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Exhaled breath condensate

Kalle Kilk, Argo Aug, Aigar Ottas, Ursel Soomets, Siiri Altraja, Alan Altraja
Apart from the refined management-oriented clinical stratification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the molecular pathologies behind this highly prevalent disease have remained obscure. The aim of this study was the characterization of patients with COPD, based on the metabolomic profiling of peripheral blood and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) within the context of defined clinical and demographic variables. Mass-spectrometry-based targeted analysis of serum metabolites (mainly amino acids and lipid species), untargeted profiles of serum and EBC of patients with COPD of different clinical characteristics ( n = 25) and control individuals ( n = 21) were performed...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anna Pękala-Wojciechowska, Michał Poznański, Kamil Szyszow, Adam Antczak
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes is an insulin deficiency-based chronic disease. It leads to the development of hyperglycaemia, which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of tissue damage in patients with diabetes. This mostly results from oxidative stress, whose increased severity is observed in this group of patients. Increased levels of 8-isoprostanes are seen in many inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. These diseases demonstrated the usefulness of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for extracting material for markers of oxidative stress, including 8-isoprostanes...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Lucyna Konieczna, Magdalena Pyszka, Magdalena Okońska, Maciej Niedźwiecki, Tomasz Bączek
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is receiving increased attention as a novel, entirely non-invasive technique for collecting biomarker samples. This increased attention is due to the fact that EBC is simple, effort independent, rapid, can be repeated frequently, and can be performed on young children and patients suffering from a variety of diseases. By having a subject breathe tidally through a cooling system for 15-20 min, a sufficient amount of condensate is collected for analysis of biomarkers in clinical studies...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
David Fishwick, Steve Forman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The outcome for workers with occupational asthma is improved for those with an earlier diagnosis. Health surveillance at work is in principle designed to identify such cases, so that the risks to the individual worker, and coworkers, can be reduced. There is recent evidence to suggest that the uptake and quality of such surveillance could be improved. This review has assessed current approaches to health surveillance for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The article covers a review of the utility of questionnaires, lung function testing, immunological investigations, and other tests, including exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophilia, and exhaled breath condensate specifically in the context of workplace-based health surveillance...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ryan S Thwaites, Hannah C Jarvis, Nehmat Singh, Akhilesh Jha, Andy Pritchard, Hailing Fan, Tanushree Tunstall, Joan Nanan, Simon Nadel, Onn Min Kon, Peter J Openshaw, Trevor T Hansel
The methods of nasal absorption (NA) and bronchial absorption (BA) use synthetic absorptive matrices (SAM) to absorb the mucosal lining fluid (MLF) of the human respiratory tract. NA is a non-invasive technique which absorbs fluid from the inferior turbinate, and causes minimal discomfort. NA has yielded reproducible results with the ability to frequently repeat sampling of the upper airway. By comparison, alternative methods of sampling the respiratory mucosa, such as nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) and conventional swabbing, are more invasive and may result in greater data variability...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ziru Jia, Hongying Liu, Wang Li, Dandan Xie, Ke Cheng, Xitian Pi
In recent years, noninvasive diagnosis based on biomarkers in exhaled breath has been extensively studied. The procedure of biomarker collection is a key step. However, the traditional condenser method has low efficacy in collecting nonvolatile compounds especially the protein biomarkers in breath. To solve this deficiency, here we propose an electret filter method.Exhaled breath of 6 volunteers was collected with a glass condenser and an electret filter. The amount of albumin was analyzed. Furthermore, the difference of exhaled albumin between smokers and nonsmokers was evaluated...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daniel M Neville, Carole Fogg, Thomas P Brown, Thomas L Jones, Eleanor Lanning, Paul Bassett, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are common conditions that affect over 5 million people in the United Kingdom. These groups of patients suffer significantly from breathlessness and recurrent exacerbations that can be difficult to diagnose and go untreated. A common feature of COPD and asthma is airway inflammation that increases before and during exacerbations. Current methods of assessing airway inflammation can be invasive, difficult to perform, and are often inaccurate...
January 30, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Katarzyna Gorska, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Magdalena Paplinska-Goryca, Piotr Korczynski, Monika Prochorec-Sobieszek, Rafal Krenke
IL-6 and IL-33 are involved in the inflammatory process in obstructive lung diseases. In contrast to IL-6, few data on the expression of IL-33 in different biological samples from asthma and COPD patients are available. The aim was to evaluate the expressions of IL-33 and IL-6 in bronchial mucosa and to compare these expressions with the concentrations of both cytokines in various respiratory samples from patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and COPD. Serum, induced sputum and exhaled breath condensate IL-6 and IL-33 levels, as well as their expression in bronchial mucosa were evaluated in 22 asthma and 33 COPD patients...
January 10, 2018: COPD
Marcin Kurowski, Janusz Jurczyk, Marzanna Jarzębska, Aleksandra Wardzyńska, Hubert Krysztofiak, Marek L Kowalski
INTRODUCTION: Periostin is a matricellular protein expressed by many tissues. Its release may be enhanced, among others, through mechanical stimulation of muscles and bones as well as by cytokines of allergic inflammation. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess periostin levels in serum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of professional athletes, asthmatics and healthy controls. We also sought to determine whether acute treadmill exercise influences serum and EBC periostin...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Miora Andrianjafimasy, Farid Zerimech, Zeina Akiki, Helene Huyvaert, Nicole Le Moual, Valérie Siroux, Régis Matran, Orianne Dumas, Rachel Nadif
Asthma is an oxidative stress related disease, but associations with asthma outcomes are poorly studied in adults. We aimed to study the associations between several biomarkers related to oxidative stress and various asthma outcomes.Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 1388 adults (mean age 43 years, 44% with asthma) from the Epidemiological Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA2). Three blood antioxidant enzyme activities (biomarkers of response to oxidative stress) and exhaled breath condensate 8-isoprostanes and plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs) levels (two biomarkers of damage) were measured...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Adam D Worrall, Zexin Qian, Jonathan Bernstein, Anastasios P Angelopoulos
Endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOC's) such as acetone in exhaled human breath are associated with metabolic conditions in the bloodstream. Development of compact, rapid detectors of exhaled breath chemical compo-sition in clinical settings is challenging due to the small sample size that can be collected during a single exhalation as well as spectroscopic interference by the abundance of water. In this paper, we show that the activity of a catalytic polymer membrane (Nafion® 117) toward the heterogeneous condensation reaction of immobilized resorcinol reagent with gas-phase acetone can be preserved even at 100% ambient relative humidity through the incorporation of organic acids such as vanillic or tiglic...
December 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Anirban Sinha, Koundinya Desiraju, Kunal Aggarwal, Rintu Kutum, Siddhartha Roy, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra, Balaram Ghosh, Tavpritesh Sethi, Anurag Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with similar presenting symptoms but with varying underlying pathologies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a relatively unexplored matrix which reflects the signatures of respiratory epithelium, but is difficult to normalize for dilution. METHODS: Here we explored whether internally normalized global NMR spectrum patterns, combined with machine learning, could be useful for diagnostics or endotype discovery...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Andrew Ghio, Michael C Madden, Charles R Esther
Water vapor in expired air, as well as dispersed non-volatile components, condense onto a cooler surface after exiting the respiratory tract. This exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a dilute sampling of the epithelial lining fluid. Accordingly, the collection of EBC imparts a capacity to provide biomarkers of injury preceding clinical disease. Concentrations of transition and post-transition metals in EBC are included among these endpoints. Iron and zinc are those metals in highest concentration and are measurable in all EBC samples from healthy subjects; other metals are most frequently either at or below the level of detection in this group...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Stephanie P Kurti, Sam R Emerson, Joshua R Smith, Sara K Rosenkranz, Samantha A Alexander, Garrett M Lovoy, Craig A Harms
INTRODUCTION: Development of late-onset respiratory diseases is associated with elevated 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, in the airways. However, sex differences exist in development of these diseases. Using an exhaustive exercise bout as a physiological stressor may elucidate whether there is a sex difference with aging in pre- to post-exercise airway 8-isoprostane generation. PURPOSE: To determine whether older women exhibit a greater airway 8-isoprostane response to exhaustive exercise compared to older men and younger controls...
December 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Elaheh Rahimpour, Abolghasem Jouyban
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Bioanalysis
Maud Lacombe, Caroline Marie-Desvergne, Florence Combes, Alexandra Kraut, Christophe Bruley, Yves Vandenbrouck, Véronique Chamel Mossuz, Yohann Couté, Virginie Brun
To improve biomedical knowledge and to support biomarker discovery studies, it is essential to establish comprehensive proteome maps for human tissues and biofluids, and to make them publicly accessible. In this study, we performed an in-depth proteomics characterization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a sample obtained non-invasively by condensation of exhaled air that contains submicron droplets of airway lining fluid. Two pooled samples of EBC, each obtained from 10 healthy donors, were processed using a straightforward protocol based on sample lyophilization, in-gel digestion and liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Beata Narożna, Wojciech Langwiński, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes and pathways and therefore have been extensively studied in human diseases. Previous reports have shown that non-coding RNAs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and aberrant regulation of respiratory diseases. The altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs in blood and also locally in sputum or exhaled breath condensate influences lung function, immune response, and disease phenotype and may be used for the development of biomarkers specific for airway disease...
November 27, 2017: Genes
Thomas Ritz, Ana F Trueba, Pia D Vogel, Richard J Auchus, David Rosenfield
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has demonstrated that psychosocial stress is associated with respiratory infections. Immunologic, endocrine, and cardiovascular predictors of such infections have been explored with varying success. We therefore sought to study the unexplored role of airway mucosal immunity factors, nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). NO is secreted by airway epithelial cells as part of the first line of defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi...
February 2018: Biological Psychology
Lucia Spicuzza, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Lucia Tardino, Nicola Ciancio, Raffaella Nenna, Fabio Midulla, Salvatore Leonardi
The sustained imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species contributes to lung damage in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Glutathione (GSH) is an important component of the antioxidant defense in the airways epithelial lining fluid and its transportation out of the cells may be altered in CF. The aim of this study was to assess the oxidants/anti-oxidants balance in the airways of patients with CF. We measured the concentrations of GSH, the total antioxidant capacity and the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane), a marker of oxidative stress, in the exhaled breath condensate of 17 non-smoking patients with CF, in stable phase, and in 17 age-matched healthy subjects...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Joachim D Pleil, Ariel Wallace, Michael C Madden
Exhaled breath collection has long been recognized as requiring the least invasive methods of the biological fluids and so is preferred for environmental and public health studies. This commentary describes how breath biomonitoring is generally preferred for certain logistical reasons in public health and occupational biomonitoring. Three different fractions of exhaled breath are considered: gas-phase, liquid condensate, and aerosols. The focus is on the exhaled breath aerosol (EBA) fraction and the development of targeted sampling and analysis methods...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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