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Insulin AND amyloid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158110/diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease-gsk-3%C3%AE-as-a-potential-link
#1
REVIEW
Ying Zhang, Nan-Qu Huang, Fei Yan, Hai Jin, Shao-Yu Zhou, Jing-Shan Shi, Feng Jin
It is well known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to diabetes mellitus (DM), and AD is also regarded as Type 3 diabetes (T3D). However, the exact link between AD and DM is still unclear. Recently, more and more evidence has shown that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) may be the potential link between DM and AD. In DM, GSK-3β is the crucial enzyme of glycogen synthesis, which plays a key role in regulating blood glucose. More importantly, GSK-3β is one of the key factors leading to insulin deficiency and insulin resistance, and insulin resistance is an important hallmark of the occurrence and development of DM...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154275/association-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-insulin-with-cognitive-performance-and-csf-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Stefan L C Geijselaers, Pauline Aalten, Inez H G B Ramakers, Peter Paul De Deyn, Annemieke C Heijboer, Huiberdina L Koek, Marcel G M OldeRikkert, Janne M Papma, Fransje E Reesink, Lieke L Smits, Coen D A Stehouwer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Frans R J Verhey, Wiesje M van der Flier, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Abnormal insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) insulin levels are associated with cognitive performance and CSF amyloid-β and Tau. Additionally, we explore whether any such association differs by sex or APOE ɛ4 genotype. METHODS: From 258 individuals participating in the Parelsnoer Institute Neurodegenerative Diseases, a nationwide multicenter memory clinic population, we selected 138 individuals (mean age 66±9 years, 65...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147551/development-of-proteolytically-stable-n-methylated-peptide-inhibitors-of-aggregation-of-the-amylin-peptide-implicated-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Idira Obasse, Mark Taylor, Nigel J Fullwood, David Allsop
Islet amyloid polypeptide, also known as amylin, is the main component of the amyloid deposits present in approximately 90% of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this disease, amylin aggregates into multimeric β-pleated sheet structures which cause damage to pancreatic islet β-cells. Inhibitors of early-stage amylin aggregation could therefore provide a disease-modifying treatment for T2DM. In this study, overlapping peptides were designed to target the 'binding' region (RLANFLVHSS, residues 11-20) of human amylin, and their effects on amyloid fibril formation were determined by thioflavin-T assay...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145032/intravenous-immunoglobulin-improves-glucose-control-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-human-iapp-transgenic-mice-by-attenuating-islet-inflammation-and-reducing-iapp-oligomers
#4
Yue Zhang, Xiao-Lin Yu, Jie Zhu, Shu-Ying Liu, Xiang-Meng Liu, Quan-Xiu Dong, Jia-Qian Chai, Rui-Tian Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by β-cell loss, insulin resistance, islet inflammation and amyloid deposits derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Reducing toxic IAPP oligomers and inhibiting islet inflammation may provide therapeutic benefit in treating T2DM. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an efficient anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory neurological diseases. However, whether IVIg has therapeutic potential on T2DM remains unclear...
November 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141853/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-on-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-prognosis-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-trials
#5
Kerri Winters-Stone, Lisa J Wood, Sydnee Stoyles, Nathan Dieckmann
BACKGROUND: Using a secondary data analysis from randomized controlled trials comparing one year of resistance exercise (N=109) to a placebo control condition (N=106) in postmenopausal, post-treatment breast cancer survivors, we investigated the influence of resistance training and changes in body composition on markers associated with cancer progression. METHODS: Measures included serum levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP1-3, leptin, serum amyloid A (SAA), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and body composition (total, lean and fat mass in kg) by DXA at baseline, 6, and 12-months...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138799/lychee-seed-extract-protects-against-neuronal-injury-and-improves-cognitive-function-in-rats-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-with-cognitive-impairment
#6
Yong Tang, Chonglin Yu, Jianming Wu, Haixia Chen, Yuan Zeng, Xiuling Wang, Le Yang, Qibing Mei, Shousong Cao, Dalian Qin
Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and has many beneficial effects such as modulation of blood sugar and lipids, antioxidation, antivirus and antitumor. Studies have indicated that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common biological mechanisms including insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, β‑amyloid (Aβ) formation, oxidative stress and presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed extract (LSE) on neuroprotection, cognitive function improvement and possible underlying mechanisms in a rat model of T2DM with cognitive impairment...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135508/new-histologic-finding-of-amyloid-insulin-bodies-at-an-insulin-injection-site-in-a-patient-with-diabetes
#7
Benjamin D Katzman, Peter Traum, Paul B Medline
Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of protein deposition diseases with more than 40 known clinical presentations. Localized amyloidosis occurs when the protein deposits exist in a singular location. Patients with diabetes mellitus who inject insulin at the same site can develop localized insulin-derived amyloidosis (AIns) at the injection site, which can be confused clinically with lipoma, lipohyperplasia, lipoatrophy, and fat necrosis. Histologic examination is performed to confirm localized AIns. We report a case of a patient with a long history of type 2 diabetes who presented with a subcutaneous mass in the abdomen at a preferred insulin injection site...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132916/insulin-degrading-enzyme-in-the-fight-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Igor V Kurochkin, Enrico Guarnera, Igor N Berezovsky
After decades of research and clinical trials there is still no cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD). While impaired clearance of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides is considered as one of the major causes of AD, it was recently complemented by a potential role of other toxic amyloidogenic species. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is the proteolytic culprit of various β-forming peptides, both extracellular and intracellular. On the basis of demonstrated allosteric activation of IDE against Aβ, it is possible to propose a new strategy for the targeted IDE-based cleansing of different toxic aggregation-prone peptides...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118444/vanillin-affects-amyloid-aggregation-and-non-enzymatic-glycation-in-human-insulin
#9
Clara Iannuzzi, Margherita Borriello, Gaetano Irace, Marcella Cammarota, Antimo Di Maro, Ivana Sirangelo
Curcumin is known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activity, as well as for its ability to interfere with amyloid aggregation and non-enzymatic glycation reaction, that makes it an attractive potential drug. However, curcumin therapeutic use is limited because of its low systemic bioavailability and chemical stability as it undergoes rapid hydrolysis in physiological conditions. Recently, much attention has been paid to the biological properties of curcumin degradation products as potential bioactive molecules...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110181/c-myb-plays-an-essential-role-in-the-protective-function-of-igf-1-on-cytotoxicity-induced-by-a%C3%AE-25-35-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#10
Jingyu Zhang, Yongwei Shu, Yang Qu, Lina Zhang, Tingting Chu, Yonghui Zheng, Hong Zhao
There have been numerous reports about neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, the molecules responsible for the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease are basically unknown. Recent findings indicate that the cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. In the current study, the function of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) against cell toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells induced by β-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and its molecular mechanism were investigated...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108865/insulin-expression-in-cultured-astrocytes-and-the-decrease-by-amyloid-%C3%AE
#11
Katsura Takano, Keisuke Koarashi, Kenji Kawabe, Masanori Itakura, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Yoichi Nakamura
Insulin resistance in brain has been reported in Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Insulin signaling is important for homeostasis in brain function and reported to be disturbed in neurons leading to tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles. Many investigations of insulin in neurons have been reported; however, it has not been reported whether astrocytes also produce insulin. In the present study, we assessed the expression of insulin in astrocytes cultured from rat embryonic brain and the effects of amyloid β1-42 (Aβ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression...
November 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106944/proteases-and-glycosidases-on-the-surface-of-exosomes-newly-discovered-mechanisms-for-extracellular-remodeling
#12
REVIEW
Ralph D Sanderson, Shyam K Bandari, Israel Vlodavsky
Emergence of the field of exosome biology has opened an exciting door to better understand communication between cells. These tiny nanovesicles act as potent regulators of biological function by delivering proteins, lipids and nucleic acids from the cell of origin to target cells. Recently, several enzymes including membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), sialidase and heparanase, among others, were localized on the surface of exosomes secreted by various cell types...
October 26, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103177/matrix-metalloproteinase-14-modulates-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-cross-talk-a-meta-analysis
#13
Jack Cheng, Hsin-Ping Liu, Cheng-Chun Lee, Mei-Ying Chen, Wei-Yong Lin, Fuu-Jen Tsai
Diabetes mellitus is associated with dementia, but whether diabetes is associated with Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid beta aggregation. We hypothesized that genes, involved in amyloid beta degradation, may be altered due to diabetes and thus participate in progression of Alzheimer's disease. Expression profiling of amyloid beta-degrading enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and their correlation with expression of amyloid precursor protein in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease patients were accessed...
November 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094448/amyloid-beta-monomers-regulate-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-response-element-binding-protein-functions-by-activating-type-1-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptors-in-neuronal-cells
#14
Stefania Zimbone, Irene Monaco, Fiorenza Gianì, Giuseppe Pandini, Agata G Copani, Maria Laura Giuffrida, Enrico Rizzarelli
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with synaptic dysfunction, pathological accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), and neuronal loss. The self-association of Aβ monomers into soluble oligomers seems to be crucial for the development of neurotoxicity (J. Neurochem., 00, 2007 and 1172). Aβ oligomers have been suggested to compromise neuronal functions in AD by reducing the expression levels of the CREB target gene and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (J. Neurosci...
November 1, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092397/alpha-linolenic-acid-from-perilla-frutescens-var-japonica-oil-protects-a%C3%AE-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-regulation-of-app-processing-and-a%C3%AE-degradation
#15
Ah Young Lee, Myoung Hee Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. The major pathological hallmark of AD is the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), which is produced from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through cleavage of β- and γ-secretase. Recently, dietary plant oil containing ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has become attractive alternative sources to fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated whether ALA isolated from perilla oil has direct effects on improvement of cognitive ability and molecular mechanisms in APP processing in comparison with DHA...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092095/a%C3%AE-exacerbates-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-neurotoxicity-through-impaired-insulin-signaling-in-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpressed-human-sk-n-mc-neuronal-cells
#16
Ching-Chi Chang, Hsin-Hua Li, Yen-Ting Chang, Ying-Jui Ho, Ling-Jia Hsieh, Pai-Yi Chiu, Yu-Shih Cheng, Chih-Li Lin, Te-Jen Lai
AIM: α-Synuclein (αSyn) is known as a small soluble protein abundantly expressed in neuronal cells. Although its physiological role is still unclear, the aggregation of αSyn has been recognized as responsible for some neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In most cases, intracellular abnormal aggregates are caused by protein-coding mutations that alter primary structure and therefore increase propensity toward aggregation. However, no pathogenic alterations or polymorphisms in αSyn are found in DLB patients so far, suggesting genetic mutations may not play a major role in DLB pathogenesis...
November 1, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079714/tocilizumab-for-the-treatment-of-slc29a3-mutation-positive-phid-syndrome
#17
Nadia K Rafiq, Khalid Hussain, Paul A Brogan
Pigmentary hypertrichosis and non-autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (PHID) is associated with recessive mutations in SLC29A3, encoding the equilibrative nucleoside transporter hENT3 expressed in mitochondria, causing PHID and H syndromes, familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, and histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy-plus syndrome. Autoinflammation is increasingly recognized in these syndromes. We previously reported a 16-year-old girl with PHID syndrome associated with severe autoinflammation that was recalcitrant to interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α blockade...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078167/insulin-amyloid-structures-and-their-influence-on-neural-cells
#18
Eva Bystrenova, Zuzana Bednarikova, Marianna Barbalinardo, Francesco Valle, Zuzana Gazova, Fabio Biscarini
Peptide aggregation into oligomers and fibrillar architectures is a hallmark of severe neurodegenerative pathologies, diabetes mellitus or systemic amyloidoses. The polymorphism of amyloid forms and their distribution are both effectors that potentially modulate the disease, thus it is important to understand the molecular basis of protein amyloid disorders through the interaction of the different amyloid forms with neural cells and tissues. Here we explore the effect of amyloid fibrils on the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line in vitro...
October 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070797/active-immunization-against-hiapp-oligomers-ameliorates-the-diabetes-associated-phenotype-in-a-transgenic-mice-model
#19
Yaron Bram, Sivan Peled, Sayanti Brahmachari, Michael Harlev, Ehud Gazit
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin tolerance in target cells followed by a reduction of pancreatic β-cell mass. Islet amyloid polypeptide oligomeric assemblies were shown to contribute to β-cell apoptosis by forming discrete pores that destabilize the cellular membrane. We previously characterized α-helical cytotoxic islet amyloid polypeptide oligomers which interact with cell membranes, following a complete internalization that leads to cellular apoptosis. Moreover, antibodies which bind the oligomers and neutralize the cytotoxicity were exclusively identified in the serum of type 2 diabetes patients...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066284/amylin-and-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-amylin-induced-sarcolemmal-ca-2-leak-is-independent-of-diabetic-remodeling-of-myocardium
#20
Miao Liu, Amanda Hoskins, Nirmal Verma, Donald M Bers, Sanda Despa, Florin Despa
Amylin is a pancreatic β-cell hormone co-secreted with insulin, plays a role in normal glucose homeostasis, and forms amyloid in the pancreatic islets of individuals with type-2 diabetes. Aggregated amylin is also found in blood and extra-pancreatic tissues, including myocardium. Myocardial amylin accumulation is associated with myocyte Ca(2+) dysregulation in diabetic rats expressing human amylin. Whether deposition of amylin in the heart is a consequence of or a contributor to diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unknown...
October 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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