicated-by-subacute-beriberi-neuropathy-in-an-alcoholic-patient
#2
Salvatore Di Marco, Laura Pilati, Filippo Brighina, Brigida Fierro, Giuseppe Cosentino
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a common condition in alcohol abusers, which can lead to damage of both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Here we describe the case of an alcoholic patient who presented with acute onset of ataxia, severe weakness of the four limbs, and hypoesthesia and dysesthesia of the distal portion of the upper and lower extremities. The clinical picture also included mental confusion and amnesia. A diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was made based on clinical symptoms and brain RMI findings...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079031/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-people-with-korsakoff-syndrome-and-other-alcohol-related-cognitive-disorders-living-in-specialized-long-term-care-facilities-prevalence-severity-and-associated-caregiver-distress
#3
Ineke J Gerridzen, Cees M P M Hertogh, Marja F Depla, Ruth B Veenhuizen, Els M L Verschuur, Karlijn J Joling
OBJECTIVES: Caring for people with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) residing in specialized long-term care facilities (LTCFs) can be distressing because of challenging neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). However, good-quality studies on NPS in this under-researched population are lacking. This study examined the prevalence and severity of NPS in people with KS living in specialized LTCFs and the associated caregiver distress. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. Data were obtained using structured interviews with care staff, elderly care physicians, and residents...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#4
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988573/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-brain-neuroimaging-results-in-humans-and-animal-models
#5
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967298/errorless-re-learning-of-everyday-activities-in-patients-with-korsakoff-s-syndrome-a-feasibility-study
#6
Yvonne C M Rensen, Jos I M Egger, Josette Westhoff, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels
Errorless learning has proven to be an effective method for (re)learning tasks in several patient groups with amnesia. However, so far only a handful of studies have examined the effects of errorless learning in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. The aims of this feasibility study were to (a) examine the effects of errorless learning training on (re)learning tasks in a patient with Korsakoff's syndrome, (b) examine the effects of the nature of the training on the execution of the tasks, and (c) examine characteristics that may mediate learning outcome...
October 2, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904449/james-wenceslaus-papez-his-circuit-and-emotion
#7
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
James Papez worked on the anatomical substrates of emotion and described a circuit, mainly composed of the hippocampus, thalamus and cingulum, and published his observations in 1937. However, such an idea existed before him, as evidenced by the rudimentary indications from Paul Broca, and Paul MacLean added some other structures like, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamus in its ambit and called it the limbic system. Paul Ivan Yakovlev, proposed a circuit which also referred to orbitofrontal, insular, anterior temporal lobe, and other nuclei of thalamus...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886469/phenomenological-characteristics-of-autobiographical-memory-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#8
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino
A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall)...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885888/crossmodal-processing-of-emotions-in-alcohol-dependence-and-korsakoff-syndrome
#9
Mélanie Brion, Fabien D'Hondt, Séverine Lannoy, Anne-Lise Pitel, Donald A Davidoff, Pierre Maurage
INTRODUCTION: Decoding emotional information from faces and voices is crucial for efficient interpersonal communication. Emotional decoding deficits have been found in alcohol-dependence (ALC), particularly in crossmodal situations (with simultaneous stimulations from different modalities), but are still underexplored in Korsakoff syndrome (KS). The aim of this study is to determine whether the continuity hypothesis, postulating a gradual worsening of cognitive and brain impairments from ALC to KS, is valid for emotional crossmodal processing...
September 8, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#10
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
October 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#11
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660741/split-brain-phenomena-in-anterior-communicating-artery-aneurysm-rupture-a-case-report
#12
Natalya Korsakova, Elizabeth Liebson, Lena Moskovich
In 1976, a patient with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoAA) rupture (diagnosed on angiography) and sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) underwent serial neuropsychological testing revealing a classical anterior cerebral artery (ACA) spasm picture with severe anterograde amnesia of Korsakoff's type and dysexecutive syndrome. In addition, the patient demonstrated impaired hemispheric interaction with alien hand syndrome, dyscopia-dysgraphia, complete left ear neglect, and other, more complex, split-brain phenomena...
June 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574307/korsakoff-syndrome-from-retrochiasmatic-suprasellar-lesions-rapid-reversal-after-relief-of-cerebral-compression-in-4-cases
#13
Luis E Savastano, Todd C Hollon, Ariel L Barkan, Stephen E Sullivan
Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic memory disorder caused by a severe deficiency of thiamine that is most commonly observed in alcoholics. However, some have proposed that focal structural lesions disrupting memory circuits-in particular, the mammillary bodies, the mammillothalamic tract, and the anterior thalamus-can give rise to this amnestic syndrome. Here, the authors present 4 patients with reversible Korsakoff syndromes caused by suprasellar retrochiasmatic lesions compressing the mammillary bodies and adjacent caudal hypothalamic structures...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524123/-a-clinical-and-neuropsychological-study-of-patients-before-and-after-resection-of-third-ventricle-colloid-cysts
#14
S B Buklina, A N Konovalov, D I Pitskhelauri, M A Shkarubo, A A Poddubskaya, M V Kolycheva
The literature lacks studies of cognitive impairments in large groups of patients after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. AIM: To evaluate cognitive impairments in patients before and after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a clinical and neuropsychological study of 52 patients with third ventricle colloid cysts using the Luria method (1962). Forty three patients were examined before and after cyst resection in the early postoperative period (three patients in this group were also examined in a long-term period of 3-7 months after surgery)...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465069/the-role-of-nondeclarative-memory-in-the-skill-for-language-evidence-from-syntactic-priming-in-patients-with-amnesia
#15
Evelien Heyselaar, Katrien Segaert, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Peter Hagoort
Syntactic priming, the phenomenon in which participants adopt the linguistic behaviour of their partner, is widely used in psycholinguistics to investigate syntactic operations. Although the phenomenon of syntactic priming is well documented, the memory system that supports the retention of this syntactic information long enough to influence future utterances, is not as widely investigated. We aim to shed light on this issue by assessing patients with Korsakoff's amnesia on an active-passive syntactic priming task and compare their performance to controls matched in age, education, and premorbid intelligence...
April 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430846/a-case-of-bariatric-surgery-related-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-with-persisting-anterograde-amnesia
#16
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
Objective: To describe the theoretical and clinical implications of the neuropsychological evaluation of a case of bariatric surgery-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Method: The patient was a 37-year old, female, bilingual, bachelor's degree educated, Mexican American public relations consultant without preexisting psychiatric, neurological, or substance abuse history. Recovery from laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgery for morbid obesity was complicated by intraabdominal abscess, multibacterial infection, and prolonged nausea and vomiting...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413748/thiamine-assays-advances-challenges-and-caveats
#17
REVIEW
Katie A Edwards, Nicole Tu-Maung, Krystal Cheng, Binbin Wang, Antje J Baeumner, Clifford E Kraft
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential to the health of all living organisms and deficiency has long been associated with diseases in animals such as fish, birds, alligators, and domesticated ruminant mammals. Thiamine is also implicated in several human diseases including Alzheimer's, diabetes, dementia, depression and, most notably, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Beriberi disease. Yet, highly sensitive and specific detection of thiamine remains an analytical challenge, as pM to nm levels of thiamine need to be detected in environmental and human samples, respectively, various phosphorylated variants need to be discriminated, and rapid on-site detection would be highly desirable...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412877/retrospective-time-perception-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#18
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Roy P C Kessels, Christian Matton, Jean-Eudes Bacquet, Laurent Urso, Pascal Antoine
The authors investigated retrospective timing in participants with Korsakoff's syndrome. Patients were assessed on four retrospective tasks on which they were instructed to read three-digit numbers aloud (15 seconds), fill connected squares (30 seconds), decide whether words were abstract or concrete (45 seconds), or read aloud a text about mushroom picking (60 seconds). Participants were not aware of the task's timing until the end of the tasks, when they were asked to estimate the elapsed time. Results revealed an underestimation of the elapsed time in Korsakoff participants, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly for these participants...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365885/the-spectrum-of-vestibular-and-ocular-motor-abnormalities-in-thiamine-deficiency
#19
REVIEW
Jorge C Kattah
PURPOSE: The first aim of this review is to summarize recent ocular motor signs in pre-encephalopathy patients with nutritional deficiency at risk of thiamine deficiency. Timely recognition of thiamine depletion in these patients, who may have a normal brain MRI, could lead to appropriate management and prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) with full recovery. The second aim is to incorporate recent diagnostic testing on the revised WE diagnostic criteria and the identification of patients who may show slow, partial, or no response to treatment...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351256/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#20
Alexander Donnelly
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a potentially debilitating and fatal condition that is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain. It can be treated effectively or prevented completely; however, the condition is often undiagnosed and inadequately managed. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is commonly considered to be specific to individuals who misuse alcohol; however, there are many other predisposing factors and causes associated with the condition. This article aims to raise awareness of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, to enable nurses in all practice settings to recognise the signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with the condition and be informed about available treatments...
March 29, 2017: Nursing Standard
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