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Insulin AND amyloid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534431/ameliorating-effect-of-anti-alzheimer-s-drugs-on-the-bidirectional-association-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Amira S Ahmed, Rehab M Elgharabawy, Amal H Al-Najjar
Mild to severe forms of nervous system damage were exhibited by approximately 60-70% of diabetics. It is important to understand the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present work is to understand the bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, that was monitored by glycaemic status, lipid profile, amyloid beta 40 and 42 (Aβ40 and Aβ42), C-reactive protein, total creatine kinase, total lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and magnesium measurements, to assess the association between theses biochemical markers and each other, to estimate the possibility of utilizing the amyloid beta as biochemical marker of T2D in Alzheimer's patients, and to evaluate the effect of piracetam and memantine drugs on diabetes mellitus...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527712/insulin-fibrillation-the-influence-and-coordination-of-zn-2
#2
Christian Grundahl Frankær, Pernille Sønderby, Maria Blanner Bang, Ramona Valentina Mateiu, Minna Groenning, Jens Bukrinski, Pernille Harris
Protein amyloid fibrillation is obtaining much focus because it is connected with amyloid-related human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, or Parkinson's disease. The influence of metal ions on the fibrillation process and whether it is implemented in the amyloid fibrils has been debated for some years. We have therefore investigated the influence and binding geometry of zinc in fibrillated insulin using extended X-ray absorption fine-structure and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527218/the-mechanisms-of-action-of-curcumin-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Mengxi Tang, Changiz Taghibiglou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly. As the prevalence of AD rises in the 21st century, there is an urgent need for the development of effective pharmacotherapies. Currently, drug treatments target the symptoms of the disease and do not modify or halt the disease progress. Thus, natural compounds have been investigated for their ability to treat AD. This review examines the efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric herb, to treat AD. We summarize the in vivo and in vitro research describing the mechanisms of action in which curcumin modifies AD pathology: curcumin inhibits the formation and promotes the disaggregation of amyloid-β plaques, attenuates the hyperphosphorylation of tau and enhances its clearance, binds copper, lowers cholesterol, modifies microglial activity, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, mediates the insulin signaling pathway, and is an antioxidant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524190/establishing-the-link-between-fibril-formation-and-raman-optical-activity-spectra-of-insulin
#4
Jiří Kessler, Shigeki Yamamoto, Petr Bouř
Folding of proteins into insoluble amyloidal fibrils is implicated in a number of biological processes. Optical spectroscopy represents a convenient tool to monitor such structural variations. Recently, characteristic changes in Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of insulin during a pre-fibrillar stage were reported but not supported by a theoretical model. In the present study, molecular dynamics and the density functional theory are used to simulate the spectra and understand the connection between the structure, and ROA and Raman spectral intensities...
May 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515688/insulin-resistance-as-a-link-between-amyloid-beta-and-tau-pathologies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Roger J Mullins, Thomas C Diehl, Chee W Chia, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Current hypotheses and theories regarding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) heavily implicate brain insulin resistance (IR) as a key factor. Despite the many well-validated metrics for systemic IR, the absence of biomarkers for brain-specific IR represents a translational gap that has hindered its study in living humans. In our lab, we have been working to develop biomarkers that reflect the common mechanisms of brain IR and AD that may be used to follow their engagement by experimental treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505155/oxidative-stress-and-expression-of-insulin-signaling-proteins-in-the-brain-of-diabetic-rats-role-of-nigella-sativa-oil-and-antidiabetic-drugs
#6
Mahmoud Balbaa, Shaymaa A Abdulmalek, Sofia Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance of the brain is a specific form of type2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the active insulin-signaling pathway plays a neuroprotective role against damaging conditions and Alzheimer's progression. The present study identifies the mediated emerging effects of the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the memory enhancing process, its anti-oxidative, acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibition, anti-brain insulin resistance and anti-amyloidogenic activities. In addition, the possible role of some anti-diabetic drugs in the neuro-protection processes and their effect in combination with NSO and/or the insulin receptor inhibitor IOMe-AG538 were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500395/the-human-serum-protein-c4b-binding-protein-inhibits-pancreatic-iapp-induced-inflammasome-activation
#7
Klaudia Kulak, Gunilla T Westermark, Nikolina Papac-Milicevic, Erik Renström, Anna M Blom, Ben C King
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β production is a driver of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes. Oligomers, but not mature amyloid fibrils, of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is co-secreted with insulin, trigger NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. C4b-binding protein (C4BP), present in serum, binds to IAPP and affects transition of IAPP monomers and oligomers to amyloid fibrils. We therefore hypothesised that C4BP inhibits IAPP-mediated inflammasome activation and IL-1β production...
May 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466999/sarsasapogenin-aa13-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-induced-cognitive-deficits-via-improving-neuroglial-capacity-on-a%C3%AE-clearance-and-antiinflammation
#8
Cui Huang, Dong Dong, Qian Jiao, Hui Pan, Lei Ma, Rui Wang
AIMS: Sarsasapogenin has been reported to improve dementia symptoms somehow, probably through modulating the function of cholinergic system, suppressing neurofibrillary tangles, and inhibiting inflammation. However, the role of sarsasapogenin in response to beta-amyloid (Aβ) remains to be delineated. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of sarsasapogenin-13 (AA13, a sarsasapogenin derivative) on learning and memory impairments in Aβ-injected mice, as well as the role of AA13 in neuroglia-mediated antiinflammation and Aβ clearance...
May 3, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447730/pioglitazone-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-42-deposition-in-rats-with-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-associated-with-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-activation
#9
Sisi Yang, Zhe Chen, Ming Cao, Renjie Li, Zhigang Wang, Muxun Zhang
Pioglitazone may have potential benefits as an alternative therapeutic treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in individuals that also have comorbid diabetes; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects of pioglitazone on amyloid β, isoform 42 (Aβ42) deposition in rats with diet‑induced insulin resistance (IR). Diet‑induced IR model rats were established in the presence or absence of pioglitazone. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, and cerebrospinal fluid insulin levels were measured; in addition, hippocampal tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of Aβ42 expression...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441961/the-influence-of-insulin-resistance-on-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Westwood, Benjamine Liu, Alison L Baird, Sneha Anand, Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Danielle Newby, Maria Pikkarainen, Merja Hallikainen, Johanna Kuusisto, Johannes R Streffer, Gerald Novak, Kaj Blennow, Ulf Andreasson, Henrik Zetterberg, Ulf Smith, Markku Laakso, Hilkka Soininen, Simon Lovestone
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) has previously been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the relationship between IR and AD is not yet clear. Here, we examined the influence of IR on AD using plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related to IR and AD in cognitively healthy men. We also aimed to characterise the shared protein signatures between IR and AD. METHODS: Fifty-eight cognitively healthy men, 28 IR and 30 non-IR (age and APOE ε4 matched), were drawn from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men study in Kuopio, Finland...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436688/a-vibrational-circular-dichroism-microsampling-accessory-mapping-enhanced-vibrational-circular-dichroism-in-amyloid-fibril-films
#11
Xuefang Lu, Honggang Li, Jordan W Nafie, Tomáš Pazderka, Markéta Pazderková, Rina K Dukor, Laurence A Nafie
We report the first vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) measurement of spatial heterogeneity in a sample using infrared (IR) microsampling. Vibrational circular dichroism spectra are typically measured using a standard IR cell with an IR beam diameter of 10 mm or greater making it impossible to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of a solid film sample. We have constructed a VCD sampling assembly with either 3 mm or 1 mm spatial resolution. An XY-translation stage was used to measure spectra at different spatial locations producing IR and VCD maps of the sample...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427866/effect-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-in-hyperglycemic-and-hyperinsulinemic-rats-effects-on-phosphorylation-and-o-glcnacylation-of-tau-protein
#13
Liliana Lozano, Jorge Guevara, Tony Lefebvre, Ivan Ramos-Martinez, Daniel Limón, Alfonso Díaz, Eduarda Cerón, Edgar Zenteno
Aggregation of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, which are markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been reported also in diabetes mellitus (DM). One regulator of tau phosphorylation is O-GlcNAcylation, whereas for hyperphosphorylation it could be GSK3beta, which is activated in hyperglycemic conditions. With this in mind, both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of tau protein were evaluated in the brain of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and treated with the Aß25-35 peptide in the hippocampal region CA1...
April 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422298/bridging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-assembling-the-puzzle-pieces-in-the-quest-for-the-molecules-with-therapeutic-and-preventive-potential
#14
REVIEW
Ana Marta de Matos, Maria Paula de Macedo, Amélia Pilar Rauter
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two age-related amyloid diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Broadly supported by epidemiological data, the higher incidence of AD among type 2 diabetic patients led to the recognition of T2D as a tangible risk factor for the development of AD. Indeed, there is now growing evidence on brain structural and functional abnormalities arising from brain insulin resistance and deficiency, ultimately highlighting the need for new approaches capable of preventing the development of AD in type 2 diabetic patients...
April 19, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413044/expression-profiling-feline-peripheral-blood-monocytes-identifies-a-transcriptional-signature-associated-with-type-two-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Caroline A O'Leary, Mamdouh Sedhom, Mia Reeve-Johnson, John Mallyon, Katharine M Irvine
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of cats and is similar to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans, especially with respect to the role of obesity-induced insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, decreased number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic amyloid deposition. Cats have thus been proposed as a valuable translational model of T2D. In humans, inflammation associated with adipose tissue is believed to be central to T2D development, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are important in the inflammatory cascade which leads to insulin resistance and β-cell failure...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412155/ascorbic-acid-inhibits-human-insulin-aggregation-and-protects-against-amyloid-induced-cytotoxicity
#16
Parvez Alam, Ayesha Zainab Beg, Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi, Sumit Kumar Chaturvedi, Ravi Kant Rajpoot, Mohd Rehan Ajmal, Masihuz Zaman, Ali S Abdelhameed, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Protein aggregation into oligomers and fibrils are associated with many human pathophysiologies. Compounds that modulate protein aggregation and interact with preformed fibrils and convert them to less toxic species, expect to serve as promising drug candidates and aid to the drug development efforts against aggregation diseases. In present study, the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation by human insulin (HI) and the anti-amyloidogenic activity of ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated by employing various spectroscopic, imaging and computational approaches...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411010/effects-of-vitamin-d-and-resveratrol-on-metabolic-associated-markers-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue-from-samp8-mice
#17
Yehua Rui, Jinbo Cheng, Liqiang Qin, Cheng Shan, Jie Chang, Guiping Wang, Zhongxiao Wan
SAMP8 mice exhibit multiple metabolic characteristics associated with age, and it is a suitable candidate for researching aging associated metabolic dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to 1) explore how key metabolic markers will be altered in both liver and adipose tissue with aging in SAMP8 mice; and 2) how the combination of vitamin D (VD) with resveratrol (RSV) will affect aging associated metabolic impairment in liver and adipose tissue from SAMP8 mice. METHODS: SAMP8 mice and their control SAMR1 mice were divided into 5 groups, i...
July 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402629/binding-of-thioflavin-t-to-amyloid-fibrils-leads-to-fluorescence-self-quenching-and-fibril-compaction
#18
David J Lindberg, Anna Wenger, Elin Sundin, Emelie Wesén, Fredrik Westerlund, Elin K Esbjörner
Thioflavin-T binds to and detects amyloid fibrils via fluorescence enhancement. Using a combination of linear dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, we report that the relation between the emission intensity and binding of thioflavin-T to insulin fibrils is nonlinear and discuss this in relation to its use in kinetic assays. We demonstrate, from fluorescence lifetime recordings, that the nonlinearity is due to thioflavin-T being sensitive to self-quenching. In addition, thioflavin-T can induce fibril compaction but not alter fibril structure...
April 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396299/plasma-cytokine-profiling-to-predict-susceptibility-to-acute-mountain-sickness
#19
Hui Lu, Rong Wang, Wenbin Li, Hua Xie, Chang Wang, Ying Hao, Yuhuan Sun, Zhengping Jia
Extensive studies have been performed on acute mountain sickness (AMS), but biomarkers predicting AMS are lacking. Presently, the mainstay methods to identify AMS biomarkers include proteomic and genetic methods at high altitudes or in hypoxic simulated chambers. In the present study, we compared plasma cytokine profiles between AMS-susceptible individuals and AMS-resistant individuals at low altitude by cytokine array analysis. In total, 75 differentially expressed cytokines were identified between AMS-susceptible individuals and AMS-resistant individuals, most involved in inflammation...
November 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390878/protective-effects-of-different-exercise-modalities-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-like-model
#20
Dilek Özbeyli, Gülce Sarı, Naziye Özkan, Betül Karademir, Meral Yüksel, Özlem Tuğçe Çilingir Kaya, Özgür Kasımay Çakır
Our aim was to investigate the probable protective effects of aerobic, resistance and combined exercise methods on ovariectomy and d-galactose induced Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like model. d-galactose (100mg/kg) or saline were administered intraperitoneally for 6 weeks to ovariectomized or sham-operated rats (n=8/group). Aerobic (AE), resistance (RE) and combined exercises (CE) (aerobic+resistance) were performed for 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Anxiety level and cognitive functions were evaluated via hole-board and object recognition tests...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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