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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822904/the-effect-of-age-and-length-of-gonadotropin-stimulation-on-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-embryo-development-of-holstein-calf-oocytes
#1
Luke Currin, Laura Michalovic, Anne-Marie Bellefleur, Karina Gutierrez, Werner Glanzner, Yasmin Schuermann, Rodrigo C Bohrer, Naomi Dicks, Paulo R da Rosa, Matheus P De Cesaro, Rosalba Lopez, François-Xavier Grand, Christian Vigneault, Patrick Blondin, Jim Gourdon, Hernan Baldassarre, Vilceu Bordignon
The use of oocytes recovered from prepubertal donors for in vitro embryo production has great potential for accelerating the rate of genetic gain in the dairy industry. However, these oocytes are known to be less developmentally competent than those from adult donors. In this study, we investigated the effect of age and gonadotropin stimulation in Holstein heifers subjected to oocyte collection every two weeks between 2 and 6 months of age. In order to assess the effect of gonadotropin stimulation, animals were subjected to one of three treatments, namely Short (ST; 36-42 h), Long (LT; ≥72 h) and No Treatment (NT) prior to laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU)...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822779/molecular-characterization-of-kiss2-and-differential-regulation-of-reproduction-related-genes-by-sex-steroids-in-the-hypothalamus-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#2
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Xuesong Song, Bao Shi
Kisspeptin (Kiss) plays a critical role in mediating gonadal steroid feedback to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in mammals. However, little information regarding the regulation of kisspeptin gene by sex steroids is available in teleosts. In this study, we examined the direct actions of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin and other key factors involved in reproductive function of half-smooth tongue sole. As a first step, a partial-length cDNA of kiss2 was identified from the brain of tongue sole and kiss2 transcript levels were shown to be widely expressed in various tissues, notably in the ovary...
August 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822776/assessment-of-ovarian-follicular-dynamics-and-folliculogenesis-associated-endocrine-profiles-following-gonadotropin-stimulation-in-the-bonnet-monkey
#3
Bhupathi Sukesh, Muraly Puttabyatappa, Augustine T Peter, Rudraiah Medhamurthy, Polani B Seshagiri
We evaluated ovarian follicular dynamics in bonnet monkeys by employing trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Following the administration of human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and/or human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), multiple follicular development was assessed and their numbers, size and growth profiles were monitored. The ultrasonograms showed that the follicular antrum appeared distinctly anechoic with well-defined hyperechoic borders. Depending on the type, quantity (12.5-25 IU), and duration (6-9 days) of hormones administered, the number of developing follicles was 2-12 per ovary with their lowest diameter being 2 mm...
August 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822774/effects-of-neuropeptides-and-sex-steroids-on-the-pituitary-gonadal-axis-of-pre-pubertal-f1-wreckfish-h%C3%A4-puku-polyprion-oxygeneios-in-vivo-evidence-of-inhibitory-effects-of-androgens
#4
Matthew J Wylie, Alvin N Setiawan, Glen W Irvine, Jane E Symonds, Abigail Elizur, P Mark Lokman
The ability to advance puberty in broodstock that have a long generation interval and mature at large size is a highly valuable tool in contemporary aquaculture enterprise. Juvenile male and female wreckfish 'hāpuku' (Polyprion oxygeneios), a candidate for commercialization in aquaculture, were subjected to treatment for 8 weeks with two implants, one containing steroid (blank; estradiol-17β, E2; 11-ketotestosterone, KT; 17 α -methyltestosterone, MT), the other peptide (blank; gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog, GnRHa; kisspeptin, Kiss2-12)...
August 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821466/endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-waterborne-fluoxetine-exposure-on-the-reproductive-axis-of-female-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#5
Jan A Mennigen, Jacob M Zamora, John P Chang, Vance L Trudeau
Evidence suggests that pharmaceuticals and personal care products reach urban watersheds, bioconcentrate in fish, and potentially disrupt physiological homeostasis. These impairments often affect hormone functions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRRIs) are increasingly studied with regards to their endocrine disrupting effects on teleost physiological processes, including reproduction. To examine whether FLX effects on the endocrine regulation of reproductive physiology in goldfish are sex-specific, we exposed sexually recrudescent female goldfish to two waterborne concentrations of FLX (0...
August 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819802/significance-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-as-a-predictor-of-resistance-to-standard-chemo-radiotherapy-for-pure-germinoma
#6
Akihiro Inoue, Takanori Ohnishi, Shohei Kohno, Shiro Ohue, Shinji Iwata, Shirabe Matsumoto, Masahiro Nishikawa, Saya Ozaki, Yawara Nakamura, Yosuke Mizuno, Riko Kitazawa, Takeharu Kunieda
Intracranial pure germinomas in children generally respond well to standard chemo-radiotherapy. However, some patients are refractory to standard therapy and require additional treatment. To investigate the characteristics of this subgroup, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and treatment outcomes of a cohort of 21 patients with intracranial pure germinomas who were diagnosed between April 2002 and December 2016 at Ehime University Hospital in Japan. Pure germinoma diagnosis was verified by histological examination of the tumor after surgery, and all patients received standard chemo-radiotherapy...
August 18, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819015/adrenal-cushing-s-syndrome-during-pregnancy
#7
Corina Andreescu, Rehmat Ali Alwani, Johannes Hofland, Leendert Looijenga, Wouter de Herder, Leo Hofland, Richard A Feelders
Cushing syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with only a few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis of CS is common because of overlapping features like fatigue, weight gain, striae and emotional changes that can occur during normal pregnancy. Changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of glucocorticoid hormone levels during gestation. CS during pregnancy is most frequently due to an adrenal adenoma and to a lesser degree to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816282/-long-term-follow-up-experience-of-comprehensive-treatment-of-testicular-mixed-germ-cell-tumors
#8
J F Ye, B Wang, L L Ma, L Zhao, G L Wang, K Hong
OBJECTIVE: Testicular mixed germ cell tumor is mixed with embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, teratoma, seminoma and other two or more components of the testicular tumor, the clinical is relatively rare and high degree of malignancy, this article will summarize its clinical features and optimize its treatment. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 22 patients with testicular tumor mixed germ cell in Peking University Third Hospital from May 1994 to November 2016 was conducted using a combination of statistical analysis and discussion of the relevant literature...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815566/maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-mediates-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-induced-meiotic-resumption-in-rat-oocytes
#9
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) and triggers meiotic maturation and ovulation in mammals. The mechanism by which hCG triggers meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes remains poorly understood. We aimed to find out the impact of hCG surge on morphological changes, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Wee1, early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), meiotic arrest deficient protein 2 (MAD2), phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), its activity and cyclin B1 expression levels during meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814762/down-regulation-of-pdk4-is-critical-for-the-switch-of-carbohydrate-catabolism-during-syncytialization-of-human-placental-trophoblasts
#10
Xiaohui Liu, Rujuan Zuo, Yirong Bao, Xiaoxian Qu, Kang Sun, Hao Ying
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is known as a gatekeeper directing the carbon flux into glycolysis via inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. During syncytialization of placental trophoblasts, both ATP production and oxygen consumption are increased to meet enhanced energetic demands by syntiotrophoblasts. We hypothesized that down-regulation of PDK expression may play a central role in the switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during syncytialization. By using primary human trophoblasts, we demonstrated that PDK4 was the dominating PDK isoform in human cytotrophoblasts, and its abundance was substantially decreased upon syncytialization, which was accompanied by decreases in lactate production and increases in ATP production...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814452/medical-ovariectomy-in-menopausal-breast-cancer-patients-with-high-testosterone-levels
#11
Giorgio Secreto, Paola Muti, Milena Sant, Elisabetta Meneghini, Vittorio Krogh
Five years of adjuvant therapy with anti-estrogens reduce the incidence of disease progression by about 50% in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients, but late relapse can still occur after that anti-estrogens have been discontinued. In these patients, excessive androgen production may account for renewed excessive estrogen formation and increased risk of late relapse. In the 50% of patients who do not benefit with anti-estrogens, the effect of therapy is limited by de novo or acquired resistance to treatment...
August 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810565/alteration-of-th17-and-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-before-and-after-the-therapy-of-hcg-combined-with-immunoglobulin
#12
Jing Sha, Fumin Liu, Jingfang Zhai, Xiaoyun Liu, Qinglin Zhang, Bei Zhang
We conducted this study to investigate the effects of the combination therapy of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) plus immunoglobulin (IG) on the levels of T helper 17 (Th17) cells and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Twenty pregnant women with URSA underwent combination therapy of hCG plus IG. Flow cytometry was performed to measure the proportions of Th17 and Treg cells before and after treatment. RT-PCR and ELISA were applied to detect the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the peripheral blood...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810213/the-effect-of-circulating-progesterone-on-magnitude-of-the-gnrh-induced-lh-surge-are-there-any-differences-between-bos-indicus-and-bos-taurus-heifers
#13
E O S Batista, T A Del Valle, M D D V Ortolan, F P Rennó, G P Nogueira, A H Souza, P S Baruselli
This study evaluated the effects of differing circulating progesterone (P4) levels on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge profile following treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in B. indicus (Nelore, n = 13) and B. taurus (Holstein, n = 16) heifers. All heifers were synchronized with a hormonal protocol to induce either a Low or High circulating P4 environment at the time of GnRH treatment. Heifers were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design composed by two genetic groups (B. indicus and B...
August 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808344/hypothalamic-effects-of-progesterone-on-regulation-of-the-pulsatile-and-surge-release-of-luteinising-hormone-in-female-rats
#14
Wen He, Xiaofeng Li, Daniel Adekunbi, Yali Liu, Hui Long, Li Wang, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang, Kevin T O'Byrne
Progesterone can block the oestradiol-induced GnRH/LH surge and inhibit LH pulse frequency. Recent studies reported that progesterone prevented premature LH surges during ovarian hyperstimulation in women. As the most potent stimulator of GnRH/LH release, kisspeptin is believed to mediate the positive and negative feedback effects of oestradiol in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, while the region-specific role of progesterone receptors in these nuclei remains unknown...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804932/kisspeptin-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-during-delayed-embryonic-development-in-the-fruit-bat-cynopterus-sphinx
#15
Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna
Cynopterus sphinx, a fruit bat, undergoes delayed embryonic development during the winter months, a period that corresponds to low levels of progesterone and estradiol synthesis by the ovary. Kisspeptins (KPs) are a group of neuropeptide hormones that act via G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) to stimulate hypothalamic secretion of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thereby regulating ovarian steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. GPR54 is also expressed in the ovary, suggesting a direct role for KPs in ovarian steroidogenesis...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803576/age-at-castration-surgical-or-immunological-impacts-carcass-characteristics-and-meat-quality-of-male-pigs
#16
L Huber, E J Squires, I B Mandell, C F M de Lange
In order to accurately estimate body composition at slaughter and to meet specific market targets, the influence of age at time of castration (surgical or immunological) on body composition and boar taint indicators must be determined for male pigs. In all, 48 males were randomly assigned to one of four management regimens: (1) entire male pigs (EM), (2) EM surgically castrated at ~40 kg BW and 10 weeks of age (late castrates; LC), (3) conventional, early surgical castrates (within 4 days of birth; EC) and (4) EM immunized with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog (primary dose at 30 kg BW and 8 weeks of age; booster dose at 70 kg and 14 weeks of age; IM)...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802241/the-9-d-cidr-pg-protocol-ii-characterization-of-endocrine-parameters-ovarian-dynamics-and-pregnancy-rates-to-fixed-time-ai-following-use-of-long-term-cidr-based-estrus-synchronization-among-mature-beef-cows
#17
J M Thomas, J W C Locke, B E Bishop, J M Abel, M R Ellersieck, S E Poock, M F Smith, D J Patterson
An experiment was designed to evaluate endocrine parameters, ovarian dynamics, and pregnancy rates to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) following the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol in comparison to the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol. While both are long-term protocols using CIDR treatment for presynchronization, the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol differs from the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol in that prostaglandin F2α (PG) is administered at CIDR insertion and removal to facilitate a decreased length of progestin treatment and potentially enhance response to the presynchronization treatment...
August 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802064/neurokinin-3-receptor-antagonism-decreases-gonadotropin-and-testosterone-secretion-in-healthy-men
#18
Karolina Skorupskaite, Jyothis T George, Johannes D Veldhuis, Robert P Millar, Richard A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with mutations of NKB and its receptor show hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, but there is little evidence for the importance of this pathway in reproductive function in normal men, or its functional hierarchy with kisspeptin. DESIGN: An open label study wherein men (n=6) were administered the NK3R antagonist MLE4901 40mg orally twice a day for 7 days. Kisspeptin-10 (0.3 μg/kg iv bolus) was given before and on day 7 of NK3R antagonist treatment...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802044/the-neuropeptide-corazonin-controls-social-behavior-and-caste-identity-in-ants
#19
Janko Gospocic, Emily J Shields, Karl M Glastad, Yanping Lin, Clint A Penick, Hua Yan, Alexander S Mikheyev, Timothy A Linksvayer, Benjamin A Garcia, Shelley L Berger, Jürgen Liebig, Danny Reinberg, Roberto Bonasio
Social insects are emerging models to study how gene regulation affects behavior because their colonies comprise individuals with the same genomes but greatly different behavioral repertoires. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that activate distinct behaviors in different castes, we exploit a natural behavioral plasticity in Harpegnathos saltator, where adult workers can transition to a reproductive, queen-like state called gamergate. Analysis of brain transcriptomes during the transition reveals that corazonin, a neuropeptide homologous to the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, is downregulated as workers become gamergates...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800576/heterotopic-pregnancy-including-intrauterine-normal-gestation-and-tubal-complete-hydatidiform-mole-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Dan Lu, Jian Jenny Tang, Konstantin Zakashansky, Ross S Berkowitz, Tamara Kalir, Yuxin Liu
We report a rare case of heterotopic pregnancy with intrauterine normal gestation alongside tubal complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) that resulted in a viable pregnancy after removal of molar tissue. Because of their rarity and inherent complexity, such cases represent a significant challenge in diagnosis and management. A 34-year-old female in her 10th week of gestation presented with nausea, vomiting, and intermittent abdominal pain that progressively worsened. Imaging studies revealed a normal intrauterine fetus and an 11-cm heterogenous mass in the left adnexal region...
September 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
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